Most gardeners cultivate their land for practical purposes, so that in the plots there are mostly fruit-bearing garden trees. In such people, the Mahonah is holly, naturally, falls out of the list: they simply did not think about it. Those who care about aesthetics and create vegetable beauty, go to the other extreme. And this is forgivable. After all, they do not even suspect that the hollow-leaf mahony gives not only beautiful, but also delicious berries. In this article we will explain in detail what this little-known shrub is, why it is grown and how it is used.
Where did the magonia come from
This shrub occupies a huge area in the western United States. There it is found in forests from California to British Columbia.
The plant owes its name to an American with Irish roots ManMagon, who was an active gardener and acclimatized magonia to live in the east of the continent. The bush began to conquer Europe in the 19th century. At the end of the same century, it was introduced to Russia. Now we have the most popular plant in the area of Mineral Waters - there are planting it everywhere.
Mahonia in terms of botany
The shrub is relatively small - you will not see a specimen above the meter. It belongs to the family of barberries. It can form dense, impassable thickets, because the root system is prone to active growth and the formation of an abundance of offspring. Single-pinnate leaves consist of individual segments (from 5 to 9 in a “bundle”). They are quite large, grow up to 20 centimeters, and are very aesthetic: glossy, dark green on top, pale and dull on the bottom, on a reddish-brown petiole.
No less beautiful mahonia holly leaves blooms, forming a lush panicles of bright lemon-yellow color. Buds bloom since April. They bring fruits by the end of August. A bush can bear fruit from the age of three, only it needs a “pair”, because the plant is cross-pollinated.
The fruits of the Mahoniya-hollow-shaped forms an oval, oblong, about a centimeter in length, black and blue in color with a dense bluish bloom. On a bush, berries can, without losing taste and other interesting qualities, last up to five months. A very beautiful shrub in the midst of autumn: the leaves become rich purple and shaded by dark clusters of fruits.
Shrub in landscaping
Since in our area the Mahoniya holm is grown mainly for beauty, let us dwell on the peculiarities of its use in this regard. Its “seductiveness” is enhanced by the fact that it successfully resists smoke and gas pollution. Not only does it not wither itself, it also cleans the air. In cities and near roads, this is highly relevant.
The Mahonia is hollow-leafed is used for "tamping" of trees with bare trunk and higher bushes, the bottom of which does not look very attractive. Very good in group plantings, uncut hedges and rockeries. In the vivid field it revives and makes original bouquets and wreaths.
The most recommended in compositions with Magonia are Japanese quince, thuja, felt cherry, juniper, rhododendrons and low heather plants. From flowers - chrysanthemums, roses, bushes Dicenter. However, with other garden and ornamental shrubs and trees, it looks great.
Fruits: not only beautiful, but also tasty and healthy
The Mahonia Padubolian gives fruit, somewhat larger than the usual barberry. Taste they have a sweet-sour, give red juice. Harvest the whole clusters, from the stalks tear only if you plan to immediately put them into action. Most often, the fruits go to compotes, juices, wine, jam and mashed potatoes. You need to know how useful the Mahoniya is hollow. Its berries, in addition to sugars, contain a huge amount (up to 20 mg) of ascorbicles, pectins, organic acids and P-active substances. And the possibility of long storage simply sprinkled with sugar is especially valued. Even at the end of the season, the fruit can be consumed fresh.
Benefit for health
And this is not all that the Padubal mahonia can boast of. Berries, the application of which for gastronomic purposes is very attractive, is not the only thing that is tempting plant. Almost all of its parts have their value:
- the bark contains active compounds that successfully overcome skin diseases, including psoriasis that was considered invincible,
- an extract is prepared from the roots, which prevents free radicals, helps with heart, pulmonary and age-related diseases. They also make a healing tonic infusion,
- The leaves, in which the magoniya is decorated with holly leaves, are the raw material for antibacterial and antiparasitic drugs.
As you can see, the bush is not only beautiful, but also brings great benefits.
