General information

What is useful sunflower honey? Sunflower honey: properties, price, benefits

Sunflower honey is not just a beautiful name, but the name of one of its most useful varieties. Let's try to figure out how honey sunflower is useful.

Features of sunflower honey

Its undoubted advantage over other types of honey is the increased content of carotene, which protects us from the effects of carcinogens, prevents premature aging of the body, and has a beneficial effect on the state of the cardiovascular system. When we talk about honey from a sunflower, the characteristic of its useful properties makes it possible to understand when and under what diseases it can be used.

Honey has a positive effect on the metabolism at the cellular level, prevents the appearance of benign and malignant tumors, and also promotes the active healing of wounds of various levels. All this is possible due to the presence in it of vitamin A.

Honey from a sunflower, the use of which has been repeatedly proven, is different from others.

Sunflower honey is one of the most inexpensive varieties of natural delicacies. Affordable price due to the feature of the product to crystallize quickly. In the liquid state, it is only about 20 days, after the white crust appears on the surface, and the honey becomes similar to ghee. Over time, it becomes hard, but it melts easily in the mouth. Rapid crystallization is due to the high content of glucose. Sunflower honey - the record for the content of this carbohydrate. And although the product loses its presentation (crystallized honey, not all buyers want to purchase), its useful properties are invaluable.

Specifications

For liquid sunflower honey characteristic bright light color. Sometimes it may have a mustard color or a slightly green tint. The product has an unusual taste. For him, the inherent fruit acidity. Sunflower nectar contains little sugar - only 2%.

The fragrance is mild. Sunflower honey smells like hay and flowers, sometimes.

Sunflower honey: useful properties

Sunflower honey has a very fast crystallization. It is in the liquid state literally within 20 days after collection, and sometimes it begins to crystallize already in the comb. However, this does not affect its healing properties. As part of this honey may contain a large amount of pollen, so it is not recommended to use for people with allergies.

How is honey from sunflower useful?

Sunflower honey, whose beneficial properties are due to a high content of glucose, as well as vitamins and enzymes, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, normalizes blood pressure, normalizes the work of venous circulation, strengthens the muscles of the myocardium and vascular walls.

In addition, honey from sunflower, whose properties are very diverse, improves liver function, removes harmful toxins and slags from the body, is used in folk medicine to prevent.

Bee honey is one of the most valuable and useful products on our tables. Its nutritional and medicinal properties are difficult to overestimate, and the taste palette can be surprised endlessly. But each time before acquiring a new portion of this precious natural gift, many people are confronted with the question: which honey is the most useful and valuable, or more precisely, what honey helps with which diseases? After all, properly orienting with the choice, you can greatly help your body to strengthen strength and maintain health. We offer you a review of the most useful varieties of bee honey, from which you can choose the most suitable for yourself.

What honey is the most useful and valuable

Depending on how many species honey is collected from, it can be monoflerny (from the Latin word Flores - “flowers”), that is, produced from the nectar of flowers of one plant species and polyfleral - from several. Mono-varieties are extremely rare. Most often, the variety of honey is determined by the prevailing.

Sunflower is a surprisingly beautiful, bright and extremely useful plant, from which many valuable products are obtained, such as seeds, oil and, of course, honey. About him, and will be discussed in today's article. It is produced almost all over the world, and more precisely in France, Russia, the USA, Spain and Bulgaria.

Experienced beekeepers argue that the sweet delicacy in useful properties is not inferior to other varieties, and even surpasses in some moments. So why is sunflower honey not popular with our compatriots? To dispel the myth of the futility of this product, let's look at all of its features.

The main signs

Unjustly sunflower honey, whose properties are due to the high content of valuable substances, has received a low reputation. Many people consider it as an artificially created product of beekeeping. The reason for the unflattering reviews was a nonspecific biochemical composition, due to which honey quickly crystallizes.

The beneficial properties of honey are known to everyone, it is often used for medicinal purposes. However, few people know that a specific type of beekeeping product is needed to treat any disease. You can not determine which honey is the most useful, because each has different beneficial properties.

What honey is the most useful

Classification

It is difficult to say exactly how many types of honey exist. Each of them has a characteristic color, taste, texture and characteristics.

