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Gooseberry ‘Invicta’

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Despite the fact that in recent years, new, unsupported gooseberry varieties are gaining increasing popularity, gardeners are still happy to grow prickly varieties in areas that have already been tested by time. And although the collection of fruits from these bushes delivers certain inconveniences, the latter are compensated for by the high quality of the berries.

One of the advanced varieties is Invicta gooseberry English selection. It is bred through the hybridization of the Kipsack, Resistant and Vinhams Industry varieties. Combining the best virtues of "parents", Invicta has the following characteristics.

  • bush vigorous, reaches about 1.6 m in height, rather sprawling, average studding,
  • large fruits weighing up to 8 g, smooth, oval in shape, thin skin, yellow-green color,
  • the berries have a sweet taste, juicy flesh,
  • medium ripening period, fruiting long,
  • Solid yield indicators: up to 6 kg of berries can be harvested from the bush,
  • fairly large and frequent thorns, for comfortable picking berries need gloves,
  • demonstrates immunity to fungal diseases,
  • high rates of winter hardiness, tolerates temperature fluctuations,
  • universal purpose, high transportability,

The variety is skoroplodny and is able to bring a noticeable harvest as early as 2 years after planting. Amateurs who grow it for a long time, note the ability of the variety to the annual abundant fruiting. Resistance to many diseases, including the American powdery mildew, and unpretentiousness in the care allowed this gooseberry to receive only positive feedback from gardeners.

Invict begins its fruiting from mid-summer, it lasts until early September. Berries in the period of ripening have a yellow color with a green tinge, hanging a little more, acquire an amber color. There is a characteristic sweetness in the taste, the fruits are juicy and fragrant. They are suitable for fresh consumption, as well as for freezing cold weather for the season.

The thin peel does not prevent the fruits of this gooseberry to have good transportability, they are not at all cracking.

Requirements

The soil for cultivation should be permeable, fertile and sufficiently wet, preferably with a neutral reaction - the soil is too acidic; it should be brought to the level of 6.0-6.5 pH. Bushes do not grow well on sandy soils, they also do not tolerate clay soils with a groundwater level above 60 cm. Choosing a place for the gooseberry variety ‘Invicta’, you need to take care of the wind cover, strong gusts at the end of the ripening period of fruits can cause fruits to fall.

Fertilization and watering

Potassium is required for abundant fruiting of the gooseberry - potassium sulfate at a dose of 150 g / 10 m² should be used as a starting fertilizer. In subsequent years, the dose of potassium is reduced to 100 g / 10 m² and nitrogen fertilizer is used 80-100 g / 10 m², depending on whether organic fertilizers are used.

Gooseberry roots are sensitive to desiccation, as they are shallow beneath the surface of the earth. Because of this, in the period from flowering to fruit picking, regular watering of the bushes is necessary.

Due to the high frost resistance, it is recommended to plant varieties during the autumn period. The minimum distance for the gooseberry ‘Invicta’ is 1.2x3 m, and when grown in rows 0.6-0.8x2 m. If the bushes are planted in rows, immediately after planting it is necessary to prune all the shoots by 1-2 cm without hitting the buds.

Regular pruning of shrubs begins 4-5 years after planting - from this point, after each fruiting, it is necessary to remove excess annual shoots and 1/4 of old shoots to avoid excessive thickening of the bushes. Two-year bushes are cut off most of the growths that are knocked out of the root collar, leaving 1-2 times each time to restore the skeleton. Lateral ramifications shorten to 10-12 cm.

The content of the article

Moreover, this gooseberry is grown both in private farms and on an industrial scale. And largely due to such characteristics as:

  • disease resistance
  • unpretentiousness
  • high yield.

In this article we will talk about what the Invicta gooseberry is and how to grow it in your own plot.

Yield and ripening

If you properly care for the culture, then in one season you can collect seven kilograms of fruit from one bush. A shrub begins to bear fruit in the first half of July, and he bears fruit until mid-September. But the first harvest can be expected only in the second or third year after planting, and the annual stems will bear fruit too. The productive gooseberry of this variety remains on average 12-15 years.