How and where to plant
If you are already attracted to the Mahonia of the hollow, planting and caring for her should be well thought out. In the first place - the placement of the bush. For him, the quality of the soil is not very important, even clay, heavy will do. However, it is desirable that the landing of a holm holonia magonia is disposable - it moves heavily from one place to another. Therefore, experienced gardeners recommend purchasing it in a container, with closed roots, and when relocating to keep stuck earthy lump in the greatest possible amount. The purpose with which the Mahonia was hollow is also very important.
Planting and care depends on whether it should only decorate the site, or whether you intend to use it as a fruit tree. That is, when creating a hedge, a brighter place would suit her better - then the bushes grow denser. If you are interested in the harvest, you will have to pick up an unencumbered, shaded place for the magonia and plant the bushes at a distance from each other.
Care - at least!
What else is good is the holly-headed Mahoniya - caring for her is simple and does not require much effort. To loosen the land it is necessary only in extremely dry weeks, and if the soil is mulched, then this is too much. Regular watering is also not required, although with steady rainless during the flowering period, it is sometimes better to give the bushes a “drink”.
In late April, when the buds are tied, and in early July, when ovaries are formed, magonia should be fed with NPK mixed with liquid organic matter. The only thing you need to pay attention to is that the lighting is not too bright in the area where it grows. Spring sun can burn the leaves. If it turned out that the chosen place is not very successful from this point of view, the plant will have to be shaded for some time. However, by the summer it adapts and will not need such care.
The middle band is sufficiently benevolent to these bushes. Under its conditions, the holly-headed mahony does not need pre-winter preparation, especially if there is a sufficient layer of snow. If frost is not uncommon in your region (minus 30 and below), and the rainfall is not too lucky, it is better to cover the bushes with spruce late in the autumn. This is especially important for young magonies. Mature plants, already accustomed to the climate, can simply be tucked away with peat or dry straw.
Cropping and crown formation
You have to cut your hair in three cases:
- if the bush is too tall and does not fit into the overall composition,
- if the bottom of the bush is bare and looks unattractive. In this case, pruning again slows down growth, but stimulates the formation of lateral shoots at the bottom of the magonia,
- if the plant for some reason grows one-sidedly.
This is done in April. Cut only those shoots that lack flower buds. Otherwise, your Mahoniya holly-leaved this year will not make you happy with flowering. Cutting everything is possible only if the bush is completely too deformed, or it needs rejuvenation.
What is sick plant
Fortunately, the hollywood Mahonia is not affected by most garden pests. There are cases of defeat only two diseases.
- Rust. Signs are found in the spring, when povylazili leaves. Bottom on them are clearly visible yellow-brown speckles that look like tubercles. If you carefully pick all these leaves, further spread will be stopped. Otherwise, you have to resort to chemistry, and before the flowering.
- Powdery mildew. False magony holly leaves not sick. The disease looks like a whitish bloom on both sides of the leaf and on the petioles. It affects both flowers and fruits. Salvation - only in chemicals.
We multiply the plantation
Over time, when you completely love the Mahonia Padubolithic, its reproduction will become simply necessary - at least to create a beautiful hedge. The number of bushes can be increased in several ways.
- Seeds (if you have not cut the flower buds and received the harvest). You can do it right away, just finish the collection. You can stratify the seed for three months and apply it in early spring (stratification temperature + 5).
- Layering and root scions. This is the spring method. By the spirits, by the way, the bush itself spreads perfectly over the site.
- The most successful way for your mahonia to settle down is hollow - reproduction by cuttings. For them are selected young, strong shoots, in which the leaves are fully formed and not damaged. When harvesting the cutting, the cut from the top should be as close as possible to the kidney, and from the bottom - at least 2.5, maximum four centimeters from it. The bottom must be processed by growth stimulants. The prepared petiole is placed in the peat substrate. Kidney must be at ground level. After the “seedling” is fixed, the substrate is lightly, carefully tamped and spilled with a fungicide - in order to avoid infections.
Summing up, we can say that the Mahoniya is hollow-leafy - unpretentious, very beautiful and surprisingly useful plant. In addition, the only evergreen, easily surviving in our conditions.
The most spectacular varieties of holonia mahonia
These varieties are most suitable for our climatic zone.
