Abundant, early flowering of almonds grown in the south, can forever be remembered for its magnificence. Pink flowers, sweet aroma remind of distant lands and endless summer. But the almond tree is not at all exotic. In temperate latitudes, its cultivation is quite possible. Zoned varieties are not only decorative, but they produce good yields of healthy fruits.
If in winter the air temperature does not fall below 25 ° C, then the shrub may well grow in the open ground of a regular garden. Subject to several rules, almonds produce from 6 to 10 kg of fruits per season and live up to 100 years.
How to grow almonds: landing according to all the rules
Flowering almond is able to transform the whole garden, give it an exotic look. Southern thermophilic handsome in nature grows on rocky slopes, demanding to light. What conditions will be optimal for its growth? The place allotted for the “almond garden” must meet several requirements.
1. The quality of the soil. Stony, sandy, well-drained soils are best suited. Loam, clay soil must lime, improve breathability. Feels good almonds on stony ornamental slides.
2. A light-shrub shrub should be placed so as not to shade it more than a few hours a day.
3. Well-developed plants, covered from cold winds. The best choice is the south side of the slope or a place that is closed from the north by buildings, a fence, but open to sunlight from the south.
4. When water stagnates, the almond root may die. Because places prone to prolonged accumulation of moisture, are not suitable for landing.
Almond - culture demanding pollination. The amount of future harvest directly depends on this. The neighborhood with beehives will be an additional advantage when choosing a place. Early flowering will provide prudent owners with fragrant spring honey.
Almond Cultivation Methods
When a place is chosen, it is time to decide how the plant will be grown. There are several ways to breed almonds:
• growing from stone,
• rooting cuttings and cuttings,
• planting grafted seedlings.
The first method is the most time consuming, vaccination will require certain skills, the latter method is simpler than others. Let's start with the simple.
Almond: planting sapling, brief instructions with photos
In the presence of commercialized zoned varieties, the problem of buying planting material is reduced to the choice between seedlings of decorative and table varieties. The grafted seedlings from a bona fide seller are guaranteed to possess the properties of the declared variety.
When buying should be borne in mind that for the full fruiting of almonds in need of pollination. Therefore, for the harvest requires the planting of several plants, preferably different varieties.
Planting seedlings - the event is not difficult:
1. Preparation of the landing hole. The size of the pit for planting will tell the size of the root. For a one-year-old plant, usually, a hole with a depth of up to 60 cm and the same diameter is sufficient. The bottom should be filled with a layer of rubble, broken bricks and sand. This provides the necessary drainage, excess moisture can not harm the young plant.
2. The distance between the holes should be kept within 3 m. So the bushes growing upwards and in breadth will not block each other from the sun.
3. The soil for filling the hole is fertilized with superphosphate (not more than 0.5 kg per plant), rotted manure (about 5 kg), must be lime, adding 1 cup of dolomite flour or lime.
4. The first time the seedling needs support. In the center of the landing pit, a long pole, stick or bamboo pole is stuck deeper. The roots are distributed on the bottom of the hole, preventing bending upwards.
5. When filling the pit, carefully monitor that the vaccination site remains above the soil level.
That's all the basic wisdom of landing. Each plant should be watered abundantly, and later, monitor the cleanliness of the earth around. Almonds do not tolerate basal vegetation, even ordinary grass.
In the first year, the bushes grow reluctantly - mostly the root system develops. But subsequent years will please the active growth of the bush. Almond blossom, with care and proper dressing, begins at 4 years of age.
Almond, growing from stone
You can grow shrubs using bones. Almonds are grown (as in the photo) in the house to the size of a seedling, or seeds are sown directly into the ground in spring. Save species characteristics such reproduction does not always work.
Planting bones in the fall outside is not recommended. Their smell attracts rodents. By the spring may simply be nothing to rise. All seeds intended for sowing should “overwinter” in tanks with wet sand, at a temperature not higher than 10 ° С. This will increase their germination, will have a beneficial effect on future crops.
Replanting a young sprout, you should pinch the spine, for uniform development of the aboveground and underground parts of the plant.
Vegetative reproduction of almonds
If you have an adult plant of the desired variety, you can multiply in several other ways.
Cuttings obtained by pruning. Cuttings up to 20 cm long, they take root well in wet sand in a cool place.
Root growth regularly appears around the bushes. Leaving a few shoots when pruning, for the second year you can get a ready seedling with a developed root system.
Layers - low-growing branches that rooted easily when in contact with the soil. Having pinned such a branch to the ground, having covered it with earth, it suffices to wait for the roots to appear. Separating the rooted branch from the mother bush, it can be planted as an independent plant.