Honey is divided into 2 main subspecies:

monoflora - a product that is harvested from a specific plant (clover, chestnut, sunflower, etc.), polyflora - a product that is collected from a variety of plants, the name of this honey is given at the place of gathering (meadow, field, mountain, etc. ).

The color of honey is divided into:

Dark varieties. Such products are enriched with iron, which affects its color. The most famous species: buckwheat.

Stomach can ache for various reasons. For diseases of the stomach, a strict diet is prescribed. Proper nutrition is based on the use of gentle products that are beneficial for the mucous membrane of the organ. One of these products is bee honey, which, due to its healing properties, is used both for the treatment and prevention of diseases.

Why is honey useful?

Bee product has many useful properties due to which it has found its application in medicine and not only. The use of honey contributes to the healing of damaged tissue, improves the process of recovery and healing of the mucous membrane of the organ. Because of these possibilities of the product, it is used as a therapy for diseases of the stomach, ulcers and other ailments of the gastrointestinal tract.

Honey therapy allows you to get rid of gastritis with high acidity. Bee product, diluted in low temperature water, is beneficial for patients with low acidity levels. Honey.

What honey to buy and what disease (for what ailment) is it useful? Which honey is the most useful, and which, on the contrary, will bring the least benefit? What are the types and what is their feature?

In this article we will try to answer all your most important questions about honey.

In the daily diet of a person honey must be present necessarily. After all, of the twenty-four trace elements necessary for our body, this product contains twenty-two! It is necessary to eat honey for an hour and a half before meals and not to swallow - for about twenty minutes to keep in your mouth until it resolves like candy. You should not add it to hot tea, milk - from the heat the product loses its miraculous properties, turning into an ordinary sweetness. It is better to use it "whipped".

ACACIA - collected from the flowers of white and yellow acacia, refers to the best varieties. Fresh honey is transparent, almost colorless, it may have a yellowish tint, during crystallization it becomes white, fine-grained. It has.

Any honey is very useful for our body to those who are not allergic to this product. But each honey has one or another pronounced healing properties.

The chemical composition of honey is very complex and diverse. It contains more than 300 various useful substances: organic acids and their salts, carbohydrates, vitamins (especially group B), more than 30 trace elements and about 70 more useful substances. Due to this, honey is equal in composition and benefit to human blood plasma.

Doctors advise to consume 120 grams of honey daily; this is 3-4 tbsp. l. to keep the body in good shape. And while it is desirable to use the honey that is collected in the area where you live. It is most useful for you. In addition to the honey itself, all derived bee products are very useful for human health. This is propolis, royal jelly, bee venom.

Pediatricians do not recommend giving honey to children up to 1.5 years, so as not to provoke an acute allergic reaction. For older children honey.

Especially useful for men, as well as in diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract.

Diseases of the respiratory tract, used as a diuretic.

It contains a lot of iron and protein: cleanses blood vessels, promotes the regeneration of damaged tissues, increases hemoglobin levels. It is recommended for pregnant women and people suffering from chronic gastritis with high acidity.
Chestnut.

It helps with gastrointestinal and renal diseases, strengthens blood vessels and immunity.

Gastrointestinal diseases. Dissolved in water (2-3 tablespoons per glass) - for insomnia and headaches.

Gynecological diseases, hemorrhoids and asthenia. It has a diuretic and expectorant effect.

With colds, diseases of the upper respiratory tract. It helps in the treatment of liver, kidney, inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, strengthens the heart.

Sunflower honey: useful properties and chemical composition

In the process of crystallization a hard crust of whitish hue forms on its surface - this is pure glucose. Substance has a wide medicinal range. Glucose has antimicrobial, sedative, disinfectant and diuretic effects.

The composition is dominated by a large number of amino acids responsible for protein synthesis. At the same time, there is a low sugar content (only 3%) and a rich set of vitamins of group A, E and PP. Also, sunflower honey is enriched with lecithin, its role is in immune protection. Deficiency of this substance leads to dysfunction of all important internal organs (heart, kidney, liver).

Pharmacological properties

There is a scientific evidence base confirming the high therapeutic efficacy of honey from sunflower. Clinical trials indicate that a sweet treat treats oncologic pathologies and arthrosis. These facts have long been known outside of the Russian Federation. For example, in Japan, China and Korea, a beekeeping product is given in all institutions. Valuable dessert improves well-being and prolongs life.