Apollo - widespread variety of Magonia. It grows slowly, at the age of 10 years does not exceed 0.6 m. The shoots are red, prickly, strongly drooping with age. Blooms profusely in a bright orange-yellow color from April to May. It is undemanding to soils, it does not tolerate long-lasting droughts, winters without shelter. Suitable for sunny and semi-shady places, grows well in the shade. Often used as a groundcover.
Smaragt - the bush is distinguished by solid straight shoots with a height of not more than 0.7 m. The foliage is dark green. It blooms in May, the inflorescences are yellow. Blue-black berries with a waxy coating.
Separately, it should be noted a little-known type of creeping Magonia Mahonia repens (Lindl.) - it differs from padubal mahonia by the height of a bush not more than 0.5 m. It grows slowly, it blooms from 6 years twice a year, in May and September. Abundant fruits from 8 years. Frost-resistant
Apollo mahonia in hedge
mahonia creeping repens
Popular in other countries, the species and varieties of holly-mahony Magonia do not tolerate our winters, it is risky to use them in gardening. These are Mayhan Strain, Orange Flame, King’s Ransom, Golden Abundance, Mosier.
Mahonia is a hollow-leafed, unpretentious plant, even for a beginner gardener it will be easy to grow it on your own plot, because it:
● undemanding to soil acidity, feels equally good on fertile, sandy and heavy clay soils,
● suitable for sunny and shady corners of the garden,
● resistant to drought and urban air pollution
● it does not freeze without shelter, withstands cold temperatures up to - 28 ° С,
● freely tolerated transplant at any age.
Landing. The best planting time is early spring or late autumn, and plants grown in a container can be planted painlessly throughout the season.
Mahonia is a cross-pollinated plant, therefore for abundant fruiting it is necessary to have at least 2 shrubs on the site.
The landing pit should be 1.5–2 times larger than a container or root coma. To it is added a soil mixture consisting of an equal amount of soil, sand and peat, as well as a mineral fertilizer at the rate of 5 g per 1 liter of the mixture. The transitional soil layer created in this way accelerates the development of the root system. If planting is carried out in a heavy clay soil, it is necessary to create a drainage of at least 15 cm. Spread the plant thoroughly, multiply the trunk circle. In the case of transplanting plants with a bare root or with a clod of earth, any stimulator of root formation should be added to the water: Radifarm, Kornevin, Heterauxin.
Mahonia is a cross-pollinated plant, therefore for abundant fruiting it is necessary to have at least 2 shrubs on the site.
Care. In the first year after planting, when the root system has not yet fully entrenched in the ground and cannot independently produce water, the plant should be watered at least 1-2 times a week. Adult bushes can be watered 1 time in 2 weeks.
For greater decorativeness, the magonium in the hollow spring can be fed with complex fertilizers or with a nitroammofoska at the rate of 30–40 g / m2. Autumnal potash-phosphorus dressings contribute to abundant spring flowering and increase the frost resistance of the plant.
Crop. Timely haircut guarantees the development of a thick healthy crown, lush flowering and abundant fruiting bush. Pruning is done immediately after flowering: in the first year of planting - before the first whorl of leaves, 10–20 cm above ground level, in subsequent years by 1-2 mutters above the previous one. Such a formation will allow you to get a beautiful branched plant.
Corrective pruning of an adult plant is carried out as necessary at the end of spring, removing thin and weak shoots near the ground.
When rejuvenating haircut strong shoots shorten to 30-60 cm, stimulating new shoot formation. Pruning is carried out in late spring, avoiding the danger of damage to young shoots by spring frosts. Please note - mahonia blooms on the shoots of last year!
Reproduction. The Mahonia Padubolya is propagated by seeds, layering, cuttings and, less frequently, by root suckers.
- Seeds, obtained from freshly harvested berries, should be sown in the fall in the prepared ridges - thus, they will undergo a natural stratification and will please with amicable shoots in the spring.
- For grafting July-August is suitable, only young healthy shoots with well-shaped leaves are used. Cuttings are cut so that the top even cut is located directly above the upper kidney, and the lower, oblique, fell by 2–3 cm from the last bud. Root-shaped billets are placed in a neutral peat substrate so that the upper kidney is at ground level and transferred to a mini-hothouse. For root germination, it is necessary to keep the substrate moist, periodically treating it with fungicides. In 1.5–2 months young saplings can be transplanted into individual containers for further growth.
