Very often, decorative ponds of various shapes and sizes are used to decorate suburban areas. And in order for this element of the landscape to look beautiful and natural, it must be supplemented with a variety of plants. Such plants perform not only an aesthetic function, but also protect the water from overheating and flowering. However, in order for all the ecosystems of the reservoir to function normally, it is necessary to properly plant the plants, taking into account their features and beneficial properties.
All plants for ponds are divided into three main types:
Deep water plants
The root system of plants belonging to this group is at the bottom of the pond, and the leaves and inflorescences are on its surface. Due to the large size of the leaves, deep-sea plants are able to create a shade that protects the water in the pond from overheating and does not allow algae to grow. Water remains bright, clean and does not bloom.
The most common deep-sea plant is water lily (nymphea). Today, many varieties of water lilies are displayed, differing from each other in color, size, flower and leaf shape, flowering time and growing conditions.
Also popular representatives of this group of plants are nuggets (yellow nuggets are most often found in our region), two-wheeled aponogeton, brazenia, bog flowers, and lotus.
Their filamentous roots are not fixed in the soil, and are located in the water column, the leaves are on the surface of the reservoir. The main task that floating plants perform is water filtration. Their leaves cover the water surface of the pond, preventing the penetration of light and not allowing algae to multiply. And the roots absorb mineral salts, not giving the algae sufficient nutrition. Thanks to the floating species, the water in the reservoirs remains clear and crystal clear.
The most popular plants of this group are duckweed, azolla fern, wolfia, vodokras, pistia, rdest, rogulnik and others. They multiply socketsformed in August or early autumn.
This type is also called oxygenatorsbecause their main function is to saturate the water with oxygen. Some representatives of underwater plants also suck in mineral soda, softening the water and stopping the growth of blue-green algae, due to which water bodies “bloom”.
Underwater plants create favorable environment for the life of fish and amphibians. They are not only food for fish, but also absorb their waste by rhizome, cleaning and filtering water.
Oxygenators are able to run ashore or they can rise above the water. Among the representatives of the underwater group, the most famous are the swamp marsh, urut, elodey, and rogolotnik.
Types of water plants
Plants for ponds can be divided into three groups:
- deep sea
And how to grow and care for toffee, described here.
For the landing on the contour of the reservoir most suitable moisture-loving plants.
When choosing a plant, it is worth paying attention to what composition of soil and water it needs.
When planting is to adhere to the following rule - 2 - 3 plants per 1 square meter.
Among coastal plants can be called such:
- Iris is a perennial plant with a huge number of varieties. Planted it to a depth of 5 - 8 cm in close proximity to the edge of the water, as the iris needs constantly wet soil.
- Air is a perennial herbaceous plant, up to 1 m high. Its leaves are of interest - in different species of calamus they are colored with stripes of different colors. Planted at a depth of 8 - 15 cm.
- Sedge is a perennial shrub up to 60 cm high. In different species, the leaves have a different color - with the addition of white, yellow or different shades of green. Planted at a depth of 5 cm.
- Verbeinik is a perennial herb that grows quickly along the shore. It blooms with small yellow flowers from June.
Coastal plants in the photo:
Shallow water plants
Among them are:
- The arrowhead is a grassy perennial, surface leaves up to 30 cm in height. It blooms with white and pink flowers from June to August. Arrowhead planted so that the roots and lower leaves were covered with water.
- Hedgehog - a herbaceous plant, about 80 cm tall. Stems and leaves are erect, submerged in the middle. Shrubs are planted to a depth of about 40 cm, in standing water or water with small currents.
- Kaluzhnitsa - leaves are round, flowers are yellow, appear in April. Height to half a meter. Planted to a depth of 5 cm.
- Orontium is a perennial plant with elongated leaves and an elongated peduncle that rises vertically above the water. Height 15 - 35 cm. Planted to a depth of 30 cm, preferably in the sludge.
Photos of shallow plants, see gallery:
What are plants in the pond for?
The greenery in the pond attracts the attention of vacationers. After all, the bare mirror of the water surface looks gray and not expressive, even if the banks are covered with plants. In such a place not only to rest, I do not even want to stop. Another thing is when you can see beautiful flowers and leaves on the pond surface. In addition, aquatic representatives of the fauna balance the ecosystem of such a reservoir, especially if there are fish or mollusks in it.