The fruit skin is tender, but despite this, the berries tolerate transportation, and do not even crack when stored for a long time. They are well tolerated and freezing, and when canning not boil soft and retain their shape. Moreover, the fruits of this variety of gooseberry can be removed even with a special combine, however, when hand cleaning, you can not do without gloves.

Invicta berries are considered to be of universal use. This means that they can be consumed at different stages of maturity. So, from the fruits of a little immature excellent jams, jams and compotes turn out. And ripe berries are good not only fresh, but also as a filling for baking, they are made from various sauces, marmalade, jelly, marshmallow, juices and wine.

How to choose seedlings when buying? Let's just say, if you want to get high-quality planting material, then it is best to buy seedlings in a specialized store. When buying seedlings not in a container (with an open root system), you should pay attention to:

  • root length - no more than 15 centimeters,
  • height of the aerial part - 30-40 centimeters,
  • the number of main roots - 2-3 pieces
  • the number of shoots - 1 or 2 for annuals and biennials, respectively
  • lack of mechanical damage
  • axillary buds should be closed.

And, in general, the plants should be fresh in appearance, and the flesh should be moist and green under the bark.

If you get planting material in a container, then its age no longer plays such a big role. In packaging, seedlings, in principle, can be stored for a long time, if the soil is regularly moistened. However, it is important to take into account other requirements for seedlings. Their shoots should be 40-50 centimeters long, and the root length is 15 centimeters, the shoots themselves should already be covered with foliage.

Check whether the seedling is firmly seated in the container, this indicates that the plant already has a good root system. But it is impossible for the roots to break through the holes in the container, because this will mean that the plant in the pot has been in place for too long.

Growing up

In order for the gooseberry to produce excellent yields every year, it is important not only to choose the right place for its planting, but also to create optimal conditions for its growth and development. By the way, unlike many other varieties, illumination does not play a special role for Invicta, and it can be planted in areas with different illumination. Moreover, the yield of this crop does not affect, the bush grows in the sun or in the shade of a tree.

Thoroughly, it is necessary to approach the selection of a plot for the quality of the soil: it must be fertile and well drained. The best option in this regard would be sandy or loamy soil, away from wetlands and places where groundwater lies close to the surface. Gooseberry does not tolerate water stasis, as well as strong winds and drafts.

Time and landing scheme

Planted this culture, both in spring and autumn. However, according to many gardeners, autumn planting is still preferable. The fact is that low positive temperatures contribute to the quicker growth of the root system, and the soil near the roots is compacted, and the root system becomes very strong over the winter.

However, the results and spring planting are quite good. At the same time, in spring, it is very important to plant seedlings on time - between the thawing of the soil and the swelling of the buds, otherwise the plant will not take root well.

We add that if you do not save the gooseberries from pests, they can reduce all your labors to nothing. If we start from calendar dates, then the best time in central Russia is to plant Invicta gooseberries in early March or in the first half of September, that is, long before the first frosts occur.

For planting, you will need a standard gooseberry planting hole with dimensions of 50 to 50 to 50 centimeters. The pits are made so that the distance between the bushes is about 1.5 meters, but between rows you can also 1 meter each. Fertilizers are added to the well before planting - 300 grams of wood ash, 200 grams of superphosphate, 100-300 grams of limestone. But if the soil is too fat, you will have to add 2 buckets of peat.

Planting gooseberries should be straight, without tilting, so that the root neck was deepened by 6 centimeters. Immediately compact the ground and water the seedling (on average, 5 liters of water per plant).

Invicta is a very sprawling bush, and therefore it will also have to build supports for it. And this is done as follows. At the edges of the beds, metal props are installed, 1.5 meters high, and at the level of 1 meter and 1.5 meters a wire is drawn on them, to which the branches are tied.

