Pear "Muscovite" without exaggeration can be called one of the most popular varieties.
She is enough unpretentious, hardy and meets all the best qualities of the fruit tree.
Knowing the characteristics of the variety and providing it with all the necessary conditions, it is possible to get worthy harvests of delicious pears called “Muscovite” every year.
What kind of pears refers?
Pear "Muscovite" is dessert variety with autumnal fruit ripening. Thanks precociousness, excellent presentation, good keeping quality and other qualities, it is very popular with gardeners.
Purpose of the fruit "Muscovites" universal. They are very tasty fresh and good for making compotes, jams, jams, marmalade, candied fruits and dried fruits.
Breeding history and breeding region
"Muscovite" is the result of the breeding work of the Moscow Agricultural Timiryazev Academy. It was isolated from pear seedlings obtained by free pollination of an American variety called "kieffer".
is he recommended for cultivation in the Volga-Vyatka, Middle Volga and Central regions of Russia. "Muscovite" was widely spread in the gardens of the Moscow region.
Pear "Muscovite": description of the variety and photos
Pear trees varieties "Muscovite" have medium size and standard shape with a thick crown and medium foliage.
Young trees "Muscovites" have a funnel-shaped crownwhich as they grow older becomes conical.
Gray color tree trunk, but bark skeletal branches growing in an oblique-vertical direction, light gray.
Variety "Muscovite" has a good ability to form shoots. They have a curved shape, medium length and diameter.. On shoots in sufficient quantities there are small convex lentils. The internodes on the branches are of standard length, the cone-shaped buds are brown.
Small pear leaves have an oval shape. with notches on the edges. Leaf plate leathery, without pubescence and slightly curved in the center. Flowers pears simple cupped with a white whisk. From 5 to 7 flowers are collected in racemes. Fruits of a tree are formed on spears, fruit twigs, rings of different ages and annual shoots from lateral and apical buds.
Under the yellowish-green skin are seen subcutaneous points. Often the skin is covered with pronounced rustiness in the form of large spots. Cover blush is absent.
White fruit pulp juicy with a dense semi-oily structure and granulations around the heart. "Muscovite" has a very pleasant sour-sweet taste with a pronounced fragrant aroma. Tasting assessment pears "Muscovite" - 4.3 points, sugar content fruits— 9,5 %, but acidity — 0,48 %.
Photo varieties of pears "Muscovite":
Variety is wonderful stable and high yields even under adverse conditions. One tree can give up to 50 kg juicy and fragrant fruits. Pear fruit "Muscovite" starts on the 4thsometimes on 3rd year after landing. Harvest ripens by mid-September or a little earlier. It should be said that when ripe, fruits almost do not crumble.
Ripeness fruits can be identified by the appearance on the skin slight yellowing. For longer storage pIt is recommended to shoot the fruit until a sign of maturity appears.when the skin is still light green.
In the room fruits ripen during the week, becoming very juicy and tasty, after which it can be saved for about ten days. In the basement pears are stored without damage to consumer qualities from 3 to 4 weeks, and in a refrigerator at zero temperature - up to 3 months.
Variety has a very good endurance, not afraid of changes in temperature and gives stable yields in any weather. but winter hardiness "Muscovites" slightly above averagetherefore, in the middle latitudes of Russia, it needs winter warming.
Self-infertile variety "Muscovite" needs pollination. The best pollinator varieties for this pear: Lada, Elegant Efimova, Moscow Bergamot, Marble, Yakovlev Favorite.
Planting and care
Pear follows land in the fall in early October or spring late April-early May. When planting "Muscovites" should take care that pollinating varieties grew near it.
Pear requires a well-lit, flat and dry place. The more sun the fruits of the tree receive, the tastier and sweeter they become.
Plant does not like stagnant moisture in the soil. Groundwater the area should be at depth not less than 2.5 meters from the groundotherwise the pear cannot develop and will perish.
Pear trees prefer to grow on sandy-chernozem or loamy lands pH acidity from 5.6 to 6.0. Sandy soil is also good.but in this case need more care, as well as active and regular fertilization. Clay soils undesirable for pears. For planting in such land need a large landing pit with a suitable primer.
The landing pit must be prepared in advance, at least a couple of weeks before the intended landing. For planting seedlings in the spring pit is best prepared in the fall. Its optimal size - from 1 to 1.2 m in depth and around 80 cm in diameter.
When digging a hole top sod layer (about 30 cm) fold to one side, but the rest of the land is in another. Next, the pit is filled with fertile soil.
For its preparation, the removed horseback turf ground must be mixed with 3 buckets manure or vegetable humus, a couple of buckets of sand, a glass of superphosphate, 3 tablespoons of potassium sulfate and 1 kg of any organic matter. Next, fill the pit with improved earth and then pour in a solution of dolomite flour (400 g per 10 liters of water). Finally poured a couple buckets of water and 10-14 days or until the spring leaves a pit in this form.
How to prepare the landing pit will look at the video below:
Muscovite extremely unpretentious. It does not require abundant watering, or excessive preparation for the winter season. At the same time, proper care will help the tree to produce a bountiful harvest.
Muscovite has a pronounced shtamb and does not need a strong corona-forming pruning. The tree requires sanitization in autumn, at the end of September, during which all dry, diseased and damaged branches are removed. In the spring, pruning is only in discharging, that is, removing the branches leading to the thickening of the crown. It should be carried out in April before bud break. All operations must be done with a sharp sterile instrument, leaving no stumps on the tree and cutting branches into a “ring” (near the base). Wounds should be treated immediately with garden var or covered with 2-3 layers of oil paint.
