In nature, a huge number of edible and inedible mushrooms grows. Edible can be eaten, while not risking health. They differ from inedible form, color and structure of the hymenophore. Consider what are the mushrooms, and provide a photo with the names.
One of the most famous edible mushrooms is boletus. These are tubular fungi, which belong to the genus of bolt. Recognize them by an oily and slippery cap.
It can be both flat and convex. Peel is easily removed. Under the cap there are bedspreads that form a ring. This mushroom has more than 40 representatives. It grows in Russia, Australia, Africa, in places with a temperate climate. We have the most common butterdish ordinary or autumn. Learn about the benefits of oil and how to prepare them for the winter. He has a hemispherical cap, which has a hillock in the center. The flesh is yellowish, juicy and soft. The leg is cylindrical in shape, solid, smooth or grainy, 11 cm high, and 3 cm in diameter. Spore powder can have the color of all yellow shades.
Important!Each edible mushroom has a poisonous twin. Therefore, you need to be very careful andattentivewhen collecting mushrooms.
Milk - family russula. The cap is very dense, its diameter can reach 20 cm. At first it is flat-convex, and then acquires a funnel-shaped shape with a curled edge inside. The peel is wet, mucous, may be yellowish or milky white. Leg gland hollow, cylindrical and smooth, up to 7 cm and up to 5 cm in diameter. It sometimes has yellow spots or pits. This mushroom has a thick, white flesh, with a characteristic smell, similar to the smell of fruit. You will be interested to know: how to prepare milk mushrooms for the winter.
This type of fungus, as well as milk mushrooms, belongs to the Russula family. The hat of the rubella is dense, but fragile. Initially convex, and then acquires a flat shape and slightly indented. It can have a diameter of up to 7 cm. Smooth or slightly wrinkled matte skin has a brown color. The fragile flesh has an unpleasant smell that resembles the smell of rubber or a crushed bug.
The taste is bitter. If you make an incision, water-white milky juice will stand out. The taste of the mushroom is sweet at first, but then gives off bitterness.
The rubella plate is frequent and narrow. They are white, but with age they change to light brown with a pink tinge. This fungus has a cylindrical and tapered leg at the base, having a diameter of 1.5 cm and a height of up to 7 cm. There are longitudinal fuzzy stripes on it.
This type of tubular fungi belongs to the family of boletes. The name of these mushrooms appeared due to the frequent growth in moss. They have a dry, slightly velvety cap.
And in some species, it is sticky in wet weather. When the fungus is aging, cracks appear on the skin. In Mokhovikov yellow, white or red flesh, sometimes turning blue in the cut. The tubular hymenophore, which descends along the stem, may be yellow or red, sometimes greenish. The tubules have wide pores. The leg can be both smooth and wrinkled. Volvo and ring in this species of fungi are absent.
Important!Never buy dried mushrooms. After heat treatment, even a specialist mycologist will not be able to identify them.
Mushrooms belong to the family fizalakrievye. The cap has a diameter of 3-10 cm. At first it is convex, and then becomes flat, has wavy edges. The color of the skin can be different: from brown to greenish. In the center the color is darker. On the surface there may be rare light scales, which sometimes disappear with age. Young hats have dense, whitish pulp, and fibrous legs. Check out the types of edible and inedible mushrooms. When the mushroom grows older, the flesh of the caps becomes thin, and coarse on the legs. Their smell is pleasant. In the experience of the plate rare, usually adherent to the leg.
In young mushrooms, they are white or beige. When the fungus matures, they change color to pink-brown. Sometimes brown spots appear on them. The legs have golden yellow-brown color, and the lower part is brown-brown. Their diameter is about 2 cm, and length - up to 10 cm. On legs, as well as on caps, there may be scales. Mushrooms often grow together at the base of the legs.
Another type of mushroom belongs to the Russula family - mushrooms. At first they have a convex cap, and then it takes on a funnel-shaped shape with wrapped (later straightening) edges. In the center sometimes there is a small bump. The surface is smooth and shiny, has an orange color with darker spots and rings. Cap diameter can reach 18 cm.
The legs have the same color as the cap, or slightly lighter. The diameter of the legs - up to 2 cm, and the height can reach 7 cm. It has a cylindrical shape, hollow, tapers to the base.
On the surface of the small fossa. The plates of this mushroom are thin, frequent, forked. They go down a little bit on the leg. They have an orange-red color and turn green when pressed. The pulp has a yellow-orange color, it is dense. The orange and thick milky juice has a fruity flavor. It is green in the air.
Did you know?An antibiotic, called lactarioviolin, was derived from the redfish and redfish. It inhibits the development of many bacteria and even the causative agent of tuberculosis.
Boletus from the family of boletes refers to autumn mushrooms. He has a convex cap, easily separated from the leg. Its diameter can be up to 15 cm.