Inference history

Today, Invicta is one of the most common gooseberry varieties in Europe. This variety was bred in the UK, where it is still used for the industrial cultivation of berries.

For the launch of the Invicta, the varieties of Resistant (Resistenta), Wynhams (Whinhams) and Kipsack (Keepsaake) were crossed, from which he inherited the best characteristics.

Description and characteristics

Next, we consider the main characteristics of the bushes and berries, as well as varieties in general.

Grow up to 120-160 cm, very sprawling, greatly expand. The stems are straight, of medium thickness, with powerful spines, but they are not located too often. The leaves are dark green, undressed, medium size, glossy. Bushes are fast growing, which must be taken into account when planting.

Find out what features of the gooseberries are “Beryl”, “Spring”, “Honey”, “Krasnoslavyansky”, “Consul”, “Malachite”, “Grushenka”, “Komandor”, “Kolobok”.

One of the main advantages of the considered varieties are berries. They are characterized by large size - on average, the weight of the berry is 6-7 grams, while it is similar in size to a small plum. There are berries of much greater weight (up to 10-12 grams).

Fruits have a symmetrical oblong shape, up to 2.5 cm in length, are colored in yellow-green color at the stage of ripening or amber color at the stage of full maturity. The rind is elastic, thin, covered with a light nap, the pulp is fragrant, sour-sweet.

The fruits of gooseberry varieties "Invicta" contains a whole set of vitamins and minerals: vitamins C, A, P, group B, salts of potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, calcium and phosphorus. Also in the composition of a significant percentage of sugars (up to 13%), pectins, malic and citric acids.

Did you know?Gooseberry (English gooseberry), “Christ turn”, unripe bunch - such names in English, German and Italian received gooseberry. The origin of these names has not yet been explained by linguists.

Disease and Pest Resistance

Invicta is characterized by increased resistance to powdery mildew and other diseases typical of gooseberries. However, if the conditions of detention are violated (for example, when planting bushes in too moisture-intensive soil or when it is over-wetted as a result of frequent watering), the risk of disease increases significantly. Also, farmers note the resistance of this variety to pests of berry crops.

Drought resistance and frost resistance

Gooseberry is a moisture-loving plant, but the stagnation of water for it is destructive. Therefore, during the drought period, generous watering is necessary. The low temperatures of Invicta tolerate well, it is permissible to grow it in frost-resistant zones of 3-4, that is, the bushes can withstand temperatures up to -40 ° C. In general, the variety is characterized by resistance to temperature extremes.

Find out which gooseberry varieties are popular, which gooseberries are called bearingless.

Ripening period and yield

With proper care for one season from the bush can collect up to 7 kg of berries. Fruiting begins from the last decade of June - in the first half of July, bears fruit until the first half of September inclusive. The first harvest after planting occurs in 2-3 years.

Both annual and two to three year old stems bear fruit. The productivity of the bushes remains at a high level for 12-15 years, which is why they are called long-livers.

Transportability

Despite the delicate skin, the fruits are well tolerated in transportation, do not crack even with long storage. The berries are very well tolerated by freezing, when canned in general, retain their shape and do not boil soft.

Important!Combine harvesting of berries is possible. When hand picking, be sure to wear gloves.

Use of berries

Berries described varieties are universal. You can use them at various stages of maturity - from unripe berries you get excellent compotes, jams and preserves. Mature fruits are consumed fresh as a dessert, added as a filling to pastries, and sauces are made from them. Gooseberry can also be used to make homemade jelly, marmalade, marshmallow, wine and juice.

It is interesting to know: what is the benefit of gooseberry berries, how to prepare gooseberries for the winter, how to pickle gooseberries, how to make jam, jam, homemade wine, gooseberry sauce.

How to choose seedlings when buying

To get high-quality planting material, buy seedlings only in specialized nurseries or garden stores.