- Reproduction by layering spend spring. To do this, adult shoots bend down to the ground, pre-stripping the bark in several places to stimulate rooting, fix it with studs and cover it with earth. Cuttings should be watered abundantly in the fall to get a full seedling.
The Mahonia Padubolidae does not give abundant root shoots, but in old bushes you can sometimes find an “extra” offspring. It is carefully separated from the mother liquor and transplanted into a previously prepared hole.
Description of the hollow-leaf magonia
Any gardener who is familiar with this type of plant cannot refuse to plant it on his plot. At the beginning of May, delicate yellow flowers, similar to tassels, bloom and keep their former appearance for about a month - approximately until June.
During flowering, lush flowers exude a pleasant, unobtrusive fragrance that can charm anyone. If the autumn was warm enough and moderately wet, the flowers can be happy until October.Mahonia hollow leaves in autumn
A beautiful plant that periodically changes the color of its leaves attracts itself again and again. It is worth noting that in spring only blooming strong leaves have a pinkish tint.
Later, the sun and rain contribute to the repainting of foliage in green, and golden autumn colors them in a bronze tint. During the onset of the first frost, the plant does not lose its surprising properties: its leaves turn purple.Mahonia padubolistnaya growing along the road
Such a variety of color palette attracts every gardener. A noble-looking plant that goes well with other flowers and shrubs. Also, a group of hollow-leafed magonies can be an excellent background for country houses or participate in the role of a border plant due to its short stature.
Так как магония имеет свойство в процессе роста образовывать заросли, ее можно использовать для заполнения пустых участков и подчеркнуть зелень близлежащих растений. Для того, чтобы оценить восхитительный внешний вид магонии, рекомендуем ознакомиться с приведенными фото магонии падуболистной.Ягоды магонии падуболистной
A mahonia can only bloom in a duet with another specimen, otherwise the fruits participating in the breeding process will not form. Under these conditions, your plant will be enriched with oval-shaped fruits about 10 mm in length.
Berries ripen around August, their dark blue color indicates their ripeness. Fruits contain a large number of seeds and have a sweet-sour taste. Do not be afraid to be late with the harvest: the berries do not lose beneficial vitamins and trace elements in the process of maturation.
The specific taste of the fruit can be blunt, if you leave them in the refrigerator for several days. In the process of growth in one season, mahonia can give about two kilograms of crop.
As you can see, Mahonia holm-like in landscape design plays an important role, but we should not forget about the characteristics of Magonia fruits.Fruits of hollywood Magonia
Summer residents of the North American continent use berries as an ingredient for wine and compotes, as they tend to color the drink in a bright color. In addition, the fruit is used for the manufacture of medicines, including added to the medicine for psoriasis. These points are already pushing summer residents to place this wonderful plant on their site.
Characteristics of Magonia
In the genus of shrubs accounted for five dozen species, but below we give descriptions of some species of Padubolithias:
Mahonia the hollow compact
- Compact - accommodates yellow flowers and fruits that can reach more than a centimeter in length. The bush reaches 70 cm in length.
- Mayhan Strain - The bush is more than a meter long and has yellowish flowers and large berries. The leaves of this variety have a green color, changing to red with the arrival of autumn,
- Emerald differs in magnificent yellow inflorescences in a duet with black berries. At the beginning of autumn, the leaves have a purple color with a tint of bronze, and in summer, shiny leaves acquire an emerald shade. Shrub berries of this variety are used in the manufacture of wines - in this case, the choice of this variety for planting Padonia leaves will be of practical use.
- Orange flame - variety, reaching one and a half meters in length. In the warm season, the leaves have the usual green color, and become scarlet in the autumn. The flowers are yellow and the berries are blue.
- Atropurpurea - The view with the ornate name boasts a purple leaf color in early spring and autumn. The fruits are black in color, and the length of the shrub ranges from 50 to 60 cm.
Planting of holonwood mahonia
Before proceeding to the planting stage of a shrub, it is necessary to clearly define its location on the site. In case you want to create a living fence out of Magonia, place the plants no more than a meter apart. In this case, the bushes will fit snugly to each other.Separate bush of Magonia holly
If you want to arrange the shrubs one by one, the distance of about two meters will be quite enough: the formed bushes will not close together.
