Plum is a fruit tree, the fruits of which ripen in temperate latitudes of the country. Plum breakfast began once the morning of the English Queen Elizabeth II, heard about the amazing healing properties of this fruit. Some prefer to call plum berry. And yet the fruit or berry is a plum?
Popular encyclopedias and dictionaries interpret to us that it is customary to call a fruit tree a plum, the fruits of which are fruits, respectively. According to botany, the fruit is the fruit of the plant, and the berries are called the multi-seeded fruit with thin skin and juicy pulp. Berries are fruits.
Therefore, the plum is not a berry, because it has one bone, but since the plum is a fruit of a tree, it is a fruit. And subdivided into Kostyankovidnye fruits - drupe.
In the people it is considered to be fruit - large, juicy, sweet fruits, and berries are a delicacy of a small size. Consequently, in terms of culinary classification, the plum can be called a berry.
Plum - berry or fruit?
Among the fruit trees plum occupy an honorable place, because since ancient times, people grow it for the sake of harvest. Prepare from plum, blackthorn, cherry plum sweet dishes, sauces and spirits. Plum is a tree or shrub in height from 1 to 6 m. All groups of varieties and wild species are high-yielding plants.
The fruit - odnosostochkovaya drupe - is formed on the site of the flower after fertilization. Until maturation, the pericarp remains solid for a time, colored green. As nutrients accumulate, the fruit becomes more juicy, and inside it, in a special nest, a solid bone with a seed is formed.
Is plum related to trees or shrubs?
In appearance, plants can be attributed to different life forms. The main of them are the following groups: trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, vines. Life forms are a kind of adaptation to the conditions of existence.
After we have easily understood the problem outlined above — the plum is a berry or a fruit — it will be more difficult to answer the question of life form. In appearance, the plants belonging to the genus Plum, are low trees and shrubs. The most common type - home garden plum. In the wild, the tree is found in the Caucasus.
A variety of species of the subgenus Prunus
Still in the woods, on beams and ravines, there are wild plums, but most of the species belonging to this subgrowth have long been cultivated. They give rich yields of medium and large fruits of different colors with a characteristic flat bone inside. Their length usually exceeds the thickness by 1.5 times, the diameter - from 1–3 cm. New varieties have been developed, giving large fruits up to 8 cm in size, sweet in taste or sourish. Common species in Eurasia:
- Home garden - the usual form for central Russia.
- Thorny, thorns, blackthorn - a small, very thorny shrub with blue fruits.
- Splayed, cherry plum - a tree that reaches a height of 8 m. In the wild form is found in the Caucasus and Central Asia.
- Ussuriyskaya - wildly lives in Primorye and is cultivated for the sake of fruits in Eastern Siberia.
- Chinese - grown in China, Japan, Korea. Fruits are sweet and sour, are widely used in cooking and winemaking.
- Pissardi - decorative tree with beautiful pink petals and dark red foliage. Used in landscape design.
At the sight of a blackthorn bush, bewilderment arises: is it really a drain? Berry or fruit - its dark blue small fruit? Cherry plum also astonishes with its fruiting. Although this tree looks like a plum tree, the color of its rich harvest is unusual - red and yellow (less often purple and blue fruits are found).
Useful qualities of plums
People use the fruits of wild and cultivated plants for food, for processing into juices, jams, jams, liqueurs, as a filling for baking, as a medicinal raw material. Home plum has long been grown for juicy stone farms with a bluish bloom. Homemade plum fruits contain:
- carbohydrates (fructose, glucose),
- vitamins C, A, P, group B,
- organic acids
- trace elements
Preparations from the pulp of fruits and plum seeds are used in folk and official medicine. Prunes are used in dietary, confectionery production. Plum blooms early and abundantly, even before the leaves fully bloom. Trees and shrubs look very elegant, valued in landscape design.
Traditionally, in the XX century, two groups of varieties were distinguished as part of the species - Hungarian and Renclody. The first are represented by trees and shrubs with blue-violet rounded or elongated fruits. Renklodies often have spherical greenish fruits. Now the main direction is the breeding of stunted subspecies, interspecific crossing and obtaining hybrids, for example, plums and apricots.
Types of fruits
In botany it is customary to call the fruit the part of a plant that was formed after the pollination of a flower. In the structure of the fetus distinguish the outer part (pericarp) and internal (seed). There is a typology of fruit on the density of the pericarp, the number and type of seeds. Depending on the structure of the fruit it belongs to the berries or fruits.