When buying seedlings with an open root system (not in containers), pay attention to these key quality characteristics:

  1. Root system length: up to 15 cm.
  2. The number of main roots: 2-3 pcs.
  3. Height of aerial parts: 30-40 cm.
  4. Number of shoots: 1 (for annual seedlings), 2 (for two-year-old seedlings).
  5. On seedlings should not be mechanical damage.
  6. On the shoots should not grow leaves.
  7. Seedlings should not be dried out, healthy, under the bark should be green, moist, fresh flesh.
  8. Axillary buds should be closed.

When buying seedlings in containers, the age of planting material does not play a significant role. Seedlings in containers can be stored for a long time without transplanting, while you need to regularly moisten the soil. Familiarize yourself with the rules of planting, breeding, cutting gooseberries. When choosing seedlings in containers, the quality requirements are different:

  1. Shoots should be covered with foliage.
  2. Shoots should reach 40-50 cm.
  3. The root length is 15 cm.
  4. The seedling should sit firmly in the container (this guarantees that a good root system has been formed), but the roots should not break through the holes in the container or through the top, as this indicates a too long period of content in the pot.

Growing conditions

If you want to grow gooseberries and get a rich harvest from the bushes, you need to correctly select the landing site and create acceptable conditions for the plant.

Illumination in this case does not play a special role, since Invicta is able to grow and bear fruit well at different levels of illumination. Equally good result will be as when planting in a sunny place, and in a more shaded, for example, in the penumbra from tree crowns.

But to the soil and moisture requirements are stricter: you must choose a fertile, well-drained soil. The most suitable are loamy or sandy sands.

It is necessary to avoid places of close occurrence of groundwater, wetlands. Gooseberry does not tolerate stagnant water, so in the lowlands, where rain or melt water accumulates, plant the plant also should not be. Landing should be protected from winds and drafts.

Did you know?Before the gooseberry came to America (XIX-XX centuries), breeders bred varieties with a mass of berries of about 50-80 g. However, in the New World, the plant was subjected to powdery mildew, which destroyed most of the varieties. Modern disease-resistant varieties do not have such characteristics of berries as previous types.

Basics of seasonal care

Young bushes after planting, as well as adult plants need to provide adequate care throughout the season.

As we indicated earlier, the gooseberry is able to tolerate short-term droughts, however, to obtain large berries and a bountiful harvest, it will be necessary to maintain the soil moisture level at a high level. It is possible to determine that the earthen room is moistened sufficiently, according to such a test - when you take the soil in your hands, it easily crumbles under the touch of your fingers, it feels moist to the touch, but does not stick to the skin and does not have plasticity, like clay, due to excessive moisture.

When watering, the soil under the shrub should be moistened to a depth of approximately 40 cm, depending on the age and size of the shrub, 2-4 buckets per plant may be required. For irrigation use water summer temperature, preferably separated or rain.

Be sure to need watering at such stages:

  • при формировании завязей и побегов (конец мая – начало июня),
  • на этапе созревания ягод,
  • в сентябре для подготовки корневой системы к зиме.

Поливать нужно максимально близко к почве, избегая попадания влаги на листву.

When forming the ovaries, you should carefully monitor the level of moisture

Soil care

For good fruiting be sure to care for the soil. Care is reduced to such procedures: weeding, digging or loosening, mulching after watering.

It is necessary to dig up and loosen the soil in order to increase air and moisture permeability. You can use a shovel for digging, but loosening needs to be done more delicately - garden forks are suitable.

Removing weeds is also an important step - dense vegetation under the bush increases the humidity of the air, which can trigger the development of fungal diseases.

Another thing is mulching: it allows you to maintain the required level of moisture in the soil and prevent overdrying of the earthy clod. Hay, straw, sawdust, peat are suitable as mulch. Loosening and weeding should be carried out at least once a month.

Important!The gooseberry root system lies close to the surface, so it is necessary to carefully loosen it right under the crown, to a depth of no more than 6-8 cm.