The pear does not like both drought and excessive watering. Every time you moisten the soil, consider the current weather conditions and features of your site. A young tree of the first year of growth requires regular watering every 7–10 days in 10–15 l of water. For seedlings of 2–3 years, the frequency can be saved up to 1 time in 2–3 weeks, and the volume of water can be increased to 20 liters at a time. An adult pear tree needs about 4–6 waterings per year.
Especially carefully it is worth moistening the ground before flowering and after the fall of flowers - this affects the yield of the pear. The water rate for an adult tree is 35-50 liters. This volume can be divided into two parts: morning and evening. You should also not miss the autumn moisture-absorbing watering in October, as the lack of moisture can dry up the bark of the tree, which will negatively affect its frost resistance. The consumption rate is about 60 liters for every 1 m 2.
It is best of all to water a pear with a sprinkling method, spraying water with a special device according to the crown projection. But the usual methods are also suitable. To do this, dig 2–3 irrigation furrows 5–7 cm deep around the tree. The first irrigation groove should be 50–60 cm from the trunk, and the next one should have a step of 35–40 cm. Water should be infused into them, then loosened tree trunk and mulch the ground under the tree.
Fertilizers from the planting pit will feed the sapling for another 2–3 years. In the 4th year of growth, you need to start additional feeding plants. At the same time every year mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil: 30–40 g of saltpeter, 70–100 g of potassium salt and 300–500 g of superphosphate (in spring before flowering, or 2 times before and after flowering). Fertilizers are dissolved in water or sprinkled in a tree circle. The latter method requires cloudy, rainy weather. Beforehand it is necessary to dig the earth under a tree.
Once in 3 years the tree requires organic fertilizing. It is usually held in the autumn when digging. Under the adult tree you need to make 30-40 kg of compost or humus. You can replace them with a solution of chicken droppings. To do this, use 1 kg of litter and 3 liters of water. The mixture is allowed to infuse for 3-5 days and is introduced into the furrows 5–7 cm deep on two or four sides along the edge of the stem.
The Muscovite pear tolerates frost well, but the extra preparation will help the tree to come to life more easily in the spring, as well as relieve pests. Preparation of pears for winter is carried out as follows:
- It is necessary to dig a trunk circle, after clearing it from branches, weeds and fallen leaves.
- Clean the barrel of the pear with a metal brush to increase its frost resistance and remove possible pests.
- The soil near the tree is good to grind with sawdust or peat, laying a layer of 15–20 cm.
- The tree trunk and 1/3 of the skeletal branches of the pear should be whitened with a solution of lime, taking 2 kg of lime, 1 kg of powdered clay and 300 g of copper sulfate. For young trees, this mixture is diluted with 15-18 liters of water, and for adults use 10 liters.
- To insulate the trunk with the help of fir branches or burlap.
- At the first frost, you can freeze the ice under a tree by spilling the earth with a hose with water.
Features and growing conditions
Planting pear varieties Muscovite should be carried out in open places well lit by the sun. It does not impose special requirements on soils, but it develops best of all and bears fruit on fertile soils with a slightly acid or neutral reaction.
A place for planting pear seedlings must have good drainage. Moisture stagnation is very detrimental to pear trees.
When laying the landing pit, 3-4 buckets of well-rotted manure, 1-1.5 superphosphate, about 600 g of calcium chloride and 2.5-3 kg of lime are surely brought into it. In the first year after planting in the absence of rain, the seedlings must be watered. On one tree approximately 2-3 buckets of water are required.
Care for pears Muscovite in subsequent years of cultivation is in the spring and autumn application of organic fertilizers once every 2 years. For these purposes, you can use humus or peat at the rate of half a bucket per square meter. When making autumn, fertilizers of the phosphorus-potassium group are used.
Of the characteristics of growing Muscovites, it is also worth noting its self-infertility. Therefore, it is necessary to plant pollinators near it. Varieties of pollinators for pear Muscovite following:
Pests and diseases
Pear, like any other culture can be affected by various diseases or pests. The variety Muscovite is characterized by high resistance to scab and fruit rot. However, in some years, their outbreaks can still be observed. Also of the most common diseases of pear should note the following:
To combat these diseases, special chemicals are used - fungicides. For example, you can use "Skor", "Bordeaux mixture", "Chorus" and a number of others. For complete protection of trees, it is recommended to carry out at least 3 complex treatments.
All chemical products should be diluted and applied according to the attached instructions. If you exceed the recommended dosage, trees can get serious chemical burns.
Of the pests on pear trees, the most common are:
- pear moth,
- green aphid
- pear sucker
For the destruction of all the above pests are used insecticidal preparations. For example, Kinmiks, Iskra, Aktara. They should be applied according to the attached annotations.
Preventive measures play an important role in preventing the development of diseases and the appearance of pests. Of the required measures, it is especially worth noting the collection and destruction of the wormy tusk, the autumn cleaning of the branches and the trunk from the exfoliated bark, the collection and burning of fallen leaves.
As can be seen from the description and photo pear Muscovite is unpretentious steadily fruiting variety. Anyone can grow it on his plot, the main thing is to choose a suitable place for planting and carry out appropriate care behind the tree.