All water plantings can be divided into two groups:
Consider what is characterized by each of them.
- Pond fauna representatives decorative plan serve to decorate this object. This group includes water lilies, lotuses and other plantations with magnificent flowers and leaves, which make the reservoir truly fabulous.
- Plant crops for the pond, possessing cleansing propertiesare not always attractive in appearance, but they are no less useful. Without them, not your body of water will simply overgrow with mud and mud. These orderlies absorb carbon dioxide and mineral elements, and enrich water with oxygen. Without their help, all life in the pond will simply die. This group includes bogs, elodey and some others.
Water species grouping
Depending on the functions performed and its structure, all cultures for a reservoir are called:
- Deep water.
This division is necessary to create different depth zones. So, deep-water plants are planted in the deepest part of the reservoirs, near the coast have coastal specimens.
In swampy areas, floating and marsh species grow well.
On the shore are planted those flowers and shrubs that will grow well on the wet or dry soil of this place.
Such aquatic plantings must necessarily be present in the dacha pond, since they synthesize oxygen from carbon dioxide and purify water. For fish, it serves as a tasty and nutritious food and a place for spawning.
The main part of the oxygenators is under water, and only the upper part can be seen on the water surface of the pond.
In the second half of May, they should be planted in special baskets, which then simply sink to the bottom of the reservoir. Aquatic plant cultures are difficult to take root, and if the environmental conditions are not suitable for them, then problems with their cultivation may arise.
This group includes: buttercup, hornpole and other types of water workers.
Deep water plants
These representatives of the flora are rooted at the bottom of the pond, while the leaves are above the water. Such plants feed on organic elements that are in the water and negatively affect the ecosystem of the entire water body. In addition, large leaves do not allow algae to multiply and overheat the water. In addition, most of the representatives of this group has beautiful inflorescences. These include: water lilies, brazieniya, etc.
Like underwater species, they protect the water surface from strong heating on hot days and do not allow plants to spread to parasites.
A distinctive feature is that their root system floats in water, rather than being attached to the soil. In this case, the leaves and flowers are above the water.
Planting such plants is simple. It is enough to lower the appendix into the water, and they will begin their life. Moreover, such aquatic plants for the pond very quickly adapt to any conditions.
But at the same time, floating plants grow too quickly, and they have to periodically reduce their colonies. Otherwise, they will flood the entire reservoir.
Representatives of this species are: duckweed, swamp flower, rogulnik and others.
Representatives of the group of marsh
In fact, many of these plants prefer dry land. Among them are iris and astilba, which successfully decorate flowerbeds in gardens and parks. But still representatives of the bogs like moist soil rich in organic matter. They grow along the banks of ponds in country houses and meadows. Their beautiful flowering makes the landscape more concise.
This group includes: calamus, sedge, chastuha and others.
Coastal group representatives
Such plantings can be seen around the reservoirs. They perform a decorative function and allow you to create a single landscape composition on the site.
It is best to plant coastal plants in baskets, which are then placed in shallow holes along the perimeter of the coast. It is best to plant one specimen to grow plantings, do not interfere with each other to grow.
Representatives of this group: host, aquilegia, swimsuit and others.
Whatever the size and structure of the pond you planted, the plants for it should be of several types, sizes and shapes.
Plantations of different levels will make an ordinary suburban reservoir voluminous.
In addition, it should be remembered that any ecosystem consists of different organisms and therefore plants for a pond should occupy no more than half of its area.
Consider how to properly plant such plants.
- there is two ways of planting plants in a pond: in the tank and without it. The coastal part of the pond with steep slopes is better to be landscaped in a dirt way. Planting in containers limits the growth of planted plants.
- Best of all disembark in spring or early summer. At first, oxygenators are planted, who are not afraid of the cold, and then, when the water warms up a little, the turn of underwater and floating species comes. Lastly, they improve the coastal strip.
- If the pond is new, then worth the wait before releasing the fish. During this time, the plants will take root and begin to develop. This will take several weeks.
- Choosing landing tanks, make sure that the soil is not washed out of them. Ordinary pots can be covered with a cloth and the top layer of earth covered with pebbles.
The use of artificial trees
Artificial plants for the pond in the country are used when the owners do not have time to take care of live specimens, or it is impossible for other reasons.