Almond: care for an adult plant
Almond care is unpretentious. He will need only regular watering, fertilizing, timely pruning.
The formation of the crown begins with the moment of landing. A sapling planted in spring is immediately shortened to a height of 80 cm. The lateral branches are cut into three buds. Almonds are grown as a bush, and a small tree. The main task is to form a sparse crown. All damaged, thickening, seed-bearing shoots should be removed.
Formative pruning is carried out after flowering. Peach and almonds equally love pruning, their crowns are formed on the same principle - more air and light. Well proven fan type of crown formation.
The appearance of an adult almond is laid in the early years, and depends on the height of the central bole, originally laid.
When watering almonds, it is important to observe the "middle ground". The lack of moisture leads to poor flowering and fruiting, and with excessive moisture the root neck easily rots. When the soil dries to a depth of 2 cm, it is enough to use 10 liters of water per plant when irrigating.
Stonecore cultures are demanding to feed. In early spring, it is appropriate fertilizer copper-containing drugs. Spring-summer period - the time of nitrogen and potash supplements. Closer to autumn superphosphates are relevant.
We help almonds survive the cold
A few techniques from experienced gardeners will help the plant survive the winter without significant loss.
• In July - August pinch the apical buds on the shoots. Shoots ripen faster, it is easier to endure the winter.
• Nitrogen-containing dressings stop by mid-summer. Fertilizer superphosphate and potassium accelerates the aging of the bark.
• Seedlings wrap for winter (for example, lutrasil). Pristvolny circle also cover with special materials, or mulch.
• When bumping the stump with snow, there is a danger of the neck of the root hardening.
The existing varieties of almond, with care and due attention, allow you to grow a thermophilic plant, even in Siberia. Southern aroma, beauty of flowers, healthy and tasty almond nuts will be a well-deserved reward to a patient gardener.
Easy landing and normal almond care
They purchase seedlings solely for decorative purposes. Sweet almonds are grown in Ukraine. Gentle flowering on the branches of the eastern shrub appears much earlier than the dark green foliage - the end of March and the beginning of April. An adult almond tree reaches 4-6 m in height, and a shrub - up to 3 m. Under its openwork crown most often planted medicinal herbs or magnificent lawns of marigolds.
Greek merchants brought drought-resistant culture to Russia from Asia. In this area a dry and hot climate prevails. The powerful root system helps the plant to survive in such conditions. It consists of 5 thick skeletal branches that penetrate several meters deep into the earth. Understanding this feature, the gardener will be able to properly care for the ornamental tree.
Almonds are planted in late autumn. Overwintering rhizome quickly adapts to new weather conditions. As a result, a young bush takes root several times faster.
Planting algorithm sapling
The most important thing in this business is choosing the right place. Exotic cultures love sunny and cozy (without drafts) garden plots. It is desirable that this was the southern side of the estate. Some have shrubs behind the house, others - in the yard, and others - near the fence. Planting almonds occurs according to such a convenient scheme:
- dig a hole of standard size (depth up to 1 m, with each side of the square is 100 cm),
- 1/3 of the funnel falls asleep with humus (approximately, a bucket), especially if the soil consists of clay or sand,
- 60-100 g of complex mineral fertilizers are introduced (more phosphate ones),
- all components are mixed with earth, filling ½ part of the pit,
- shed water
- gently straighten the almond seedling roots on the mound,
- fall asleep remaining planting substrate
- tightly pressed near the radical neck, which is not too deep,
- rehydrate the soil again
- the landing circle is mulched with peat.
Experienced gardeners should know how deep the groundwater is in their area. This indicator plays an important role in planting and caring for almonds, because it does not tolerate high humidity.
Each individual plant is watered with 7-10 liters of warm water. It is often recommended to use settled or rain water. It will be useful only when good drainage is made at the bottom of the pit. For its formation use:
- fragments of bricks,
- small gravel
- ordinary stones.
In this case, the proposed components can be safely mixed with each other. Thanks to this texture layer, the water will not stagnate, much less swamp the ground.
The structure of the land should be loose, porous, and therefore air-permeable and permeable. It is contraindicated to choose acidic, saline, clay and chlorine-containing soil for the shrub. In this case, dolomite flour or lime (300 g per 1 m²) must be added.