Regular use allows you to fully normalize blood pressure, strengthen blood vessels and heart muscle. In addition, the product of beekeeping helps cell renewal and improve blood flow. Doctors consider it the best natural remedy in the prevention of acute respiratory infections and flu, especially during the epidemic.

Sunflower honey, the beneficial properties of which are highly appreciated by traditional healers, has a psychotherapeutic effect. It has long been attributed to him antidepressant qualities. People who use a dessert spoon a day, are much more energetic, less susceptible to stress and nervous excitability.

Apply it as a diuretic and to improve the performance of the digestive tract. It exhibits a bactericidal effect of honey, therefore it is indicated for diarrhea, respiratory diseases and malaria. With it, you can prevent the development of atherosclerosis and osteoporosis, especially in old age. Delicacy perfectly tones, soothes and cleans from slags.

What is useful sunflower honey, we managed to find out, and how to use it correctly, so as not to harm the body and get the maximum benefit? To prevent an allergic reaction, do not lean on the product, you must comply with the measure - a few dessert spoons a day will be enough. If a rash, itching or burning sensation appears on the skin, stop taking it. Children who have not reached the year, it is better not to give it or add a little to cereal, drinks or fruit puree.

In this form, it is better and faster absorbed. Daily rate for an adult - not more than 50 grams. in a day. To stimulate the immune system, it is recommended to mix it with apple cider vinegar: dissolve in a glass of warm water over a large spoonful of vinegar and honey. Healing immunomodulatory drink drink in the morning on an empty stomach. The course duration is 60 days, after which a two-week break is taken.

Clinical studies have shown that the combination of cinnamon and honey from sunflower gives an excellent therapeutic result. The drug mixture of components is the best natural prevention in the fight against oncology and arthrosis. To do this, daily use 25-30 grams of seasoning and sweet dessert.

Recommendations for use

- The following recipe will help to accelerate recovery from acute respiratory infections: combine one hundred grams of natural honey with lemon juice (one citrus).

- Mucolytic drug (to improve sputum discharge): mix a dessert spoon of plantain leaves in a glass of water. Put the liquid on the stove, boil for 7-10 minutes, then let the broth cool and put the sunflower honey (two large spoons). Use ten grams - three times a day.

- In the pathological process of the lungs: prepare a mixture of two hundred grams of carrot juice (red), a glass of honey, ten grams of beet juice and horseradish, glasses of vodka (30 ml). The resulting remedy is to drink a tablespoon daily — half an hour before meals.

Calorie content and storage conditions

Sunflower honey has a sufficiently high energy value. The price for a liter jar varies within 300 rubles (depending on the region). Please be aware that 100 grams of the product contains 328 kcal. Therefore, it is not recommended to lean on a sweet dessert. It is better to store in a tightly closed glass container in a dark place for about two years and do not heat it. Crystallization is observed in a month.

Crystallization

Sunflower honey is one of those varieties that crystallize very quickly. Already after 2-3 weeks after pumping, it becomes thick and covered with sugar crust. In the thickened state, the consistency of it resembles fat, with small sugar crystals. However, being in honeycombs, honey requires more time for crystallization. But even despite this, sunflower honey is undesirable to use as winter food for bees.

The process of rapid crystallization due to the content of a large amount of glucose in the composition.

As we said above, honey from a sunflower has a large amount of glucose in its composition. In all other aspects, it is practically no different from other bee product varieties. Oilseed evidence of the presence of vitamins E, PP, as well as beta-carotene.

Vitamins and Minerals

The composition of sunflower nectar contains a large amount of vitamins and minerals. Experts recite about 300 compounds that are easily digested and have a beneficial effect on the body. Among them we note such bioactive substances:

  • Vitamins C, H, K, as well as beta-carotene,
  • proteins and amino acids
  • minerals.

The plant contains such unique substances as choline, betaine, as well as solanthic acid. All of them are transferred to honey made from sunflower. Also note the high content of organic acids.

This variety contains 27 essential amino acids for the human body.