Of course, the care of the holly hollanda magonia does not cause difficulties, however, its landing should take into account the following nuances. Since the bush’s natural habitat is forest, its placement on shady areas protected from the wind will be most successful. Scorching sun will burn the leaves and slow down their growth.
The plant is not demanding to the soil, so any soil can be used for growing the holonia-holonia mahonia. Once you have decided on the location of the Magonia, engage in the ground.Preparing for landing
Dig a hole no more than fifty centimeters deep and adjust the shrub so that the root of the root is level with the soil. After the roots are covered with soil, water the plant generously.
By the way, the soil does not require additional compaction - it will slow down the growth of the shrub. The transplant process must occur in the summer or spring.
Care and cultivation of holly-shaped Magonia is made difficult in the autumn, since the process of rooting in the soil becomes much more complicated.
Rules for the care of Magonia holly
The plant is not fastidious, the cultivation of padubal mahonia implies frequent watering of the plant and occasional top-dressings from mineral substances. So, the bush will not suffer from drying out and get all the necessary elements for normal growth.
However, there are several other subtleties to care:
- The first fertilization may take place at the beginning of the third month of spring, before flowering begins,
- Use fertilizer in the normal range: no more than one hundred grams per m²,
- Fungi and other microorganisms can not seriously harm the shrub,
- The best solution would be planting a hollow-leaf magonia in dark places, near an object. For this suitable cottage building or trees,
- Water the plant regularly during heat and drought,
- The plant is resistant to transplants: it can be done at any time of the year and the age of the plant. However, autumn is poorly suited for this process, since in order to adapt to a new place, the magonia will need a lot of strength,
- In the cold season, a dense snow blanket will reliably protect the shrub from frost. In areas not characterized by a large amount of winter precipitation, you will need shelter of bushes from the cold,
- If you want to grow sub-leaf magonia in such a way that it serves as a living shrub, you do not need to trim the bush, as the distance between the bushes will increase.
However, in the fall, after the completion of flowering of Magonia, pruning of branches may be necessary, but you should not do it too often: the twigs grow back slowly enough
Let's talk more about watering. Watering is a major part of Magonia care, as it requires a lot of water. It is enough to water a plant with 8-10 liters of pure water 2-3 times a month. During the drought period, the watering frequency can be increased up to four times,
The reproduction and planting of the padubal mahonia is possible in the following ways:
- Spread the plant with cuttings,
- Seed use,
- Reproduction using layering,
- Trimming branches.
We describe further the planting algorithms in more detail by different methods.
The cutting method is used by many gardeners to breed Magonia. It requires minimal effort and time. Special prikormki will help to speed up the process of growth of the cutting, for which you can choose both decomposed organic materials and special mixtures, the list of which is given below.
Preparation of cuttings of holonia mahonia
- Prepare good shoots with fresh leaves. Stems should be slanting cut at the bottom, and at the top - straight.
- Solutions that stimulate root growth can be applied to the lower oblique cut of the cutting. This will significantly accelerate the development of future shrubs.
- After the solution is applied, immerse the cutting in the ground so that the oblique cut is in contact with it.
- Cover the pit with soil, tamp it well and pour it with a special solution that protects the plant from diseases.
- Upon completion of irrigation, cover the bush with a transparent plastic bottle. Further, the care and cultivation of the holmbalon magonia cannot be carried out effectively without constant watering.
Reproduction of Magonia with the help of seeds is not an easy task, requiring attention and remarkable patience, since the germination of a seedling can take more than one year.
However, in case you want to challenge yourself and your gardening skills, pay attention to the following algorithm:
- After the onset of frost is necessary to pick berries from the bush.
- Put the washed seeds on a damp cloth made of cloth and place in a tightly closed plastic container.
- After the emergence of sprouts, put them in a pot with well-saturated soil, sprinkle it on top with soil. Do not let it dry out.
- Plant growth from seeds can last up to two years or earlier - this depends on the thoroughness of caring for Magonia hollow leaves.
This method does not imply a lot of effort and time. In addition, it is often used for reproduction in the natural environment of magonias.