But even artificial flowers require some care. They periodically need to be cleaned of silt and growths. In addition, these plants quickly fade in the sun and become faded. They need to be replaced to make the pond look attractive and natural.
In winter, artificial flowers are removed from the water and stored in a special room.
Sometimes so that an ordinary pond at a dacha looks attractive, one has to experiment with different types of plantings.
Rules for the design of different in shape and size of water bodies
The design of each water body should be approached creatively. But at the same time observe some rules
You can plant several species of plants in a pair of small in displacement pond in a pair of specimens in each group.
At the same time, care must be taken to observe the following nuances:
- All vegetation should not cover more than half of the water mirror.
- Plants for the reservoir, it is important to plant it to the depth that is acceptable to them.
- For normal development of marsh crops, before planting, drainage is required.
- Coastal vegetation is better to stir near the shore, and deep-water crops grow well in the center of the reservoir.
- The bottom of the pond should be sprinkled with river sand to protect the plant roots from leaching.
If you used heat-loving crops for decoration, it is better to dig them up or take them out of the water for the winter period. For this purpose, container cultivation is used, since with the onset of cold weather it is much easier to store them.
In this case, you must follow the following rules:
- Choose a spacious container that allows plantings to grow freely.
- Protect the bottom of each container with burlap and the surface with pebbles.
- Select containers of neutral colors so that they are not visible to others.
Of course, when designing large bodies of water, you can more freely experiment with the design. The number of plants planted here can be much larger and brighter. But the basic rules remain the same forever. This will get a great result.
Adding an article to a new collection
How to choose, plant and grow aquatic plants? These questions undoubtedly arise among all who are going to build a reservoir on the site. Let's try to answer them.
Before you buy an aquatic plant, you need to know what to look for in order not to get a hopeless specimen. Here are some tips for buying aquatic plants:
- Carefully inspect the plant you are purchasing: it must be healthy.
- The roots of aquatic plants should be white or brown, and ferns - black.
- But do not buy too small plants.
- Before you buy, specify for what depth is your chosen type and grade.
General landing requirements
- Best time for planting aquatic plants - May-July, when the threat of frost disappears.
- Transplant Plants should be in special containers of frequent plastic mesh or coconut fibers. In such tanks, the root system is well developed.
- Land for planting should be clay and scanty. Clean clay should be mixed with a small amount of sand and peat (7: 2: 1), and such soil can be purchased in the store. Some plants, such as water lily, water lily, lotus, iris, pod, require more nutrients, so it is best to prepare heavy loam for planting, adding a little horn shavings to the substrate.
- Landing Plants should be handled carefully, taking care not to damage the fragile stems and roots of aquatic plants. In order to avoid washing out the soil, the substrate must be wrapped with a non-woven material, having previously well moistened. At the desired height around the earthy coma you need to pour the finished substrate, compressing the ground. The surface of the container should be covered with layers of sand and pebbles so that the substrate does not float when immersed in water.
Planted aquatic plants in the pond should be very careful
What depth to plant?
Arrange plants on the level that suits them the most simply with the help of stones or bricks.
Waist grows well at depths of 0.5 m in water with a temperature of about 10 ° C. Container with iris should be immersed in a pond at 20-40 cm. This plant feels good in the shade and sunny places. At a depth of 10-30 cm grow well susak, Pontedria and cattail. Water lilies (nymphs) prefer different depths depending on the variety. The minimum for these beauties is a depth of 20 cm.
For coastal plants - chastuhi, marigolds, iris, junkie and sponge - The maximum depth will be 5 cm. Hauttuyniaheart-shaped and dwarf mechelist rush grow excellently by 1-2 cm depth. It is recommended that Houttuynia be divided every 2 years.
Derbennik - aquatic plant for the coastal zone of the pond
Preparing for the winter
Winter-hardy plants with small water bodies with the first frost need to get out of the water, cut off the withered leaves and stems, place the container in bags that retain moisture, and leave to winter in a room with a temperature of about 10 ° C. You can also get the rhizomes from the container, cut the spoiled stems and leaves, wrap the roots with moss and put in polyethylene.
Tropical plants should be placed in an aquarium after sanitary pruning. The wintering temperature of such plants is up to 20 ° C. Tuber crops should be stored in water at a temperature of up to 10-15 ° С.
