Detailed drawings of a fan-type potato digger for a photo and video tiller in work.
As we know, potato diggers for motoblocks are of two types, fan and vibration, the simplest to manufacture is a fan-type digger, and we will consider its structure.
Fan kopalka - this is mounted equipment, in this embodiment for the motoblock, this is what this device looks like.
A device for digging up potatoes is a plow with a fan made from twigs. In the process of moving the motoblock, the plow cuts into the soil and lifts it onto the grid of twigs, in turn, loosen the twigs and sift the soil while the potatoes are thrown over the soil.
The video shows the principle of the work of a fan potato digger.
The use of such simple equipment would be appropriate in small areas (when working on areas of more than 50 acres, fuel consumption will be large) and crumbly light soil. Among the disadvantages of the fan-type mechanism:
- possible loss of part of the crop due to the fact that the width of the capture band is less than 20 cm, and the depth of digging is less than 15 cm,
- A digger's knife damages a part of the roots, these tubers are not suitable for storage, they lose their presentation.
It is possible to reduce the share of manual labor when using a rotor potato digger for motor-cultivators of greater power.
Transporter potato digger
Other modification - conveyor potato digger. The conveyor unit is installed on medium and heavy tillers. According to its characteristics similar to the vibration device. The difference lies in the fact that the potato moves and clears from the stuck earth along the conveyor belt, and does not gather on the vibrating table. This type of digger is more practical than vibratory, but its use is advisable only for heavy soils.
Conveyor belt is often made of rods. But steel mesh is also applicable, there are models with a rubber tape on a fabric basis. The movement of the conveyor is carried out during the transmission of torque from the shaft of the motor-block through a reducer, chains, gears.
Transporter potato digger does not damage tubers, is easy to use, it is aggregated with powerful walk-behind tractors and mini-tractors. Industrial designs have the following specifications:
- overall dimensions - 1140х740х47 mm,
- weight - 36 kg,
- speed - 2 km / h,
- depth of digging - 20 cm
- width of capture - 53 cm.
Independent production of a conveyor potato digger after studying the schemes of work of factory machines is possible if the master has experience in carrying out such work. Each master can show engineering ingenuity and add his own elements to the constructive solution in order to improve the finished product. General assembly instructions are as follows:
- welding frame frame from steel square profiles and corners,
- production of a knife-plowshare from thick sheet steel,
- installation of shafts for the conveyor belt,
- assembly of the conveyor belt,
- mounting brackets and fasteners for gearbox and gears,
- installation of conveyor belts and mechanisms
- install plowshares.
Drum potato digger
The potato digger, equipped with a drum, is used when processing fields with the help of a mini-tractor. The drum is called "squirrel wheel". This design allows you to clean the potato tubers from the ground due to the rotation of the lattice design. But those who used note that the rind of the potato is damaged in the drum.
Home-made drums are rare, since their production is not an easy task. The drum through gears, chains and gearbox is connected to the power take-off shaft via a direct drive hitch. The knife is attached to the frame on the hinges.
Then the structure is welded to the disks and fixed on 2 axes. The drum is fixed on the bent discs. Experienced craftsmen use for the design of the rim of the wheels from the bike. The shaft on the bearings rotates and drives the drum itself. The soil, trimmed with a knife, along with tubers enters the drum. The earth is poured out through the lattice cells, and the potato moves to the edge and falls on arable land.
Vibration DIY Digger
Practical experience that farmers share, shows that when using a vibrating potato digger, 95% of the potato crop is harvested, and the use of a simple fan gives up to 85%. With the help of a vibrating digger, other vegetables (onions, garlic, beets, or carrots) can be harvested if they are grown in large areas.
Vibration potato for a motoblock with your own hands can be made of scrap materials. You can use parts from the old car: front hub, gear from the rear axle, propeller shaft.
The frame collection scheme is described above. Brackets are welded to the frame to install the gearbox and mechanisms that will perform reciprocating movements, i.e., create vibration in the unit. During operation, the rotation of the motor-block shaft is transmitted through mechanisms (lever and connecting rod) to the vibrating table (screen). Coupling with a crank mechanism, oscillating motion. To the bottom of the frame and the roar is fastened ploughshare on the hinges.
Depending on the design solution, peeled tubers will roll down from the vibrating table to the side of the processed strip or behind the potato digger.
Plot intended for collecting potatoes, before processing, should be cleaned of tops and weeds, otherwise they will be clogged under the grate and in the wheel attachment.
Conveyor digger for heavy traction devices
For agricultural machinery heavy class required and appropriate attachments, because the work is carried out on large areas. This means that labor must be as mechanized as possible. So, conveyor digging is the most difficult in construction potato digger, having the greatest number of rotating elements.
Harvest collected by such an aggregate is almost ready for storage in storage (whole and clean tubers). High performance is ensured by the fact that the attachment equipment for tractors provides for two-row processing, and not 1 row each, which is ensured by work with the motor-block.
It is extremely difficult to manufacture such a universal conveyor yourself. Factory models are expensive, but large agricultural enterprises can purchase ready-made structures. For example, for high-quality and fast harvesting with the help of a mini-tractor, mounted double-row potato diggers DTZ-2B or DK-2T are intended.
How to dig potatoes motoblock
When choosing a tiller for private households, preference should be given to those models that are designed to operate with additional equipment of different types. And the trailed units themselves (plow, hiller, potato digger, mower) can be made in the home workshop.
Potato motoblock harvesting is carried out not only on large areas, the mechanized assistant will be in demand at the summer cottage. It is only necessary to equip it with attachments (purchased or manufactured independently). The principle of operation for all units is similar. Ploughshare plunges into a garden bed, raises a layer of earth together with root vegetables, leaving them on the surface. A person needs only to collect uprooted potatoes in bags.
When choosing a tiller take into account the capacity of the unit and the type of soil on which it will be applied. With the help of the average power tiller for an hour you can harvest from 20 hectares of land. For harvesting a large potato plot fit walker, whose capacity is more than 5 liters. With., for smaller areas, you can choose the unit easier and with less power.
In addition, the weeding of potatoes by the motoblock, and hilling can be mechanized.
How to spud potatoes motoblock
Hilling potatoes - an important process for the development of tubers. If the bushes do not land, then the roots will grow, and the potatoes will be small and deformed. Under the thickness of the earth, the fruits will be protected from pests, and in the process, in parallel, the land is cleared from weeds. Carrying out such work requires considerable physical effort, and if the site is large, then time-consuming.
Processing potatoes motoblock has several advantages over manual hilling. The rules for tillage in a mechanized manner are required for compliance. Spud potatoes motoblock necessary after the rain, when the earth absorbs moisture. Combs dry land can lead to disastrous consequences, and from the wet get viscous lumps.
For work, you will need a lister or a disc homemade plowing knife for potatoes. If you equip the excavator adjustment mechanism, it will be possible to adjust the tool to the width of the spacing, changing the position of the wings. Popular in design are simple disc hillers.
A mounted disk device with an attachment point to a motor-cultivator may have 1 pair of disks or several pairs (the quantity depends on the power of the machine). Disks of a concave shape - the main element of a design, they are made of a steel sheet 2 mm thick and fasten among themselves at an angle. The discs rotate by sliding in the bushes.
Before starting the tiller you need to adjust the angle and depth of the groundwork. Spud potatoes at low speeds, moving the walker and the trailer row by row. Experienced farmers recommend carrying out the first hilling process when sprouts appear. Potatoes will give underground shoots, and the bush will be powerful, with large tubers. When the bushes grow to 30-40 cm, spud potatoes a second time. If the soil is heavy, dense, then you can loosen again.