- Bend the shoots as close as possible to the soil and fill them with soil so that the upper part protrudes from the ground.
- The escape under the soil needs to be fixed with the help of a wire - the root will be formed easier.
- Water the earth.
- In the fall, a seedling is formed from the seedlings to be separated from the mother bush. After a careful separation of the seedling, you can plant it in fertilized soil, the algorithm of actions is given above.
Reproduction using branches
It is possible to propagate this plant in a very simple way - for it we need only a good twig, a container of water and patience.
Here is the procedure:
- Before frost, cut the twigs and place them in a vase of water.
- After the branch has taken root, place it in the ground.
- Caring for holly-leaved Magonia in the pot as well as for houseplants: water regularly and provide good lighting.
- About a year later, the seedling will be ready for planting in open space.
Mahonia is hollow in landscape design: application
This plant can complement the composition of other plants and become a wonderful background for them, emphasizing the curves and saturation of shades of flowers.
In addition, this plant is suitable for creating stunning landscapes in a duet with stones, creating hedges, borders, vegetation panels on the hillside.
According to the above description of hollow-leaf magonia, it is ideal for any flowers, trees and country houses.
It can be planted alone - in this case, a bush with sparkling yellow flowers against the background of purple or green leaves will attract the main attention.
In addition, the location of shrubs close to each other ensures the creation of a beautiful and fertile hedge.
The best neighbors for Magonia can be bulbous plants, roses, camellias and others. In the case of a combination of these flowers with a shrub, he will emphasize their sophistication and brightness of color.
Feeding for Magonia: what you need to know?
Despite the fact that the care and cultivation of padubal mahonia does not take a lot of money and time, it is necessary to periodically enrich the soil with top dressing so that it does not become depleted.
This should be done after the end of the winter and until July, but do not repeat the procedure more than once a month: in this case, feeding will not improve, but on the contrary - will spoil the condition of the soil.
You can use decomposed organic matter up to 50 mm thick as a top dressing. It is better to do this in the spring: in this case, the plant will gain strength and will be able to give the gardener a wonderful harvest and please with lush, bright inflorescences.
In addition to the collected organic matter, you can use any other feeds that are freely available.
Next, we list a list of the most acquired substances for soil fertilization:
- «Clear sheet»Sold in the form of crystals, which are used for spraying the leaves and dressings of the root part of the bush. This substance contributes to the strengthening of the root system, leaflets, to increase the duration and pomp of flowering. In addition, the shoots of the bush are much stronger.
- «BONA FORTE"Is a solution that contains succinic acid and other organometallic kits. It helps flowers to grow longer, and besides, it increases the splendor of inflorescences. The substance improves the growth of magonia and makes the color of the leaves more saturated and catchy.
- «Fasasco"- powder, which is used simultaneously and as usual fertilizer, and as a top dressing during vegetative reproduction. It enriches the soil with useful microelements, strengthens the shrub's immunity and helps it resist aggressive environmental factors, such as drought, cold, diseases and harmful microorganisms.
- «Gumi-omi"Is a drug implying a mixture of organic. "Gumi-Omi" strengthens the immunity of the shrub, increases its ability to resist harmful microorganisms and diseases, accelerates the growth of branches and the bush itself in length.
- «Alliance"- a liquid mixture, which is used during irrigation and irrigation of the soil. The mixture helps to increase the brightness of the inflorescences, their splendor and increases the flowering time. Thanks to the solution, the shrub grows much faster. The leaves grow symmetrically and have a bright color.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the unpopularity of the hollow-leafed magonia among domestic gardeners is not justified. This plant looks great both alone and in duet with other members of its type.
The combination of shrubs with other plants, stones and other decorative elements of the landscape ensures the creation of a wonderful atmosphere at your summer cottage.
We must not forget about the practical benefits of the berries that give Magonia: their sweet-sour taste resembles barberry, and after freezing the soft fruits will become even more tasty.
Try to add berries to the compote or wine - they will not only give the drink a more intense color, but also add a new, slightly tangible, but delicious taste.
One of the advantages is the simplicity in the care and cultivation of the holmoly Magonia. A plant that does not require constant attention will become not just a background, but an ornament to your summer cottage. These tips will help you grow a strong, attractive and prolific plant.