Fruits and berries are characterized by a common feature - the presence of juicy pulp, and their main difference in the number of seeds: fruit, as a rule, has one seed, and berries have several. However, the division of the fruit part of the plant into fruits and berries is a folk, not scientific.
In terms of botanySuch varieties of juicy nonopening fruits are distinguished:
In the stone house clearly distinguishable - the flesh, skin and solid bone. The berry is dominated by juicy flesh. The skin is thin, almost imperceptible. There are many small seeds inside. Based on these signs, you can confidently attribute the fruit of the plum to the stone. Therefore, it is not a berry, but a fruit.
Ripe plum has a skin and flesh of purple, red, gray, dark blue or yellow. The bone is elongated, oblate. The diameter of the fruit is on average 1–3 cm, maximum up to 8 cm. The pulp has a sweet-sour taste. According to the form of the drupes, there are 2 types - renclod (round) and Hungarian (elongated).
Noticeable differences in the color and appearance of the fruit are due to the variety of fruit tree varieties.
Plum is a member of the Rosaceae family. This is a deciduous tree of medium size. In height, it grows to 15 meters. Leaves are located on short petioles.. Oval-shaped sheet plate with a finely toothed edge. The size of the sheet plate: length from 4 to 10 cm, width from 2 to 5 cm.
The flowering period is short. White or pink flowers with 5 petals have a diameter of 1.5–2 cm. The tree begins to bear fruit, on average, by 3-5 years of life. In late-ripening varieties, the fruits are tied to the 6–7 year of growth. The total lifespan of a tree is 25 years. Fruit picking can be done for 10–15 years.
Currently breeders withdrawn over 250 varieties of plant are cultivated, including diploid forms. Diploid varieties have improved performance - endurance, yield. They all come from the wild plum, which is still growing in nature. Homeland plants are not exactly established. The range of its distribution is quite extensive from the ranges of the Caucasus Mountains to the Adriatic coast from east to west and from the Balkan Peninsula to Asia Minor from north to south.
The fruits of home plums are distinguished by a rich chemical composition, which differs depending on the growing conditions of the plant, varietal affiliation, degree of maturity, etc. Plums contain:
- carbohydrates (glucose, fructose),
- vitamins (C, A, P, B),
- organic acids
- trace elements
Organic acids are dominated by malic and citric. In minimal quantities, oxalic, quinic, amber, salicylic are present. Fruits have an almost equal content of glucose and sucrose, fructose is noticeably less. In the process of ripening of some plant species, the level of sucrose increases, the fruits become sweeter in taste.
Plum can not boast the presence of vitamin C. It is practically not in the drupes. But provitamin A or carotene is rich, above all, the fruit is yellow. Also, the plant has a significant content of vitamin E. According to this indicator plum exceeds many garden crops - cherries, cherries, pears.
Of the minerals in the fruits are potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper, iodine and others. From the hard shell of the stone, you can get 42% fatty oil, similar in properties to almond.
Culturally, people began to use the fruit tree more than 2 thousand years ago. Homeland plum - Asia Minor. It is believed that the ordinary plum was the result of the interbreeding of cherry plum and wild turn. In Russia, a tree was planted from the middle of the XVII century. The first orchards were laid on the orders of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. The most popular fruits are plums in the British Isles. This is the favorite fruit of the monarch, which is served daily to the royal table.
Fresh and Dried Fruit have found wide application in cooking, cosmetology, traditional medicine. Of them are preparing a variety of jams, jam, jam. Make useful juice, make compotes. In the liqueur-vodka industry produce tinctures, liqueurs. The pride of the Balkan peoples is plum brandy - plum brandy. She is called the "queen of alcoholic beverages."
Traditional Georgian Sauce tkemali is made from sour plums with the addition of garlic and greens. Wemboshi marinated plums (wemboshi) are widely used in Japanese cuisine.
The flesh and freshly squeezed plum juice are well established in cosmetology. They are used as nutritional masks and ointments for all skin types. Useful substances contained in the flesh of the fruit, contribute to smoothing wrinkles, increase the elasticity of the skin.
The fruits of plums have a large range of valuable therapeutic qualities. Plum juice with pulp and prunes have long been known as laxatives that improve intestinal motility. Dried drupes have a diuretic effect., remove cholesterol from the body. Organic acids contained in the fruits of the plant, help in the treatment of gastritis with low acidity.