Beneficial features

What is useful honey? Regular consumption of sunflower nectar strengthens the immune system, and also improves the overall health of the person. Among the main properties of sunflower honey, we note:

  1. The magnificent restoring effect, allowing to normalize work of a liver and a digestive tract.
  2. The product strengthens the immune system and has established itself as a very effective tool in the fight against colds and flu.
  3. Prevention of arthrosis and atherosclerosis.
  4. Sunflower nectar is effective in treating diseases of the genitourinary system.

Cardiologists often use this product in the prevention and treatment of heart disease.

Medicinal properties:

  1. The high content of glucose in the product makes it effective in the treatment of heart and vascular diseases.
  2. The product is an excellent cleanser that removes toxins and harmful substances from the body.
  3. Regular intake of sunflower honey helps reduce cholesterol.

The benefits of the product extend to the digestive system. Its reception accelerates cell regeneration, and also helps get rid of gastritis, ulcers and colic.

This type of honey has diuretic properties, which allows its use in the treatment of renal diseases.

Contraindications and harm

Despite its usefulness, sunflower honey has a number of contraindications:

  1. Sunflower pollen in some people causes a strong allergic reaction. Логично, что такая же реакция организма будет и на мёд из этого растения. Перед употреблением, необходимо нанести капельку нектара на запястье руки. Появление покраснений и зуда говорит о том, что у вас аллергия на этот продукт.
  2. Подсолнечный мёд нужно убрать со своего рациона беременным женщинам и кормящим матерям.
  3. The product is contraindicated in children's diathesis.
  4. The presence of glucose and sucrose, makes the product dangerous for people with diabetes.
  5. The product is contraindicated for people who are actively fighting obesity.

You can familiarize with more detailed information having seen video "Honey from sunflower - useful properties and contraindications".

If the infant has no allergic reaction, you can safely add sunflower nectar to its diet. But you need to start with small portions.

Application

As a preventive measure and in the treatment of viral diseases, honey should be taken in small doses - no more than two teaspoons per day. To improve the effectiveness of sweet medicine, you can add cinnamon. To use therapeutic nectar preferably on an empty stomach, while drinking water.

We do not recommend for therapeutic purposes to add the product to tea or pastries. The fact is that at a temperature of 50 degrees and more honey loses its useful properties. Therefore, it is better to take the product in its natural form and not to experiment.

Sunflower honey is actively used in cosmetology. Based on it, hair masks, face cream and moisturizing balms are made. These tools allow you to tighten the skin, make hair more voluminous and get rid of dandruff.

Compresses of sunflower nectar have a good healing effect. However, it is advisable to use it in treatment only after consulting a doctor.

Storage conditions

Storage conditions for sunflower honey are the same as for other varieties. In order for the product not to lose its healing properties, it is necessary to adhere to the following recommendations:

  • store the product in a cool place, protected from direct sunlight,
  • recommended temperature range - from 4 to 20 degrees,
  • The maximum moisture index is 75%.

For any violations of the temperature regime, the product loses the lion’s share of its useful components.

Bee gift should be stored in a thoroughly washed and disinfected dishes. It is advisable to use glass, clay or porcelain packaging. It is strictly not recommended to store the product in metal containers, because as a result of oxidation it becomes unhealthy.

Experienced beekeepers store the product in glass jars, which can be tightly closed with a lid. If this is not done, honey will absorb the smells of other products. Therefore, it is undesirable to keep it near chemicals (paint, gasoline, glue).

How to choose honey?

When buying a product, it is important to pay attention to its external and taste qualities. It must comply with all the characteristics described above. Honey is desirable to purchase only from trusted beekeepers, so as not to stumble on a fake.

How to recognize cotton honey

  • Origin: Central Asia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan. Honey plant: cotton.
  • Colour: assembled - transparent, bright. After crystallization takes on the color of custard.
  • Taste: spicy, creamy, with a milky shade.
  • Aroma: with a touch of rose scent.
  • Crystallization time: about 3-4 weeks, very high density after crystallization.
  • Viscosity: thick velvety structure, essential oils give fat and oiliness.
  • Collection period: June-September

The rich composition

100 g of the product contains 80.3 g of carbohydrates, 0.83 g of proteins, no fats. The energy value is about 330 kcal. Cotton honey is one of the best varieties of this delicacy due to the presence of omega-acids, cotton essential oil, valuable vitamins and minerals.

