Cabbage is one of the darlings of gardeners and gardeners. After all, from the cabbage you can cook a lot of healthy and tasty dishes. Therefore, the choice of cabbage seeds must be approached thoroughly and choose the right
New varieties of cabbageas always, diverse. Of the newest varieties of early white cabbage, the hybrid “Pharaoh” (superearly) deserves attention, as well as the well-established “Bella”, “Explosion”, “Flash” and “Cook”. An interesting variety of the company "Cedek" "Provencal Taiga" (for early fermentation).
From mid-season hybrids still out of competition "Satellite", "Cook", "Spaghetti", "Volley" and "Zosya".
From medium term varieties can be recommended "Goat-Dereza", "Parisian", "Undine" and "Regent".
For storage There are new late-ripening hybrids "Ramco", "Ulyana", "Favorite".
From the newest varieties of cauliflower appeared: superearly hybrid "Express", early hybrids "Blizzard" and "Stargate", varieties "Francoise" and "Princess" (especially good for freezing), as well as the variety "Dachnitsa" (which is interesting because it has a prolonged fruiting period). Attractive hybrids of average ripening are Ameising and Starvoyuker.
Other varieties of cabbage are interesting varieties.: Kohlrabi "Smat", Brussels "Friendly family", Savoy "Pirozhkovaya", Beijing "Autumn Beauty" and "Vilko", as well as broccoli variety of the corporation "NK" - "Russian size".
Variety or hybrid
The variety is the selection of a selected group of plants, the seed of which can be purchased at a specialized store. Seeds from such plants can be harvested on their own, and the quality of fruiting will remain the same every year as in the first planting of purchased seed.
The hybrid is obtained by crossing several varieties in order to get better taste, larger size, increased resistance to pests and diseases. It is useless to collect seeds from such plants at home, as they are not capable of reproduction - they must be bought in stores every year. It is worth noting that both the variety and the hybrid have their advantages and disadvantages, so it is necessary to approach the choice responsibly.
The advantages of the variety include:
- unpretentiousness to growing conditions,
- resistance to temperature changes
- low price and the possibility of self-harvesting seeds for annual cultivation.
By cons include:
- propensity to hereditary diseases,
- poor resistance to fungal and viral diseases,
- yield instability,
- mostly cabbages are not subject to long-term storage,
The advantages of hybrids include:
- high and stable yield,
- maximum resistance to diseases and pests,
- equally large head size,
- excellent taste
- storage time without changing the appearance and taste.
The disadvantages of hybrids include:
- demanding of soil and weather conditions,
- need for regular dressings (for high-quality harvest),
- fairly high price, given that you need to buy seeds every year.
When selecting seeds, you must also be guided by the characteristics of consumer qualities. For example, varieties of cabbages are best suited for salting, and hybrids are suitable for long-term storage.
Each variety and hybrid is created for a specific growing region (or several regions). The seed package contains information on the territory in which they can be planted. If you neglect this advice, it is likely that cabbage will not grow with the characteristics that were indicated. Depending on the region, the same variety or cabbage hybrid grows differently, has a different ripening period, and the quality characteristics of the heads are different, so in order to get a result as close as possible to the picture and description on the package, carefully study the regional affiliation of the seeds purchased.
As well as the need to select seeds for regional affiliation, it is necessary to take into account the type of soil on which it is recommended to plant the acquired seed. All information on this is indicated on the packaging. This factor is very important, as it directly affects the growth rate, density and size of heads, their taste and storage time.
For cultivation in the open and closed ground it is also recommended to select the appropriate seed. Early head coaches are generally suitable for greenhouse cultivation, and for open field - medium and late ripening.
The mass and shape of the head
The heads of cabbages differ in size, shape and weight, which directly depends on the cabbage variety. Often, early ripe cabbage has a minimum weight that reaches no more than 2.5 kg. Heads of cabbage are not too different in size, although their weight varies and can be about 4 kg, as the leaves are closer to each other.
They distinguish flat, rounded flat, round, conical and oval forms of heads. The shape of the heads does not affect the quality of the product or the duration of storage; it is only a feature of a certain variety.
