About 20 years ago, a vine in Siberian gardens was a rarity. Few knew about how to grow grapes in Siberia, and it turned out to grow it from individual gardeners. Now this southern culture has reliably taken root in many areas: from it receive rich harvests of amazingly tasty, beautiful and useful berries. The success of wine-growing amateurs is inspiring, more and more new gardeners adjoin them every year, and the collection of cultivated varieties in Siberia is replenished with modern species with improved qualities.
Features of growing grapes in Siberia
What are the features of growing grapes in Siberia for beginners? This culture does not like sudden changes in temperature, it is moisture-loving, loves heat. Therefore, the majority of southern varieties, if they are planted in the harsh conditions of Siberia, mature poorly, lag behind in development, fall ill, increase little wood, despite the fact that summer temperatures in Siberia differ slightly from the weather in the Krasnodar Territory.
In the western part of Siberia, the climate is more continental, and the terrain feature is more influenced by the climate of Eastern Siberia. Winter in Siberia is long, summer is very short, but such climatic conditions have their advantages for gardening. The grapes here are not exposed to diseases, they are resistant to the effects of pests. Almost never dangerous for phylloxera. False mildew is not widespread.
Despite the climatic features, some mid-ripening and all early varieties are able to produce crops if spring film coating is used. It is advisable to acquire grafted grape saplings, the rootstock should be Far Eastern wild grapes or hardy varieties of North American selection. Experienced gardeners who have been involved in grapes for a long time, planted the plants themselves, but for beginners it is difficult to cope with this;
For beginners, there are difficulties with the cultivation of this plant in open ground conditions. Faced with them, most gardeners abandon this venture by choosing to grow in a greenhouse. Indoor soil provides excellent development of the vine, good growth, allows you to enjoy a good harvest.
Popular varieties for cultivation in Siberia
Choosing the right variety is the first step to growing a well-fruiting vine. We present varieties that are most suitable for planting in open ground.
Beauty of the north. This variety was obtained by crossing the varieties "Tayfi pink" and "Dawn of the North." Ripens early, the hands reach a weight of 255 g, they are branched or conical, large. Berries are oval, large, white-pink. The flesh is juicy and fleshy. The variety is frost resistant, can withstand a temperature drop to -25 ° C. Resistant to gray rot.
Swallow. Frost-resistant grade. It ripens very early. Bushes of medium height, berries are medium, dark blue, the pulp is juicy. Hands reach more than 300 g. The plant may be affected by wasps.
Zilga Variety with early maturity. Brushes large to 400 g. Bushes are vigorous. The berries are black and blue, large. Grapes are frost-resistant, resistant to diseases: gray rot, oidium.
Muromets. This table grape was obtained by crossing the Victory and North grapes. Bushes are vigorous, conical brushes, large, dark purple berries, large. On berries visible thick wax-like bloom. Susceptible to oidium damage, has a high resistance to mildew. Frost-resistant.
Solovyov-58. Bush srednerosly, white berries with a golden hue. The taste is muscat, it ripens early. Grade frost-resistant, resistant to damage by rot, mildew.
Hardening Siberian varieties
Hardening of grapes comes down to its acclimatization - gardeners do not recommend placing winter varieties in a greenhouse. Only sudden frosts in the spring, accompanied by wind, can be the reason for creating a greenhouse shelter of grapes.
In grapes growing without shelter in low-temperature conditions, resistance to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature develops, the plant tolerates winter without freezing of roots, vines and shoots.
Constant shelter will make the grapes sensitive to low temperatures - as a result, the bush may die without being able to withstand the severe Siberian frosts.
Grape Shelter in Siberia
Preparation of grapes for winter begins when the mercury thermometer drops to 0 ° C. In Siberia, it is the middle of October and the beginning of November. Before the onset of this pore, the second autumn pruning should be made, the vine should be removed, it should be laid along the trenches.
To ensure that the bush was dry, to carry out the shelter in sunny and windy weather - this will serve as a prevention of fungal diseases.
For the cover, use a film or fabric that you need to prikopat earth, at the very top to place coniferous or fir branches. It is important that the snow cover is constantly on the embankment during frosts. As soon as the snow melted, the upper part of the cover can be removed.
Siberia and grapes
Everybody knows that grapes belong to the heat-loving and moisture-loving plants, it is adversely affected by daily temperature changes. Of course, many varieties intended for cultivation in the southern regions will not be able to survive the harsh climatic realities of Siberia, will develop poorly, often get sick.
But the climate of Siberia has its advantages. It allows you to protect the grapes from a large number of diseases and pests. In the region, there is no extremely dangerous for the plant for phlloxera; also in Siberia there is no downy mildew.
Popular varieties for cultivation in the region
Short summer and long winter make it possible to get a harvest only from early varieties, mid-season, necessarily subject to the availability of shelter. For planting, it is better to choose grafted varieties, after which with the help of rootstocks to plant more hardy.
To get a good harvest, it is necessary to plant varieties that are intended for Siberia. Some of them were cultivated on site, some were created as a result of the work of breeders for cultivation in a harsh climate region.