What plants are needed pond?
For a normal natural balance in a garden pond, aquatic plants of certain species are needed.
They are classified conditionally on deepwater, waterfowl, oxygenerators (plants that purify water in the pond from carbon dioxide) and coastal.
All of them interact with each other and perform a certain role. And if at least one plant species is missing from this chain, it will be almost impossible to create the necessary balance.
Waterfowl plants occupy a special place in the pond. Their roots do not need soil, they float freely and multiply on the surface of the water.
But, settling such plants in their artificial reservoir, it should be borne in mind that they are quite aggressive and able to flood the entire surface of the water. However, it’s impossible to do without water plants at all. Their main purpose is to protect water from direct sunlight.
In the photo Vodokras
Растения- оксигенераторы насыщают воду кислородом, поглощая вредный углекислый газ.
Thanks to this process, the water space will be protected from pollution and overgrowing of mud.
Interestingly, oxygen generators are almost always invisible, they are hidden under water, but their role is extremely important. The most common among such representatives of aquatic flora are:
- Hornpaw dwells in a pond with slowly flowing water. In warm water it develops quickly, and by the autumn it dies almost completely. Only the tops of the shoots sink to the bottom, where they overwinter. To populate a pond of water, you just need to throw in the water of its cuttings.
- Bolotnitsa - A wonderful seaweed for small ponds. Her tender stems resemble cereal, they grow all over the bottom. Therefore, in artificial ponds most often it is grown in special containers. The swamp is resistant to frost and does not require maintenance.
- Cabomba grows in any water bodies - both with stagnant water and with a fast current. Planted plant to a depth of 1.5 meters, it tolerates the winter and does not require maintenance.
Cabomba - beautiful and unusual
Plants that are planted around the pond can be divided into two groups - those that grow in shallow water, and those that are used to design the shore.
Required for the reservoir are the first. The most popular coastal plants are calamus, marsh, water pine, reed, forget-me-not, sedge, cattail, reed, marigold, buttercup and others.
Grass bluegrass for lawn - a choice that you will not regret. Details on how to choose seeds, prepare the area under the lawn and plant the plant.
Most commonly used:
- Air - unpretentious plant shoal. It is often used in the landscape design of reservoirs to add vertical lines to the composition. All parts of the plant contain an essential oil with a characteristic aroma. The rhizome of the plant is fragile, but each part gives a new growth. It can be planted in spring or summer to a depth of 15 cm.
- Water pine (often it is also called "tailfish") - an unpretentious plant of the coastal zone. Its stem is single, up to half a meter high, and its roots are creeping. The plant perfectly purifies water from decomposed organic residues, as well as removes unpleasant odors. But growing fast.
- Sedge - a plant that today occupies a special place in the landscape design of reservoirs. There are more than 2 thousand species of sedge, which have different characteristics and are able to adapt to different climatic conditions. Ornamental species of this plant are able to give the reservoir a unique appearance. Propagated by dividing the plant rhizome, sown directly on the water. In winter, the leaves of sedge die off, and the roots winter in the soil without shelter.
Water pine - coniferous in your pond
And, finally, at the shore of the reservoir you can land decorative moisture-loving plants. Their roots should not be in the water, but such plants can not tolerate drought.
A lot of moisture-loving plants bloom beautifully, so a pond at different times may look elegant and well-groomed.
Moisture-loving plants include loosestrikes, various irises, daylilies, astilba, comfrey, ferns, and hosts.
The video shows the main aquatic plants that are used for artificial pond.
Daylilies by the pond - it's beautiful and bright
Features of planting in the pond
Planting plants is better, starting from the deepest zone. Initially, the number of plants should be determined.
It is not necessary to plant the plants too thickly, because they already grow. Optimally, if you count ½ m2 per plant. In addition, it is desirable that representatives of the flora occupy no more than two-thirds of the entire reservoir.
Deep-water plants are conveniently planted in special containers. For waterfowl containers are not needed. When choosing plants, you should stick to a certain decorative idea.
If a patio is planned to be placed near the water, then tall plants should not be placed in this part of the reservoir.
They should be in the background, creating a beautiful background for other, perhaps, decorative foliage or beautiful flowering representatives of the flora.