Fertilizers need to be at least twice a year. (frequency depends on soil fertility in your area):

  • the first time after flowering to increase yields,
  • second time after picking berries to prepare the bush for the winter and the next period of fruiting.

For the first feeding optimal use of organic matter: mullein or litter. They are diluted in water at a ratio of 1:10 or 1:20, respectively. Next, make the soil of this calculation - on 1 square. m will need a 10-liter bucket of mullein solution or 5 liters of litter solution.

For the convenience of making dressing next to the bushes, you can make shallow grooves using a rake, pour fertilizer into them, and after soaking up, fill it with soil.

Mineral dressings are made after picking berries. For 10 liters of water, 10 g of urea, 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium sulfate will be needed. In the spring, to stimulate the growth of foliage you need to make nitrogenous fertilizers.

For this, a mixture is prepared: 10 l of water and 50 g of ammonium nitrate, a bush is poured from the watering can with a bush from above to make the mixture fall on the shoots and trunks. Next, the soil near the trunk is covered with wood ash (1 tbsp. Per bush) and loosened.

Pruning is a mandatory step care throughout the life of the bush. Cut it is necessary in the fall and spring. In young plants up to 3 years, the skeletal branches are shortened by half, and the root growth is almost completely cut off.

In plants from 4 years and older, it is necessary to remove all defective branches: weak, damaged and dried, improperly growing. It is not allowed to thicken the branches. You also need to remove branches older than 5-6 years, since there is almost no crop on them.

Autumn pruning is carried out after the foliage has fallen, in the spring - before bud break. You can also carry out summer pruning to increase the fruiting and size of the berries. For this, the tops of the green shoots are cut so that they have 5-7 leaves.

Learn how to do autumn gooseberry pruning.

Winter cold protection

Invicta tolerates the winter cold very well. But for a successful wintering it is worth doing some preparatory work:

  1. First, cut off dry, damaged, twisted or lying on the ground branches, remove the fallen leaves.
  2. Next you need to pour plenty of root zone and plow the soil.
  3. Care before frosts is a thorough mulching to prevent freezing of the roots. As mulch for the winter, it is better to use humus or peat with a layer of 10-15 cm.
  4. When the snow falls, the basal zone can be insulated with a layer of 10 cm. And if the winter is frosty but not snowy, you can additionally use any covering material to protect the roots.

Important!Fallen leaves and cut branches are undesirable to use as mulch and covering material. Pests, bacteria and fungi can overwinter in them, and in the spring spread through the rest of the bushes. It is best to immediately burn the collected foliage and branches.

The advantages and disadvantages of the variety

In general, this variety receives positive reviews, which is not surprising, because the number of advantages in it significantly exceeds minor drawbacks:

  1. The variety is high-yielding. Berries are distinguished by their large size, excellent taste, tenderness and transportability, versatility of use.
  2. Plants are undemanding in care.
  3. Shrubs tolerate harsh winters.
  4. Gooseberry is resistant to powdery mildew and most diseases typical of berry crops.

A possible disadvantage may be drought sensitivity, as well as the presence of massive spikes. However, the latter can hardly be called a big minus - the spikes are arranged sparsely, therefore they do not create significant difficulties in harvesting by hand.

The described variety is an excellent choice for growing on its own plot. With minimal care, “Invicta” in the second year will delight the rich harvest of large and tasty berries. The variety is great for people who have not had any previous experience in growing gooseberries.

Video: Invicta variety characteristics

Gooseberry variety "Invicta": reviews

loads a grade of itself in full.

The berry is large, but with such a load obviously requires feeding.

At the moment, the bushes with a berry. I think in a week it will be possible to pick the first ripe fruits. Illness for 3 years did not notice. Fungicides did not handle even once.

Slightly unripe berries with a pleasant, special aroma.