It contains vitamins:

  • B1 (thiamine)
  • B2 (riboflavin),
  • B3 (niacin)
  • B5 (pantothenic acid),
  • B6 (pyridoxine),
  • B9 (folic acid),
  • vitamin C,
  • vitamin H (biotin).

From micro and macro elements the product contains manganese, iodine, boron, chromium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron and some others.

Important!To preserve all the healing properties of cotton honey, it, like any other, can not be heated above 40 ° C.

What is useful cotton honey

The benefits of its use are significant and diverse:

  • treats inflammatory diseases and strengthens the immune system
  • antibacterial properties restore microflora and improve gastrointestinal function,
  • indispensable for colds
  • omega acids have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system,
  • important in diets
  • due to its enveloping effect, it cures diseases of the gums and gastritis,
  • can be used in diabetes, because it contains simple types of sugar - glucose and fructose, and chromium stabilizes the hormones of diabetic,
  • increases potency.

Find out what is useful black, boiling, hawthorn, may, espartsetovy, buckwheat, lime, acacia, donnikovy, acacia, from pine shoots, chestnut, rapeseed, pumpkin, fatselium honey. Very useful for women:

  • due to phytohormones reduces toxicosis,
  • improves mood
  • reduces manifestations of depression and aggression,
  • treats erosion, urinary tract and ovaries,
  • cleans and nourishes the skin.

With a cold

For colds, you can use this recipe: cotton honey and lingonberry juice mixed in the same proportions. Take three times a day and 1 tbsp. l

This tool helps in a short time to get rid of viruses. But it must be remembered that lingonberry juice has a strong diuretic effect, so you should take plenty of fluids. Find out how to use home wax, pollen, pollen, royal jelly, zabrus, propolis, bee venom, homogenate, marvi, subtle.

For chapped and dry skin

Beauticians advise to make masks and compresses with cotton honey. It retains moisture well, which will be useful for dry skin.

To restore damaged skin is useful to use a mask of "white" honey and olive oil, mixed in equal quantities. Apply such a mask in the morning and at bedtime during the week. The result will be clean, velvety and smooth skin. The rejuvenating effect will have the product itself without any additives. It can be applied to steamed and cleansed skin for 20 minutes, then rinsed with warm water.

For healthy hair

To make your hair look gorgeous, do the following: warm up 5 tbsp. In a water bath a little. l cotton honey Distribute evenly at the very roots of the hair. Leave for 15 minutes and rinse with warm water.

Did you know?For blondes, a cotton honey mask acts as a brightener. It should be applied to the hair, wrap and leave overnight. For 7 sessions, the hair is lightened by 2 tones.

How to check for naturalness

By appearance, determining the naturalness is not easy. Although this product has distinctive features:

  1. After crystallization has a high density, the structure resembles butter. If cut into a knife, the piece does not lose its shape.
  2. There are other white varieties of honey, but this one is still whiter.
  3. Essential oils contribute to oiliness and fat content with a milky or creamy flavor.

Check the naturalness more accurately with a chemical pencil. On the surface of the honey mass to put a point. If the color does not change and the dot does not spread, then the product is natural; if the dot turns blue or violet, this is a fake.

How to store at home

Honey crystallizes very quickly. Until this point, it is desirable to store it at a temperature of 14-18 ° C. And after the temperature must be reduced to 4-7 ° C. Humidity should not exceed 60%. In such conditions, the product can retain its healing properties for a long time. At temperatures above 40 ° C and below -35 ° C, these properties are lost very quickly.

Important conditions for storage can still be called the tightness of the container so that there is no air intake, and the lack of light. You can store in any room, taking into account all the above recommendations.

Did you know?If you keep the lid closed and do not allow water to get inside, you can keep honey forever!

Sunflower honey - useful properties and application

About the amazing properties of honey is known to many.

This beloved sweetness can cure many serious health problems such as liver and kidney diseases, inflammation and cataracts of the eyes, gastritis and hemorrhoids, pneumonia, colds, and even cancer.

Even children are delighted with this natural medicine.

There are many types of this bee-producing drug, and each has its own characteristics. Consider the useful sunflower honey and what useful properties it has.

Where is sunflower honey harvested?

This product is extracted by bees from sunflower perga and nectar of flowering sunflowers.

The ability to produce a large amount of a product primarily affects the price affects, but the availability does not reduce its quality at all.

