Keeping the ducks in the garden is very profitable. More than 100 eggs and about 50 ducklings can be obtained from a single individual each year. Of course, growing ducks for meat at home is a procedure that requires compliance with certain rules. In particular, they need to adhere to those who decided to start breeding this bird in order to generate additional income. In the review we will tell you what a beginning businessman needs to know and how to create your own business.
What breed to choose: musk ducks
Of course, you should start a business by choosing a bird species. One of the reasons for not too high popularity of duck meat on the market is its fat content. Therefore, in recent years, farmers are increasingly paying attention to such a breed as the musk. The meat of these ducks is lean and juicy.
Under the beak or above it, in the specimens of musky breed there are red leather growths. Their plumage is usually white or black and white. Because of such an unusual appearance in the people, these birds were called indoutouts. The weight of an adult duck of this breed can reach 2.5 kg. Drakes grow bigger - up to 5 kg. This bird is an ideal option if you decide to do such a thing as growing ducks for meat at home. See photo of the musky breed below.
This rather new breed was obtained by crossing Peking ducks with hakikempbellas. One of its distinguishing features is the long head and wide beak. The mass of drakes of this breed can reach 4 kg, ducks - 3.5 kg. One of the absolute advantages of Moscow white is delicious tender meat.
What should be the house
Of course, the cultivation of ducks for meat at home is possible only if there is a fairly spacious barn. The poultry house can be frame, cobbled, stone, etc. The floor in the shed is best made stone or brick. Small animals - ferrets, mice, rats, etc. - can be harmed by ducks very easily. Before laying the brick ground in the house should be carefully sealed.
Over the hard floor arrange soft bedding. You can make it out of hay, straw or sawdust. You can also fill the floor in the shed with dry sand. It is imperative to arrange in the Lazy duck above the floor. They are necessary so that the bird can freely enter and leave the barn.
In Utyatnik you need to install troughs, drinkers and nests. Next to him arrange a fenced small pen. Here you also need to put a couple of drinkers and a feeder. The first can be made from buckets (not galvanized), prikopov them in the ground. As feeders usually establish special troughs. It is important to choose their size. On one head should be about 10 cm perimeter rim. Drinkers should be deep enough so that the bird can wash the nasal openings.
The size of the barn is determined based on the fact that about 2-3 ducks should account for about one square meter of space.
Farmers wondering how to raise ducks for meat at home should be aware of what the nests should be for this bird. Duck eggs are slightly smaller than chickens. However, special places for laying in the shed provide, of course, necessary. Duck nests are quite large - 50x50x35. They represent the usual boxes with a straw-covered bottom.
Basic content rules
Of course, those who decide to start breeding this bird as a business need to be aware of how to care for it. First of all, it should be borne in mind that growing ducks for meat at home is a procedure that necessarily requires compliance with the regime. From this depends directly on the productivity of the bird. Typically, in the household farms practiced this method:
- In the morning the bird is released into the pond. You can open a duckling no earlier than 10 hours. Eggs are birds usually in the morning.
- After 5-6 hours, the ducks are driven into the paddock for feeding.
- Then they are released again to the pond.
- In the evening before bedtime, the troughs are again filled with food.
At night, the bird is driven into the barn. Soon the ducks get used to this routine and themselves come from the reservoir to the house at the time of feeding.
Growing ducks for meat as a business is quite profitable. For the season, if you wish, you can grow 3-4 broods. Whole summer ducks, like chickens, do not hold. Usually they are slaughtered before the first juvenile molt - at the age of 50-60 days. Carcasses of such ducks are marketable because they lack hemp. There is one more reason for such an early face - purely economic. The fact is that before the age of two months the amount of feed spent per individual during the month is only about 2.5-5.5 kg, depending on the age of the bird. Individuals more mature begin to eat very much, gaining fat. By 3-5 months ducks should be given up to 20-25 kg of feed. Two-month-old ducklings weigh about two kilograms, six-month-olds - 4 kg. Therefore, contain ducks more than 2.5-3 months. impractical.