Terms of ripening
Varieties of cabbage on maturity are divided into:
- early maturing
- late ripening
Early ripe cabbages are grown exclusively for fast consumption, that is, they must be eaten as soon as possible after harvest. Such cabbages are ideal for vitamin salads - the leaves are tender, soft, cabbages loose, have a small weight. The ripening period of early ripe cabbage is about 60-80 days after the appearance of the first shoots.
It is impossible to keep such cabbage: it quickly rots due to the nature of the head of the cabbage, and is also prone to cracking, which only accelerates the deterioration process. For processing, cabbages are also not suitable, and if subjected to heat treatment - cabbage will simply turn into porridge. Among the popular early ripe varieties emit “Golden hectare”, “Zora”, “Rosava”, “Yaroslavna”, “Nakhodka”, and among hybrids - “Aladdin F1”, “Westri F1”, “Delphi F1”, “Transfer F1”, “Pharaoh F1”, “Express F1”.
Mid-season cabbages are considered intermediate between early and late varieties. If we compare them with the earlier ones, then it is necessary to single out a higher yield, a head of cabbage density. The period of growth and ripening after the first shoots is about 85-120 days.
The advantage of mid-season cabbage is the possibility of further processing and a longer storage period compared to early ripening.Among the popular mid-season varieties emit "Gift", "Glory 1305", "Capital", "Belarusian 455", "Brunswick." The popular hybrids include "Rindu F1", "Megaton F1", "Menzu F1", "Hannibal F1", "Hermes F1". Late cabbage is the most fruitful. It is characterized by a maximum density of heads, thick leaves. Heads of cabbage can be used for processing and consumed fresh.
Late cabbage has the longest ripening period - about 150 days. Often this period falls in late autumn. Such cabbage is stored very well and for a long time. Under the right storage conditions, the period can be up to 9 months.
Among the most popular late-ripening varieties emit "Kamenka", "Turquoise Plus", "Khalif", "Sugar Loaf", "Snow White", among the hybrids - "Aros F1", "Atria F1", "Bartolo F1", "Extra F1", "Lennox F1".
Productivity - an important factor in the selection of cabbage seeds. Breeders have always sought to bring the most productive varieties, so almost all of them have high rates, which when buying a hybrid increase even more. Of course, the desired yield can be obtained only in the case of regular and proper care of the plants: the prerequisite is the constant application of fertilizers and dressings, which is especially important for hybrids.
The average yield of cabbage from 100 square meters. meters:
- for early maturing - 400 kg (the maximum yield of hybrids is “Dumas F1", "Tobia F1", in the variety "June"),
- for mid season - 600 kg (the most fruitful varieties - "Glory 1305", "Dobrovodskaya", "Gift", "Merchant", hybrids - "Atria F1", "Midor F1", "Megaton F1"),
Depending on the variety, they secrete more or less resistant to temperature extremes. It should be noted that varieties are considered to be as resistant to cold as possible, unlike hybrids, therefore, consider this factor when choosing seeds.
Resistance to frost increases depending on the stage of plant development. Cabbage sprouts are the most sensitive to frosts and will die at -3 ° C.
Therefore, if you have acquired a seed, on the package of which it is indicated that the plant can withstand frosts down to -7 ° C, this means that the already mature, mature cabbages can move in the fall to lower temperatures.
It is worth noting that late rips can withstand temperatures as low as -10 ° C, and mid-rides as low as -5 ° C. The most frost-resistant varieties of cabbage include "Wintering 1474", "Geneva", "Aros". Hybrids are not considered resistant to low temperatures.
Very often cabbages crack before maturity, which greatly reduces the duration of their storage, as fungi and viruses quickly develop in a humid environment. To prevent such a situation from occurring, a variety of varieties that are resistant to cracking have been developed.
It is worth noting that early ripe heads of cabbies are more prone to such a problem, if at least a little late with the harvest.
Mid-season cabbages are less susceptible to cracking: among the most resistant varieties distinguish "Elenovskuyu", "Capital". Cracking resistant hybrids - Satellite F1, Hinova F1, Parel F1.
Late ripening, if you observe the recommended harvest period, are considered the most resistant to cracking. The most stable include varieties “Present”, “Rusinovka”, hybrids “Bingo F1”, “Galaxy F1”, “Tranzam F1”.
Transportability is an important criterion for selecting seeds, especially if it is planned to grow cabbage for sale, or the cottage with a garden is far enough, because cabbage must be transported after harvest. The late-rifted heads of cabbage have the best transportability, the middle ripening good, the early ripening poor.