Recommended gooseberry varieties for TsChZ

  • KAZACHOK
  • KRASNOSLAVYANSKY
  • MALACHITE
  • SALUTE
  • SERENADE
  • PLUM
  • CHERNOMOR

Economic and economic indicators:

  • plant productivity - 7-14 t / ha,
  • cost recovery - 3-4 year after landing,
  • environmental safety of products
  • good transportability of fresh berries,
  • cleaning period - 1 month
  • wide range of products with high levels of BAS (fresh consumption, industrial processing, freezing, winemaking),
  • profitability level of production - 95-137%.

The production technology of gooseberry fruit on the trellis using the optimal assortment provides:

  • Getting industrially significant yields for the 3rd year after planting,
  • Increase plant productivity up to 15-22 t / ha,
  • Significant improvement in product quality,
  • Improving the phytosanitary condition of plantations,
  • Increased labor productivity during agrotechnical measures and harvesting by 20-30%,
  • Production profitability not lower than 104%

KURSHU DZINTARS


KURSHU DZINTARS










Material prepared:

Schekotova L.A.
Candidate of Biological Sciences, Scientific Consultant of the UPPNM

Danilova T.A.
APPNP specialist, student of MichAU

Article prepared using the material Mariusz Podymniak

How to improve gooseberry pollination

The gooseberry, like the currant, is considered a very self-fertile crop, which allows it to be grown in single-grade plantings or in the presence of a limited number of varieties. However, for all berry crops, regardless of their ability to set berries from pollination with their own pollen, the important role of cross-pollination was established. It contributes to an increase in the sticking capacity and weight of the berries, and for low-fruit varieties it is a prerequisite for obtaining the crop and ensuring its high quality.

Currants and gooseberries are pollinated by bees and other insects, so during the years when during the flowering of berry bushes there is cold, rainy and windy weather that prevents the bees from flying, unfertilized flowers fall off, the crop decreases. In the absence of full cross-pollination, deformed and underdeveloped fruits are more common.

Plants and insects

The world of plants is closely connected with the world of insects. Examples are flowers and bees: flowers produce nectar and pollen, and insects collecting nectar tolerate pollen, thereby carrying out the cross-pollination needed by most plant species to form seeds and fruits. Numerous studies have confirmed the advantage of the presence of insects - pollinators on the plantation of berry crops. With repeated flight from a flower to a flower, bees and bumblebees tolerate a variety of pollen of a large number of plants, which, upon reaching the stigma of the pistils, ensures the selectivity of fertilization. As a result, the fruits and seeds of plants are larger and more qualitative.

In numerous scientific experiments with various berry crops, in the case of using screens that prevent insects from accessing flowers, a decrease in yield and fruit set, as well as a deterioration in their quality, have been recorded. On raspberries, depending on the variety, fruits were tied up from 27 to 90% of isolated flowers, and in the presence of insects, their number increased and varied between 66 and 99%. Raspberry productivity increased by 15 - 25% in the case of participation in the pollination of insects. On strawberries, the formation of the harvest looked like this: in the absence of insects - pollinators were tied up with fruits 47 - 63% of flowers, and with their free access - 50 - 73%. The largest differences between the variants with isolation of the branches from the bees and with the free access of insects were noted on the gooseberry. Bees pollinate about 90% of its flowers, thanks to their activity, the useful ovary increases 4 to 5 times, the size increases and the appearance of the berries improves.

Gooseberry is a valuable melliferous plant that delivers plentiful bribes from insects from late April to mid May. Its flowers are adapted for pollination by insects and often have such a structure, which makes it difficult to hit their own pollen. According to the Institute of Beekeeping, the nectar productivity of apple trees is 20–30, cherries - 30, and gooseberries - 60 kg per 1 hectare of plantings. Among the fruit and berry crops, the gooseberry ranks second in terms of honey content, second only to raspberries. The nectar of its flowers contains 1.5 times more sugar than currant, so when the gooseberry and black currant are flowering at the same time, the bees always prefer the gooseberry, visiting it 5-7 times more intense.