By September, sunflower honey can already be consumed. It is considered the earliest variety, because other types of honey are most often prepared only in October.

This variety is one of the most common species. Especially this honey is popular in Bulgaria.

Characteristics of honey from a sunflower

  • Crystallization

If on other varieties the crystallization process is localized in one place, gradually spreading over the entire surface, then the sunflower honey is distributed evenly.

During crystallization, the beneficial properties are partially lost. Therefore, it is recommended to use it in liquid form, that is, almost immediately after production.

"Sweet amber" has a pleasant, sour, like a fruity taste, in the process of use of which can slightly pinch the throat. This is a sign of product quality.

After crystallization, honey may start to taste a little bitter, so it is best to use it before this process.

Caloric value of this variety is 314 kcal per 100 g of honey.

  • Color and smell

The product is yellow, mustard, amber and golden.

This type of honey has the smell of fresh hay. Often it is compared with the aroma of apricot or fried potatoes.

Indications for use of sunflower honey

The benefits of sunflower honey are manifested in bacterial and viral types of infections, high pressure, diseases of the heart and blood vessels.

It strengthens the walls of blood vessels, treats intestinal colic and is used as a diuretic. Also, honey is necessary to increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood and maintain immunity.

For women, it is indispensable in the fight against gynecological problems and to maintain youth and beauty.

It is good for children to give honey for colds and flu. It will relieve inflammation, cure throat and cough, and strengthen weakened immunity.

Sedative properties of honey will be especially useful for older people. He will help them fight insomnia and nervous disorders. After all, to remain calm at this age is so important.

This product has a positive effect on potency, increases the duration of sexual intercourse and helps cure prostatitis, which makes it especially valuable for men.

How to apply sunflower honey?

  • Cough

For diseases of the respiratory system you need to mix one article. spoon of honey with a similar amount of garlic.

Take one article. spoon for the night.

Runny nose can be cured in the following ways: lying on your back put a little hardened honey in your nostrils.

The procedure should be repeated for 20 days. After it, you need to stay in a warm room for at least two hours.

Dissolve one teaspoon of sunflower honey in a glass of beet juice. Instill 5-6 drops in each nostril at least 5 times during the day.

With a cold, you must: use before bedtime 1 tbsp. a spoonful of honey in a glass of boiled milk,

Mix 100 gr. honey with the juice of one lemon and take with a decoction of mint, oregano or lime,

dilute horseradish juice with honey in the same proportions and drink 2 times during the day and 1 tbsp. a spoon.

Contraindications to use - Caution does not hurt!

Contraindications to the use of sunflower honey include:

  • individual intolerance. In this case, it is better to abandon honey completely,
  • propensity for excess weight, obesity (this explains the high caloric content of the product),
  • with diabetes and the risks of its development.

Glucose affects the increase in blood sugar, and since in this class its content is very high, in use it is worthwhile to limit yourself to the maximum.

It is better to exclude from the diet completely.

How to choose and store sunflower honey?

When buying this product, you need to focus on the following factors:

  • cost It happens when sellers sell honey much cheaper than their competitors. Here you should be wary. Honey can replace sucrose, sand, chalk, starch or molasses. Most often, bees are fed with sugar syrup, which results in processed sugar, and not at all natural sunflower honey,
  • color spectrum. The hue of sunflower honey varies from mustard to amber. Unnaturally white tone can be in sugar honey. And dark-colored honey can be melted or fallen and cause harm to health,
  • aroma. Sunflower honey should have a delicious and rich aroma. In fake honey, it is not felt at all. If there is something similar, then nothing more than sugar water,
  • taste qualities. This honey is completely dissolved in the mouth, leaving no crystals. And after him throat will begin to pinch,
  • honey structure. It should stick in honey toothpick. If the product is natural, it will drag on with a long thread, and if it is interrupted, it will drop completely, turning into a small elevation that will quickly resolve.

Only by knowing what this sort of honey looks like, you can purchase a quality product.

You need to store the product in a dark place, as the sun's rays destroy the inhibin, which is responsible for antimicrobial properties and all other utility.

Humidity should be as low as possible, as honey absorbs moisture from the environment too quickly.

Sunflower honey has such miraculous qualities.

A natural product is always better than potions and pills, so let this sweet "medicine" help everyone.