The varieties with the best manifestation of the characteristics under consideration include “Stone Head”, “Gift”, “Yaroslavna”, “Tyurix”, “Kharkiv Winter”, “Snow White”, “Belorusskaya 455”, “Biryuzu”. Among the hybrids with good transportability are attributed to “Atria F1”, “Latima F1”, “Zarya F1”, “Transfer F1”, “Kazachok F1”.
The shelf life of cabbage depends on whether varieties and hybrids have good keeping quality. Heads with a long storage period are less juicy, contain a lot of fiber, dense and large veins. Late-ripening varieties often possess such characteristics. Also, the shelf life depends on the growing conditions, the timely harvest and the conditions in which the crop will be stored. Early ripening cabbage is not stored for more than 1 month, so a leader cannot be distinguished.Mid-season cabbies can last no more than 4 months: “Sugar head”, “Present”, “Nadezhda”, “Belorusskaya 455” can be attributed to the varieties with the best keeping quality, “Krautman F1”, “Tobia F1”, “Hermes F1” to hybrids. Late rips are stored much longer - up to 9 months. The following varieties can be attributed to them: “Moscow Late 15”, “Wintering 1474”, “Amager 611”, “Geneva”, “Amager”, “Krümon”, “Turkiz”. Hybrids with a maximum shelf life: "Prestige F1", "Atria F1", "Aros F1", "Extra F1", "Lennox F1".
Disease and Pest Resistance
As you know, cabbage is often exposed to diseases and pests that cause rotting, cracking, molding of heads.
Among the most common diseases are:
- dry rot,
- mucous bacteriosis,
- vascular bacteriosis,
Thanks to the selection and breeding of new varieties and hybrids, new, more resistant to diseases and pests specimens were created, which greatly improves the quality of the crop and the duration of its storage.
Among the most stable hybrids are "Kolobok F1", "Kazachok F1", "Tobia F1", "Glory 1305", "Atria F1", "Krautman F1", "Megaton F1". Resistant varieties include the “Vipchikha”, “Snow White”, “Dobrovodskaya”, “Gift”.
Documents confirming the quality of the seeds must be in the store where they are sold. Each variety or hybrid has its own certificate of quality, which confirms that this seed has been produced in proper isolation with observance of the varietal purity and varietal characteristics of vegetative plants, and has also been tested and meets all the characteristics of the declared variety.
Buy only certified goods - this is a guarantee that you will not be sold a fake or dubious "new" varieties or hybrids. Thus, choosing the cabbage seeds should be as responsible as possible if you plan to get a large, high-quality crop, which will be stored for a long time.
In order to ensure that the procedure for selecting a seed material is fast and efficient, pay attention to the main selection criteria, which are described in detail in this article.
Types and sorts of cabbage
Of leafy The varieties that are used mainly on salads, can be identified as follows:
Kale - Kale is also grown as fodder (as feed for livestock). And thanks to the lace leaves, the variety is considered decorative.
But the most important advantage - in large quantities. useful substances. You'd be surprised, but 200 grams of kale cabbage is the daily rate of protein. Calcium is contained in it morethan in milk.
Cabbage Cabbage distinguish the following types:
There are also other species not related to leaf and heading. Slightly off the leaf and cabbage species is cabbage with inflorescences instead of sheets:
Preparing for landing
Harvest this culture depends not only on the care of the plant, but also on how you prepare priming for sowing.
Cabbage loves fertile ground, but you need to pay attention to "predecessors". After cucumbers, potatoes, tomatoes and peas, the cabbage harvest is better.
Selection of soil and its preparation for sowing
Uses for growing seedlings of soil mixture bad or inappropriate quality able not only slow down its development but also lead to doom. You can’t just go to a garden, gather land and plant seeds into it - this is thoughtlessly and wrong.
For cabbage seedlings can't use land after cruciferous crops: it probably has infections typical of cabbage crops, and you can ruin your seedlings early on.
You can always yourself prepare the soil mixture, making it from a number of special components: turf land, peat, humus and so on, taken in the right ratio, depending on the selected crops. Blend components is necessary process cold, thereby destroying pathogens.
For improvements quality of your soil mix, add washed river sand, expanded clay or crushed foam.