The use of plums is recommended to normalize blood pressure, improve metabolism, strengthen the immune system. Plums help to saturate the blood with iron in anemia.
Despite the many useful qualities, in some cases it is necessary to limit the use of plums or even abandon them. They are contraindicated in diabetes, gastritis with high acidity, gout, obesity. It is necessary to monitor the dosed intake of fruits by young children. Because a large amount of eaten plums can cause bloating and diarrhea.
However, in most cases, the tasty juicy fruits of the plum tree are beneficial and enjoyable. In this case, the consumer is not so important, what actually is a berry or fruit plum.
The use of plums and its benefits
Calorie plum equal to 42 kcal per 100 grams. The fruits of home plums contain:
- Vitamins A, C and E,
- Magnesium and potassium,
- Trace elements
Plums are widely used in cooking. Used as a filling for baking, for making jams, preserves, liqueurs are also made, used in various diets.
The use of plums in medicine:
- Prunes and juices with pulp are used as a laxative for constipation,
- Dried plum helps to eliminate cholesterol from the body,
- It has a diuretic effect, removes salt from the body,
- To prevent the development of blood clots in the vessels, brew infusion of plum leaves,
- Plum has wound-healing properties, in this case, use lotions from her decoction,
- Used to strengthen the immune system for colds,
- Plum contains organic acids that help with gastritis with low acidity of the stomach,
- Plum fruits improve the metabolism of the body,
- Also recommended for high blood pressure
- Due to the fact that the plum is rich in iron, it is used for anemia.
Plum # 8212, is it a berry or is it a fruit?
The genus Plum contains many subgenera, such as: Prunus, Almond, Cherry, Apricot, Peach and others. But the most common representative of this genus is the subgenus Plum - these are fruit bearing shrubs and trees, which number more than 30 species.
Is plum a fruit or a berry in reality?
If you are interested in a question related to whether a plum is a fruit or a berry, then you can definitely say that the first option is absolutely correct. Therefore, if you hear that someone calls a plum a berry, boldly defend the opposite position.
So, if you want a plum tree to appear at your summer cottage, you need to prepare for its cultivation. At once we will say that the appearance of the first juicy fruits will have to wait 3-4 years. But the next 10 years will be the most fruitful for you.
Varieties of plums
Before you decide to buy a sapling of plum tree, it is advisable to get acquainted with information about the varieties of plums. After all, plums are of early, middle and late ripening periods, and each of them, in turn, has many varieties. In addition, there are varieties of plums, bred specifically for central Russia, resistant to severe frosts and pests. The most common varieties of the early ripening period are as follows:
- Morning. Fruits are oval, large, yellow-greenish color, weighing about 30 g,
- Record. Fruits are oval-elongated, large, blue-violet color, weighing about 27-30 g. According to its taste, it is one of the best varieties of plums.
The most well-known varieties of plums of average ripening period include
- Blue gift. Fruits are oval, medium size, dark purple, weighing 14-17g,
- Sukhanovskaya. Fruits are round, medium, reddish-purple, weighing about 20 g.
Plum trees of a late variety of ripening in the gardens are represented by such varieties as:
- Renklod Tambov. The fruits are round, medium size, purple, weighing about 18 g. The fruits are quite resistant to rot, they store for about 75 days at temperatures up to +5 degrees,
- Memory Timiryazev. Fruits are egg-shaped, average size, yellow-reddish, weighing about 20 g.
Plum, varieties of which are listed above, has a high winter hardiness. Therefore, they need to be planted in the cold regions of our country. If the climate is warmer and more favorable, then you can give preference to the Volga beauty, Vengerke Moscow or Eurasia-21.
Basic plum care
The most important factor in the development of plum is the formation of the crown. They begin pruning at a daily temperature not lower than -3 degrees and continue until sap flow begins. It consists of trimming shortening and thinning. The wood of plum trees is fragile and soft, so during the formation of the crown, the main (skeletal) branches are chosen with a large inclination and at a considerable distance from each other.
Annual shoots are shortened in order to awaken the buds to grow and weaken side shoots. Thin out the crown in order to access the light to the inside of the crown and to remove the crossed branches.
Fertilizing the plums with organic fertilizers is done once every 2 years during the autumn digging of the soil around the tree. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied annually in early spring, and potash and phosphate fertilizers - in the fall.
Young plum trees need watering every 10 days. Adult fruiting trees are watered during flowering, enhanced growth of shoots and 2 weeks before fruit ripens. The latter watering supplies the plum fruits with the moisture necessary for their juiciness and enhancement of taste.