Many fans of exotic cultures are interested in the question of how to plant almonds from the stone. Basically, the plant breeds shoots, you can still try to germinate a nut. For such an event, healthy, intact planting materials are selected. Then the procedure is carried out in this way:
- 10-20 seeds are soaked in a strengthening solution for a day,
- carefully dig up the soil with humus to make it as loose as possible,
- form holes with a depth of 10-15 cm,
- the distance between the pits is 20 cm,
- 2 bones are placed in each funnel,
- tightly tamped area.
When the seedlings grow to 15 cm, their root system is cut. To do this, take a sharp shovel and pruned sprouts along with the ground at a depth of 10-15 cm. Then, irrigate abundantly with warm water. A year later, a one-year copy is transplanted. This procedure contributes to the formation of a beautiful, lush crown.
Using this method of reproduction, it should be borne in mind that the culture loses all its biological and external characteristics. Hybrid varieties are often susceptible to the corrupting influence of pests and dangerous diseases.
It is necessary to take into account that for group plantings the width of the row spacing should not be less than 6 m. Between individual specimens leave 3-4 m. The depth of the planting hole is 70 cm. In addition, the fertile soil will consist of:
Taking into account these features, planting almonds is taking place in the open field and taking care of them. However, the lion's share of success in this matter is a well-designed plan for caring for a bush or tree.
Common Frost Varieties
Almond - this tree is quite resistant to frost. However, due to early flowering in spring, most of the flower buds in the middle lane freeze over. As a result, you can not get a bountiful harvest from every tree. Many modern cultivars bred in our time by breeders have a long period of generation of fruit buds and rather late flowering. This guarantees the receipt of fruits.
Important! When choosing an almond seedling, always check with the seller whether the tree is adapted to your climate zone.
The following varieties have the best fertility and frost resistance in the middle lane:
Planting and caring for almonds
Almond saplings are planted in autumn or spring, in groups of 3-4 trees at a distance of at least 3 meters from each other. As a rule, use annual grafted bushes.
Choose a place for landing sunny, on a small hill, protected from the effects of northerly winds. The original “amphitheaters” open on the south side are perfect.
Prepare a landing pit with a size of 50 x 70 and a depth of 60 cm, add 5-6 kg of rotted manure mixed with 0.5 kg of superphosphate, and 200-300 g of lime or dolomite flour. Bury the seedling to the site of vaccination. After planting, it is recommended to water trees abundantly at the rate of 10 liters per seedling.
In the first year after planting, the young growth gives a not too significant increase, since at this time there is a restoration of the root system damaged by the transplant. The tree will require regular watering (every 10-15 days) and periodic loosening of the land around the trunk circle. In the future, tree care is quite simple, but you should adhere to the following rules:
- water the plant moderately and only when it is absolutely necessary (that is, in dry times),
- Do not fill the root collar - it rots easily, which leads to the destruction of the shrub,
- fertilize regularly under the tree,
- spend the forming and improving cutting of escapes. Almonds are pruned after flowering. First of all, they remove branches and shoots that thicken crown, cut sick, frozen and dried shoots,
- a grafted almond tree will need shelter for the winter.
Almonds, like all walnut trees, need regular regular feeding. They are held in the spring and summer every two weeks.
Young plants are fed with fertilizers containing in their composition more nitrogen and potassium. Under mature trees, nutrient solutions are made from manure and ammonium nitrate (1 kg of manure and 20 g of nitrate per 10 liters of water). In the early spring, fertilizing one time with fertilizer containing copper.
Under natural conditions, almond breeding occurs by seed, however, cultivated varietal trees reproduce only vegetatively - by budding on the stock. For this procedure, use any kind of almond, even bitter seeds. In the absence of stock in the garden, it can be grown independently from the stone varietal.
Budding carried out in mid-July:
- take a year-old well-developed seedling, having a root collar thickness of at least 0.8 cm,
- at a height of 8-10 cm from the root collar on the rootstock, a T-shaped incision is made and a vegetative kidney cut by the heel is inserted from the tree of the variety you are interested in,
- the vaccination is closed with a winding film, which is removed after 1.5 months.
Diseases and pests
Common almond diseases include leaf curl, rust, moniliosis and gray mold.
- It is possible to cope with leaf curl and moniliosis by spraying with Bordeaux mixture and applying nitrogen-containing fertilizers into the soil.
- When damaged by gray rot, diseased shoots are removed, and the tree is treated with systemic fungicide.
- To combat rust, use a solution of an aqueous suspension of sulfur or sulfur powder.
Of the pests almonds most often affects aphid. Spraying with a solution of karbofos or laundry soap will help to cope with it. Young shoots may appear plum moth or leafworm. In this case, at intervals of 10-12 days, double-spray the tree with chlorophos or karbofos.