We start preparing seeds in a few days 5 stages:
What should be the white cabbage in appearance for fermentation (pickling) for the winter. Signs of pickling cabbage
How to determine the appearance of cabbage for fermentation, pickling from the usual? An important point when choosing: cabbages (forks) of cabbage for pickling should be at least 1 kg. Small copies are not suitable, as they did not have time to accumulate vitamins and trace elements, without which good fermentation, and therefore tasty sauerkraut cannot be seen.
How to distinguish early cabbage from late? Choosing a head of cabbage, take it with your hands and squeeze your palms. Suitable late cabbage from such a handshake does not lose shape in the difference between lettuce cabbage and pickling cabbage. If she flattened herself - she was cut off ahead of time. At the same time inspect the leaves, no green leaf should not be.
How to determine whether juicy cabbage? Before selling all green protective leaves must be cut off. Good and sour cabbage should be very dense and heavy by weight (no matter what form, flat, oval or pointed). She will give a lot of delicious juice.
Next, tear the leaf. If you notice spots, as well as traces of pests, then such a head for fermentation is no good. When salting such cabbage will develop putrefactive bacteria, which will lead to damage to the sour product.
How to distinguish the early cabbage from the late head? Pay attention to cabbage stump. If it has spots or rings on the cut - this is a sure sign that the cabbage is rotting from the inside. A regular head of pickled cabbage has a white stalk not more than 3 cm long. With such white cabbage - fermentation definitely succeed.
For its correct choice, it is necessary to squeeze heads in your hands. Ripe cabbage will remain the same form, it is not deformed. In the immature cabbage there are fewer vitamins, it is poorly suitable for salting, does not have the usual pleasant crunch. Good white cabbage should have resilient white leaves, a pleasant smell, no cracks and dark spots. Important point: at the head of the cab, which has leaves too thick at its base, during the growth there was a glut of nitrates. You also need to carefully look at the stalk: if too many leaves were cut from it, it means that the head is old, and they just want to pass it off as a new one. When buying a cut head, you need to pay attention to the cut was white. Shades of brown talk about stale cabbage.
Broccoli inflorescences should have a pleasant smell, be beautiful in appearance. Inflorescences should be chosen with thin stems. Dense and thick stalks are already in overripe cabbage. On the inflorescences should not be black spots, spots, damage. If the heads are yellowed and their flowers are blooming, they should not be taken for food either: they will be fibrous and harsh. Cabbage with the highest amount of vitamins should be dark green, purple and burgundy shades are allowed. Her best size is slightly smaller than the female palm.
A good quality Beijing kaput should have resilient, strong leaves without spots, mucus, decay and damage. Heads are better to choose tight, but make sure that they are not too tight. It is better to take the size average, color should be white Green cabbages are distinguished by their harsh taste and fiber, unlike juicy and tasty whites. The overly loose cabbage is not fully ripe yet, it will taste a little watery.
Kohlrabi looks something like a turnip. Its surface should be free from cracks and stains; leaves should be green, not sluggish. The taste of the correctly chosen kohlrabi cabbage is sweet and juicy. The best fruits are small, weighing no more than 150 grams. If kohlrabi is purple. Larger fruits are allowed. It is strictly not recommended to take excessively large cabbage, as it will be too rough and hard. If the broccoli on the surface has spots or cracks, the leaves are withered and sluggish - this means that it is tarnished and overripe. From such fruits it is better to stay away.
Good Brussels sprouts should be bright green. Its stem should be strong and green, the leaves fit tightly to each other. Brussels sprouts are known for their sweet-nutty flavor. It is better to choose small and dense cabbages, they will be sweet and tender to the taste. Large fruits have a slightly bitter taste. If there is moisture on the heads, it is not recommended to take them, as inside they may be rotten. It is best to choose cabbage on a branch, because it can be stored longer.
The head of savoy cabbage of high quality should be heavy, cob - perfectly white. If you choose it correctly, it will be tender, soft, tasty and nutritious. If you choose Savoy cabbage for hot dishes, you can take cabbages of any size, for cold dishes - small ones. The outer leaves should not be dry, in which case the Kaput is old.
The color of seaweed can be very different: from brown and dark green to light olive. The surface should be covered with a touch of sea salt. In fact, it is not a cabbage at all, but algae, they just received such a name. Good quality sea kale should be smooth, clean, good-smelling.