The best grapes for Siberia:
- Cheburashka.The variety has small shrubs, is not picky about the soil. It is resistant to poor lighting and dampness. Vinogradinki differ small size, black color. The taste of the berries will improve significantly if you give them a little time on the bushes after ripening.
- Siberian cherry. It has small berries with a sweet taste, painted in blue. Have an average height, fruit ripening occurs early. The variety has good winter hardiness.
- Solovyov-58. The look is steady against frosts, maintains temperature to -32 ° C. Berries with a sweet taste, large size, green.
- Rusven. Treats high-yielding, has heavy clusters. The berries are pink with a pleasant taste reminiscent of sage. Rusven has an average frost resistance - able to withstand up to -25 ° C, has immunity to fungal diseases.
- Tukay. Early ripe variety, the berries of which are white in color and thin nutmeg aromat. It is resistant to mold and other diseases, but does not have a high winter hardiness.
Most often planted last variety - it is most adapted to the climate of Siberia. The berries are small, ripening occurs early. The variety is very frost resistant. You can also cultivate southern varieties in Siberia, but you should definitely cover them.
Also suitable for cultivation in Siberia: Muscat, Riddle, Delight, Katyr, Dubinushka, Srostinsky. I will feel fine in the cold Isabella and Lydia. Usually their berries are used to make wine.
Before planting grapes, you need to dig special planting pits, which must be filled with a special filler. First, humus is mixed into the pit, mixed with the soil from the upper layers of the earth, and then sprinkled with mineral fertilizers.
Up to 1 kg of fertilizer is required per hole. All this mass is mixed, after which the filling of the pit is repeated according to this scheme until it is completely filled.
Selection of seedlings
Growing grapes in Siberia for beginners starts with a fairly important stage - the choice of seedlings.
The further success of the whole grape growing event depends on the right choice of seedlings. Saplings should be free from stains, damage and signs of drying. An ideal seedling should have 3-4 well developed roots, its escape should be more than 0.5 meters. Be sure to carefully inspect the site of vaccination. Fruiting grafted seedlings occurs a little earlier than that of the rooted own - about the third year.
Planting grapes must be made in May - early June, until the complete opening of all the kidneys. It has been noticed that certain winter-hardy varieties take root quite well in Siberia and after planting in the fall, but for beginners we still recommend planting grapes in the spring.
Trying to grow grapes in Siberia, you should stick to certain recommendations regarding the planting pattern:
- landing is better to carry out in a row, with the rows should be located from north to south,
- the vineyard is better placed near the southern wall,
- the optimal distance between the rows is at least 1.5 m; when planting bushes from east to west, it can be increased to 2 m,
- the distance from the grapes to the building should be 1 m - this is necessary for better nourishment of the bush and easier care of it,
- it is not recommended to plant grapes near tall trees - they will cast a shadow on him,
- it is best to choose for planting a place where the grapes will not have in the neighborhood of other plants.
Given all the recommendations, you can get a healthy and rich harvest.
Weed removal and soil care
After irrigation, after 2-3 days, it is imperative to loosen the soil - this will destroy the crust and weeds. It is also recommended to plant parsley in the aisle - it will help to scare away aphids from the plant.
To prevent the growth of weeds, you can cover the soil corrugated cardboard. Cleaning the fallen leaves and weeding is optional.
In this section we will describe how to cover the grapes for the winter in Siberia. The purpose of this event is not only to protect the bushes from the cold - it is important to protect them from damping, rot, wetting, leading to the appearance of some diseases.
The best period to install shelter is mid-October - early November. We suggest to pay attention to the following tips that will help you to cover plants with high quality:
- After pruning, the vine must be removed from the supports, lay along the trench.
- Do not cover wet or wet bushes. If it was raining the day before, you need to let the plants dry thoroughly. The best time for this procedure is a windy sunny day. Moisture that has come under shelter will contribute to the development of fungal diseases, which will lead to a decrease in the frost resistance of the plant.
- On the vine is to put a specially prepared material. Thick fabric or black film will do. The material must be prikopat from two opposite sides so that the wind does not blow it away.
- Above is to put a protective layer. Ideal use of coniferous spruce branches.
- When the snow melts, you need to remove the top layer of shelter.
- All protection is completely removed in April. However, in its place is to build a greenhouse. After establishing stable weather without frosts (the end of spring), you can remove it, and fix the bushes to the supports.
Features of growing in a greenhouse
Growing grapes in a greenhouse in Siberia, You should pay attention to the following important points and recommendations:
- Construct the highest possible greenhouse construction - its height can not be less than 3 m, it should be spacious.
- In the greenhouse must be present lamps and heating devices.
- If you plan to use high-capacity heating systems, it is important to keep the humidity level under control and regularly ventilate the greenhouse.
- Particular attention should be paid to top dressing.
- So that inside does not appear mildew, it is necessary from time to time to process the solution of potassium permanganate.
Now you know how to grow grapes in Siberia. Using all the recommendations, even newcomers to this field can end up with a rich and tasty harvest.