Plants around the pond at the cottage
Peculiarities of care
To care for the pond you will need a certain set of garden tools - pond shears, pruner, net and forceps. First of all, care of plants consists in timely cleansing of a reservoir from dying off parts of plants.
Yellowed or brown leaves of deep-sea plants should be cut. To do this, pond scissors dipped 20 cm below the water, and cut the sheet clean with a net.
The leaves and stems of shallow-water plants should not be cut off for the winter, because the semi-dried, they are an excellent conductor of oxygen under the ice. But in the spring these stems should be removed to make the pond look attractive.
Knowing the features of planting plants for the reservoir and knowing how to care for them, you can create a wonderful corner in your own garden. He will long delight the owners and guests of the estate, will be a picturesque natural accent, attracting to itself at any time of the year. Create beauty under the power of each.
See how cozy and pleasant your own garden can be!
The role of plants in the pond
Undoubtedly, the cultures growing in the reservoir, make it more beautiful, original and alive.
- do not allow organic nutrient residues and fertilizers to get into the pond,
- saturate the water with oxygen in the daytime,
- create a shadow on the surface of the water, which helps to prevent excessive overheating of water in summer,
- participate in the development of populations of beneficial bacteria,
- reduce the amount of nitrates in the water.
How to choose the right culture for the pond?
Virtually all types of aquatic cultures are suitable for growing in both natural and artificial environment. Consider what types of plants can be used for the reservoir in the country.
This group differs from other plants in that the leaves are on the surface of the water. In this case, the root system is fixed in the soil. This type of vegetation serves as protection for the water surface and thickness from overheating., uses organic compounds, which prevents the process of "flowering" of water. They grow quite quickly, so it is very important to take care of them carefully and in time: regularly cut and remove unnecessary shoots. If you use for growing special floating baskets, you can achieve a good result.
Cultures near the water are also very popular. They harmoniously complement the water composition and coastal areas.
This type of aquatic plants is quite unpretentious, so it can be planted both in the sun and in the shade. An important point in the care of marsh crops is regular seating, as they grow very quickly and can spoil the attractive appearance of the oasis. You can plant such plants for the pond in the country: Magellan sedge, marsh violet, Marsh forget-me-not.
These are, perhaps, the most useful from the ecological side perennials, characterized by the fact that most of the culture is located under water, and its flowers are mostly on the surface. Oxygenators prevent water pollution, are food and breeding grounds for some species of fish.
In open ground
To create a composition that is as close as possible to the natural landscape, the planting of plants is carried out in the soil of water bodies. 20–30 cm of substrate should be laid out on the previously selected area. From above it is necessary to cover it with a thin layer of gravel, which will prevent the substrate from floating up at the moment of filling the pond with water.
Plastic containers, as well as small pots, create 3 serious problems: lack of stability, lack of nutrients and restriction of the natural development of crops. When planting tall plants in a container, stability must necessarily be ensured. For such cultures, wide but not too high containers are ideal. To increase stability, you can strengthen the capacity of stones located on the surface of the earth in a pot. You can also use weighting agents at the bottom of the tank.
If landing is planned in the coastal zone, the container can be attached to the shore. Plants quickly absorb nutrients from the substrate, so you need to regularly feed. It is also recommended to make a hole in the bottom, which will facilitate the absorption of water. But, unfortunately, through them the roots can penetrate into the reservoir itself. Landing in containers has a lot of drawbacks, so if you can, you should give it up.
This method of planting involves the immersion of plants in a pond. The root system, leaves and stems will be constantly in the water and free to float. Unfortunately, such cultures die when the temperature of water and air decreases, so before the onset of winter cold they should be removed from the reservoir, and with the arrival of spring, they should be planted again.
General care tips
Water plants for the pond need care. The availability of a cleaning system makes it much easier to maintain an artificial pond - in this case, it is worthwhile to periodically cut off excess shoots, roots and algae. If you decide to equip an artificial reservoir on the site, we recommend that you take into account the following tips:
- In a reservoir that has a small size, there is a greater likelihood of "blooming" and turbidity of water.
- To remove unnecessary vegetation from the surface, a net, rake, or special forceps will do. You can also cut off dead leaves and other plants with scissors that have a long telescopic handle.
- With the advent of cold, you need to cut buds from floating crops and place them in a jar until spring. If the plant does not possess frost resistance, it is necessary to move it to more comfortable, warm conditions for the winter.