Insect species - pollinators

The most important flower pollinators are honey bees. Unfortunately, the number of these insects in natural habitat decreases very quickly. For example, in Poland in the early 80s of the last century there were about 2.5 million bee colonies, and in 2009 their number decreased by more than half and amounted to only 1.1 million. In this situation, the additional attraction of bees and other insects on the plantation of horticultural crops necessary to improve the conditions of pollination of flowers.

Honeybee (Ápis melliféra). For 1 hectare of berry bushes plantations, successful pollination requires from 2 to 5 bee colonies, and for 1 hectare of strawberries - 1 - 2 families. It is best to import hives to the plantation when 5 - 10% of the flowers of garden plants have opened. You should not do this earlier, because bees, due to their ability to communicate, can find a more attractive place where they will collect nectar and pollen. Competitors of fruit and berry crops can be, for example, rapeseed and dandelion flowers.

The minimum temperature for working honey bees is 10 ° C. Weak bee colonies start circling only at temperatures above 16 ° C, while strong families are already active at temperatures above 12 ° C. The optimum relative humidity of the air for the effective operation of insects is 40%.

Earthen bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) is one of the most common bumblebee species in Europe. The uterus and working individuals of the bumblebee have a collecting apparatus consisting of a brush and a basket. Males are very effective pollinators of plants, they are distinguished by long antennae and have copulative mites (an important feature for distinguishing species). Uterus is larger than males and supplied with a sting, as are working individuals (underdeveloped females). All the activities of the bumblebee family are instinctive, they bind the family community to the nest, the honeycomb and the queen.

Under natural conditions, the bumblebee family first produces females, which appear in the spring (in early April, they leave their shelters in the ground where they wintered) when the first flowers bloom. After 2 weeks, they begin to look for a place to lay their eggs. Often, mouse minks are used for this. The female systematically reports the eggs to the nests. At the end of May, the first adult working bumblebees harvest pollen and bring it to the nest. By the end of the summer, bumblebees breed, families become strong and numerous. After mating, fertilized females do not return to the nest, but seek a place to hibernate. They burrow into the ground and hibernate, which lasts about 30 weeks.

Like bees, earth bumblebees can be placed on plantations of fruit and berry crops. Insects can be taken out on plantations in beehives, 2-4 per hectare. Unlike bees, it is advisable to install bumblebee beehives on the site 7–10 days before flowering, so that insects can get used to a new place and start working at full strength. Hives need to be protected from direct sunlight. For this purpose, white material that reflects solar radiation is best suited.

The Polish company Koppert offers ready-made beehives, they house 3 families of bumblebees (a total of 300 - 350 insects). The hive device provides ease of maintaining a microclimate inside it. The development and further improvement of hives Koppert company carries out in collaboration with a number of world-renowned scientific institutes and universities.

Bumblebees are very good pollinators, both due to their size (they are larger than bees, therefore they tolerate more pollen), and due to other specific characteristics (table 1). They prefer young, recently blossomed flowers with fresh pollen and are successfully used for pollination of heather plants, including blueberries, where bees are less effective because of the special structure of the flower. Bumblebees "work" for 6 to 8 weeks, and can be used on several cultures that bloom one after another.

Some manufacturers note that timely and high-quality pollination of a flower with the help of bumblebees can accelerate the ripening of fruits. Experiments are being conducted on the use of bumblebees for biological plant protection, based on the use of entomophages, as an alternative to the use of pesticides, for example, to combat gray rot on raspberries.

Description of Invicta variety

Variety Invicta refers to garden crops, bred by English breeders.

Its main characteristics include:

  • Strong growthability . The height of the shrub reaches 1.5–1.6 meters. Sprawling bush, medium spuding.
  • Large fruit . The weight of the berries reaches 8 grams, the oval-shaped fruits have a smooth peel of a yellow-green shade.
  • The long period of fructification with the average term of maturing.
  • High yield .
  • Large and not very frequent spikes.
  • Immunity to fungal diseases.
  • Good winter hardiness.
  • Resistance to temperature changes.
  • Versatility.
  • Excellent transportability.