The young mushroom has a hemispherical cap, it is pressed edge against the leg. The skin is velvety red, orange or brownish. Dense pulp with age turns into soft.
In the leg pulp fibrous. On a cut of white color, and below legs bluish. The smell and taste are not pronounced.
The legs of the aspen are as thick as 5 cm, and their height is up to 15 cm. They are solid, generally expanding downwards. Hymenophore is white and free, later becoming gray with an olive or yellow shade. When touched, the porous surface darkens.
White fungus belongs to the genus Boletus. In an adult mushroom, the cap is convex; the diameter can reach up to 30 cm. It has a smooth surface or wrinkled surface, which cracks in dry weather.
Peel can be from reddish-brown to white. But with age it gets dark and is not separated from the pulp. Usually the color is uneven, the edges are bright. The flesh is juicy, strong. In young white mushrooms, it is white, but later becomes yellow. The leg of this mushroom has a height of 8-25 cm, and a thickness of approximately 7 cm. Learn all about the harvesting of white mushrooms for the winter. It is barrel-shaped, but with age it is drawn out and becomes cylindrical. It has a white vein mesh. Hymenophore near the legs with a deep notch, white, but later becomes yellow or olive. It is easy to separate from the pulp.
This type of mushroom belongs to the champignon family and has a dense rounded cap, the diameter of which can be up to 15 cm. It has a white color, sometimes brownish, the cap is smooth or with small scales. Himenofor free, initially white, then darkens and becomes brown. The flesh is white shades. You can also grow champignons at home. The mushrooms have smooth legs, about 9 cm high, and they are 2 cm wide. A wide white ring is located on its middle.
Did you know?Each mushroom consists of water by 90%.
Edible mushrooms Mlechniki belong to the Russula family. Young lacteal mucous and bulging caps, which later become indented. It has the color of all shades of purple or brownish. Hymenophorus down the leg, frequent. Young mushrooms have white color plates, later they darken.
Damage becomes gray-green. The pulp is white. It is strong at first, later loose. The leg is cylindrical and flat, with age it becomes hollow. It has a length of about 10 cm. The colors are the same as the cap.
These mushrooms belong to the Russula family. This type of mushroom has a hemispherical cap or bell-shaped. Later it becomes flat or funnel-shaped. The edge can be wrapped or straight, with stripes. The skin is dry, can be matte or shiny. Himenofor adherent. May be free or down the stem. The flesh of these mushrooms is fragile and spongy, whitish.
With age, can change color to brown, gray, black and red. The legs have a cylindrical shape. It is even, but sometimes it can be thickened or pointed at the end.
These mushrooms belong to the genus of chanterelles. The diameter of the cap reaches 12 cm. Basically, it has a wavy and wrapped edge. The cap is flat and depressed, and in adult mushrooms it may be funnel-shaped. Its surface is smooth. The skin is difficult to separate from the cap. The flesh is very dense, yellow at the edges, and whitish in the center. She has a sour taste, and the smell reminds dried fruit. If you press on the pulp, it may blush a little.
The length of the leg is about 7 cm, and the thickness is 3 cm. It is fused together with the cap and has the same color. Hymenophore in chanterelles is folded and consists of wavy folds that descend strongly along the leg.
Now you know what types of edible mushrooms are, their description and you saw in the photo. Thanks to this, it will be easy to choose the right tasty mushroom without making a mistake.
Types and names of mushrooms with pictures
The best way to learn how to recognize edible and inedible mushrooms on your own is to familiarize yourself with their names, descriptions and photos. Of course, it is better if you walk around the forest several times with an experienced mushroom picker, or show your prey at home, but everyone needs to learn how to distinguish between real and false mushrooms.
You can find the names of the mushrooms in alphabetical order, their descriptions and photos in this article, which you can later use as a guide for mushroom production.
The variety of mushrooms is very wide, so there is a strict classification of these forest inhabitants (Figure 1).
So, by edibility they are divided into:
- Edible (white, boletus, champignon, chanterelle, etc.),
- Conditionally edible (dubovik, greenfinch, gay man, grud, line),
- Poisonous (satanic, pale grebe, amanita).
In addition, they are divided according to the type of the bottom of the cap. According to this classification, they are tubular (looks like a porous sponge) and plate-like (plates are well visible on the inside of the cap). The first group includes boletus, whites, bolettes and aspen birds. To the second - mushrooms, mushrooms, chanterelles, honey agaric and russula. Separate group are considered morels, which include morels and truffles.Figure 1. Classification of edible varieties.
It is also customary to separate them by nutritional value. According to this classification, they are of four types.:
- With high taste qualities: camelina, milk and white,
- The second category: boletus, aspen mushrooms, champignons and aspen mushrooms.
- The third group is the most numerous, and includes boletus, chanterelles, volvushki, russules and honey agarics.
- The fourth group includes the species with the lowest palatability: black milk mushrooms, ocher russula, goat and rubella.