- In the care should regularly remove the duckweed. It is also necessary to cut flowers that are already dead.
Features of the design of reservoirs
In order to equip a beautiful water oasis, it is important to follow some tips. Consider how and what plants it is better to issue reservoirs of different species.
If you decide to equip a large reservoir on the site, you should follow certain rules:
- First you need to make a project. A large area will create an original, beautiful natural composition.
- Reservoirs, whose depth is more than 1 m, have a stable ecosystem, compared with shallow ponds. Despite the size, caring for a large body of water is easier.
- If you have a large territory at your disposal, you can use boxwood, ephedra and rhododendrons to create the background.
- Badan, lysikhitron and funky will look harmoniously next to large bodies of water.
- In the pond, small islands surrounded by moderate reed thickets will look great.
- On the surface of the water can be placed nymphs and lotuses.
In a large pond, a culture such as water-nut Chilim will take root well. In addition to the beautiful appearance, it has fruit, suitable for use.
Having a small oasis of water will transform your site. A small body of water can be home to such living creatures as tritons, frogs and water striders.
When choosing a crop for planting in a small pond, it is important to pay attention to its rate of growth. Plants rapidly covering the surface of the water can transform a beautiful body of water into a swamp.
Choose plants that float on the surface with small leaves. Ideal water hyacinth, decorative water lily. On the shore, you can plant ordinary particles, an ordinary cuff, a forget-me-not marsh and a river gravilat. If you like higher cultures, bamboo, sedge, foxglove will do.
Geometric ponds look perfect in classic-style homes. The form of an artificial pond can be different: square, rectangular, round. High walls are usually built around it. For such a structure you need to choose a culture that will emphasize its geometry. For edging suitable trimmed boxwood, umbrella susak, ivy. You can decorate the surface of the water with lotuses, water lilies. On the shore will look beautiful curly roses and daylilies.
As a rule, the size of such bodies of water is not very large. It is recommended to plant no more than three types of plants of small sizes. Sedge, iris and arrowhead will look great on a high level. At the lower level, it is better to land a cattail, cuff and sabelnik. In the center you can place a pistia or a decorative nymph.
For the construction of the channel is better to use stones and pebbles. Among the plants, you should choose weeping species: decorative larch, cedar, French willow. On the shore, you can land dicenters, miniature irises, hvoyniki. In brooks you can grow algae.
To create a mountain stream you need to choose a place with a slope. On the banks will look beautiful flowering bushes. It is recommended to place a swamp forget-me-not, dwarf sedge on the water surface. At the very bottom of the stream, you will need to build a small container into which water will flow.
By building on the site of an artificial reservoir and the colonization of its plants should be approached seriously. However, the result will be worth it, and you can enjoy the magical beauty of your own water oasis.
- Eichornia - has elongated leaves, collected in a porous rosette, which allows the plant to stay on the surface of the water. The flower is purple, reminiscent of hyacinth. Height up to 30 cm, blooms in August and September. It is a universal filter - the plant processes heavy metals, organic pollutants, etc.
- Vodokras is a frost-resistant plant, has small rounded leaves and white flowers. It slowly grows, therefore it is not suitable for large reservoirs.
- Lemna - a three-part duckweed is used for decorative purposes - this species grows more slowly. Lemna covers the entire accessible surface of the reservoir, so you need to be careful with it.
These surface plants are depicted in the photo:
Care of aquatic plants
Caring for aquatic plants is complicated by the fact that they have to work in the water column. With this in mind, you will need special equipment: pond scissors, tongs, pruner and a net.
All tools must be made of stainless material.
Aquatic plants, like any other, require personal care, which is complicated by the fact that you have to work in the water column
Faded and dying leaves with pond scissors are cut at a level of 30 - 40 cm below the water level, then removed with a net.
In order not to obscure the reservoir, the surplus of plants (duckweed, water hyacinth) and leaves, fluff, pollen, and more are removed with a net.
It is worth remembering that aquatic plants, like any other, need timely feeding and treatment from parasites. Depending on the type of plants and the volume of the reservoir, different preparations will be required for its processing.
To create a sustainable ecosystem in a pond, select plants so that they complement each other. Be careful not to plant unknowable views next to them.