The variety grows quite strongly, quickly creating a free spreading shrub.

The variety belongs to the early ripening species and significantly fruits on the second year after planting.. Gardeners involved in the cultivation of the variety Invicta not the first year, celebrate the ability of the crop to the annual stable fruiting. But also farmers observe good resistance to pests and diseases, even to such common ones as powdery mildew.

Productivity and taste

Fruiting variety begins in mid-July and ends in early September. During the ripening period, the berries are characterized by a yellow color with a greenish tint.

The average weight of a berry is about 7 grams, but often fruits weighing more than 10 grams.

  • Having matured, they acquire rich amber color .
  • Ripe fruit weight - 7–8 grams .
  • Pulp they are very juicy, aromatic.
  • Every year, the fruiting shrub gives an average 7 kg of berries .
  • Every year it is possible to observe many young shoots, which begin to bear fruit most abundantly in 2–3 years.
  • In general, the period of fruiting Invicta is 15 years . This is one of the most "Long-lived" varieties .

Utility

Invict fruits contain large amounts of vitamins PP, B2, B2, A and C.

  • Berries and gooseberry juice improve the immune system, improve hormones, normalize hemoglobin, help with liver and kidney diseases.
  • Vitamins contained in berries help prevent infarction and stroke.

Landing rules

It is better to start planting Invicta seedlings in spring in early March or in mid-September, the main thing is to catch before the first frost.

When planting, the sapling neck dips into the ground a few centimeters.

  • For planting of planting material does not need to pick up a special place, as the shrub adapts well both in the sun and in partial shade . The best soil for gooseberries is loam or sandals.
  • The preparatory period begins 2 months before the main landing. . The soil is carefully dug up, all garbage and weeds are removed. Organic matter should be added to the soil poor in substances: manure or compost.

After planting, the soil around the seedling is shed several times, if necessary, nourishing soil is added.

Holes for planting seedlings need to dig at a distance of 1-1.2 meters from each other . Before planting, you must add humus and wood ash. Но также дно ямки можно промульчировать корой или щепой. Кустарники высаживаются под прямым углом, затем земля вокруг них трамбуется в форме чащи и хорошо проливается.

Весенний период

In the spring of the second year, it is necessary to cut all the frozen branches, and also to loosen the soil under the shrub.

  • As the first feeding actively used urea and nitrophosphate solution .
  • Before the beginning of the flowering period, potassium sulfate and any organic fertilizer are applied. Good reviews accompany the use of funds " Berry " or " Breadwinner ».

Loosening and watering

During the entire summer period, loosening is carried out, followed by irrigation.

Loosen the soil around the bush should be after each watering.

When watering, water should be poured under the bush, as close as possible to the soil. When moisture gets on the leaves of the shrub increases the risk of American powdery mildew. When the ovary of the first fruit, it is advisable to use top dressing " Ideal ».

Autumn preparation of gooseberries for wintering includes cutting off dried and diseased branches, treatment against diseases, loosening the soil, harvesting foliage and grass, in which pests can remain and mulching with dry material. As a fungicide, foundation and topazol are used. These tools work well against anthracosis, rust and powdery mildew.

Pruning gooseberry is to remove old branches at the root.

During pruning, it is necessary to leave 5–7 young strong shoots located evenly on all sides of the bush.. It is these branches that will show the best yield next year.

Competent implementation of all recommendations will provide stable yields and good large berry with high taste.

Gardeners like the variety for stable yield and resistance to powdery mildew.

Invicta variety is very popular among gardeners. He is considered one of the most high-quality and convenient in the cultivation of gooseberry varieties. He has excellent tasting properties, unpretentious care, high yields.

Invicta gooseberry is also suitable for industrial breeding and cultivation, as it has good keeping quality and transportability. The main disadvantage of the variety is called sharp thorns. However, they are quite rare, which greatly facilitates the harvest.

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