If we recall the main beneficial properties of plums, then we can say that the so-called anticyanins, which fight the formation of malignant cancer cells, are included in the composition. Plums are useful for kidney disease, and the presence of riboflavin in the fruit helps to improve protein metabolism in the body and strengthen the nervous system. The fruits contain iodine, iron, potassium and manganese, vitamins A, C, B1, E and other useful substances that are so necessary for our body.
What is a plum - berry or fruit?
Plum has the characteristics of berries, and yet we all know it as an extremely tasty and healthy fruit. And is it a fruit or a berry? An unequivocal answer is impossible to give, so scientists today argue about plum, putting forward diametrically opposed theories.
Plum - a fruit plant belonging to the family of Pink. This tree is found everywhere today. It is known that plum is a natural hybrid of thorns and cherry plums. And the plant itself has signs of both classic fruit and berries. This led to certain difficulties in classification. Many gardeners and gardeners do not know for sure whether a berry or fruit is plum. That is what we will discuss in this article.
The problem with the determination is that today there are undersized varieties of this tree, which can be up to one and a half meters high. It is not surprising that many gardeners consider such plums as shrubs, and as it is known, the fruits of the shrubs are berries. From here there is a confusion in concepts.And yet, for the proper determination, it is necessary to consider wild-growing, pure varieties, which will make it possible to draw the right conclusion.
First of all, consider what is considered to be under the fruit. It is an edible juicy fruit of a bush or tree. Based on the definition, it can be concluded that even shrub species of plums are fruits.
Fruit forms at the site of a fertilized flower, which after pollination accumulates nutrients, becomes juicy and edible. Inside contains one or more seeds, which, under natural conditions, after maturation fall to the ground and, germinating, give birth to a new plant.
The fruits of plums contain one stone, while the berries belong to the category of multi-seeded fruits. Already by this very attribute, by definition, plums are considered to be berries. According to biological scientific definitions, there are certain differences between berries and fruits. However, in everyday life usually do not make differences. Therefore, it would not be a mistake if this plant is related to the berries. Yet even berries are, in fact, the fruits of a tree or shrub. The difference is only in the number of seed-seeds.
Plum - berry
Where did this scientifically incorrect definition come from, what is a plum fruit? Blame-growing hybrids that grow with shrubs are small-sized fruits. Not surprisingly, many gardeners gardeners do not distinguish between classic shrubs, the fruits of which belong to the berries. From here there is a certain confusion in concepts.
In the past, did not think about scientific terms, did not distinguish between fruits and vegetables. Only in the 19th and 20th centuries, with the development of trade and agriculture, there was a need for the most accurate classification of all crops.
For some time, plums fell into the category of berries, but scientific studies conducted by experts in the early 20th century, allowed us to assert with maximum accuracy that this plant is a fruit tree. Therefore, it is fundamentally wrong to take it as a berry.
Plum - Fruit
The plum tree is a stone fruit, and forms single-seeded fruits with one seed inside the hard stone. According to the scientific definition of plum - fruit. It has one seed, whereas the berries mostly have a multi-seeded fruit. In this plant, the fruit is not part of the stem, but grows on a thin stem, which subsequently dries out after aging and falls to the ground with a stone.
Under natural conditions, the wild form grows fairly tall tree, which is also characteristic of fruit, whereas the berries mainly grow shrubs, they do not form fruit after fertilization of peduncles. Only hybrid shrub forms grow by a low tree, which forms small fruits.
The benefits of this fruit
Plum is not only extremely tasty fruit, but also contains many beneficial trace elements and vitamins. Their benefit to the human body is beyond doubt. It is especially rich in vitamin P, which strengthens blood vessels and lowers blood pressure.
Also, the fruit contains a large amount of potassium, which is responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses throughout the body, and also supports the proper functioning of the heart muscle. One hundred grams of pulp accounts for 214 grams of potassium, so daily consumption of even a few fruits will completely provide your body with potassium.
Note the excellent calorie plum. A hundred grams contains 42 kcal, which allows you to use this fruit with anemia and exhaustion. The pulp is rich in various microelements and substances of the P-vitamin action.
For medical purposes, plum is used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. She also perfectly removes cholesterol and various slags from the body. Regular consumption of plums allows you to activate the metabolism in the body, so it is used for gout and other diseases associated with improper metabolism.