Since there are a lot of species, we give the names of the most popular with their pictures. The best edible mushrooms with photos and names are given in the video. The pulp has a yellow-orange color, it is dense. The orange and thick milky juice has a fruity flavor. It is green in the air.
Did you know? An antibiotic, called lactarioviolin, was derived from the redfish and redfish. It inhibits the development of many bacteria and even the causative agent of tuberculosis.
Poisonous mushrooms: remove the "mask". Tips for the wise and injured
It is better to eat champignons that have grown somewhere on the mushroom plantation. In this case, anyone ignorant nothing threatens. But if you like forest mushrooms and extreme sports, and at the same time want to stay alive, follow the safety precautions (it is no less important than the rules of the road):
1. Eat only “your own” and do not buy “foreign” mushrooms. If you yourself have not collected them there is no guarantee that they are all edible. And even if this is so, then it is unknown where they came from: from areas rich in radiation, heavy metals, agricultural fertilizers, or growing near the motorway.
2. Study the "personal files" of all varieties of edible and the distinctive signs of poisonous mushrooms, even the most poisonous. The latter include:
3. Learn to collect mushrooms under the strict guidance of an experienced mushroom picker with the appropriate pedigree and great experience in this matter.
4. Collect exclusively spongy mushrooms, among them only one poisonous representative - a satanic mushroom.
5. Arm yourself with a staff in order to scatter the leaves and see the find. This will protect you from the bites of lurking snakes and poison on the skin, if the fungus is inedible on closer inspection.
6. If you do not belong to experienced mushroom pickers, use a knife only to clean the fungus from dirt and debris, which you wear in a basket, and not in your hand, for the sake of safety.
7. To make sure that the found representative of the mushroom kingdom does not have a so-called “cup of death”, which it prudently hides near the ground itself, carefully twist it out of the mycelium and carefully consider it. If you see a membranous ring around the leg, you are in danger. Your find - one of their deadly poisonous fly-agaric - a pale and white grebe. Symptoms of poisoning usually appear when it is too late. To prevent the mycelium from drying out, cover the place from which the mushroom was taken out with grass or moss.
8. If the mushroom is blue on the cut, it does not mean that it is poisonous, and vice versa, poisonous mushrooms also turn blue.
9. Create a comfortable environment for your prey - collect mushrooms in a basket or net so that they can “breathe” and save all parts of the body. Hazelnut mushrooms can contain harmful and even toxic substances.
10. Collect mushrooms with your heart, it always knows everything. If something picks at it and you doubt the edibility of the fungus, it is better to let it go in peace. One poisonous "infect" in the basket all the rest.
11. Immediately after returning from the forest, pay due attention to the preparation of the collected mushrooms, so that they are not infected by bacteria. When sorting, leave only fresh and evenly colored. If you find spots of a different color - donate these copies.
12. Keep children away from mushrooms, they are still very small to eat this heavy and adult food.
13. In case of any discomfort that appeared after a meal with mushrooms, even if 12 hours have passed, seek medical assistance immediately!
Remember! Agaric mushrooms - the most poisonous mushrooms! They can deprive you not only the liver and kidneys, but also life!
Remember! Poisonous mushrooms are very insidious! They disguise themselves as edible, they look good and smell! You can find out about their toxicity when it will be too late!
Remember! Mushrooms are sponges! They all absorb and store for a long time even in cooked form!
Remove the mask from the treacherous twins
The gallery of deadly poisonous mushrooms is headed by a pale toadstool (green mushroom), a white toadstool (smelly fly agaric), and a spring toadstool (white fly agaric), which may be disguised as:
- champignons that never have a filmy ring (volvo), and plates quickly darken to brown or black-brown with age (pinkish are only found in young ones). Therefore, champignons are very important to tear off with a leg to make sure that there is no volva. There are cases of erroneous collection of pale toadstools when cutting mushrooms with a knife to the very cap, when the characteristic membranous ring remained with the leg on the ground,
- russula (green and greenish) - russules have neither volvs nor rings, besides they are distinguished by their characteristic friability of pulp. The similarity of the toadstool with russula is based on the similarity of the color of the cap and plates. The plates in syruzhek, as in the fly agaric, white. The main distinguishing feature of good edible russules - green, greenish and some others - is the absence of a ring and a leg volva. Therefore, when collecting syroezhek need to pay attention to the details of the structure of the latter,
- the floats are smaller, thinner in the flesh (the edges of the cap are usually with pronounced radial grooves) and do not have a ring. The most dangerous similarity of some forms and varieties of polymorphic fungus gray float. The gray float, like the poisonous toadstools, has a Volvo at the base of the stem, but there is no ring. The color of the cap and the color of the plates are similar.
Attention! When collecting mushrooms, syroezhek and floats, always carefully examine the leg of the fungus, including near the ground! Business card toadstool - the presence of a ring on the leg!