All summer, the same brood can be kept only if the farm is located on the shore of a large pond where ducks can get enough of their own food. However, in this case, many owners of such a business prefer to slaughter the bird before. For large ducks, meat is usually too fat.
Growing ducks for meat at home: feeding
As already mentioned, food for this bird is usually given twice a day. In the morning you can feed with concentrated feed (crushed). In the evening, give mashki. The latter may consist of fresh herbs, roots, vegetables, etc. You can also use kitchen waste, whey, meat and bone meal or fish meal, mineral supplements, etc.
The proportion of grain and mealy in the diet of ducks should be about 80%. The remaining 20% are wet mash and various additives.
How to get ducklings
The question of how to grow ducks for meat, comes down to how you can get your own young. The hens of these birds are not as good as chickens. However, some individuals still sit on the eggs. A way out can be found even if not a single duck does this. Very often, eggs are simply placed under the hens. Breeding duck young only a few days later chickens.
Caring for babies chicken will. But youngsters brought up by a clip are usually not released on a pond. The type of floating "chickens" severely injures the hen's mind. In any case, run the kids in the pond, if they are grown without a duck, it is impossible as long as they do not come down and there is a real plumage. The fact is that there is no subcutaneous fat in very small chicks. Therefore, they can just catch a cold.
Sometimes ducklings get in incubators. In this case, to feed them will be somewhat more difficult. But still worth a try. Laying eggs in an incubator, you need to be prepared for the fact that the chicks will not far out of them all. The output of the young in any case (under the duck, chicken or in the incubator) is usually not more than 50%. The fact is that in the protein of duck eggs there are no antibacterial substances. As a result, many embryos die at the developmental stage.
Care for ducklings
Of course, the young of this bird, like any other, need to provide optimal conditions for growth and development. Immediately after hatching, ducks are usually entered in a warm room and contain several days at a temperature of at least 20-25 grams. However, it would be better to plant them in boxes or cages (20-25 pieces per 1m2), with heating not less than +30 g. To achieve this temperature, you can use ordinary incandescent bulbs. They are installed in the lattice cells. After three weeks, the ducklings are seated in different pens in such a way that there are no more than 12 pieces per square meter. By this time, the temperature is reduced to 16-18 grams. (gradually). Lighting for newborns arrange around the clock. By the three-week age, its duration should be about 16 hours.
How to grow ducks for meat. What to feed the chicks
The diet of newly hatched ducklings usually consists of boiled eggs and very finely chopped oat grains. From the second - the third day of life, a curd is included in the ration, and from 5-6 - finely chopped greens and aquatic vegetation (in a ratio of about 0.5x1). From ten days of age, potatoes and finely chopped root vegetables can already be added to the ducks.
At first, food for babies is given 6-8 times a day. Starting from the 10th day and up to one month of age, the number of feedings is reduced to 5-6, then to 2-4 times a day.
Keeping ducks in winter
Private traders cultivate ducks for meat in the country only in summer is practiced most often. Farmers breeding this bird for sale of carcasses usually keep it in winter. At this time of year, certain rules should be followed for successful cultivation.
They feed the bird in the winter not two, but at least three times a day. In the morning and in the afternoon they give mashins, in the evening - cereals. Cold ducks endure quite well. However, it is impossible to allow the air temperature in the house to fall below 5 degrees. You should also protect ducks from drafts. If the bedding in the barn is damp, their egg production will decrease. Therefore, on the floor in the house you need to periodically pour dry hay or sawdust. In this case, putrefactive processes with heat release will start to occur in the lower layers.
In the pond for swimming ducks in the winter period of time you can make a hole. The complexity of its equipment lies primarily in the fact that to prevent a bird from falling under the ice, its edges will have to be fenced with a net. But you can keep the ducks in the cold season and without swimming.
In order for ducks to fly better, additional lighting should be arranged in the house. Light bulbs include mornings and evenings. Do not reduce duck egg production in winter only if there is light for at least 14 hours a day.
What should be the pond
Sometimes this bird contain and land method (in cages or aviaries). It is this method that is practiced if ducks are raised for industrial meat. But for small farms, free-range is considered to be more preferable. The reservoir intended for this bird should have a rather extensive area and a small depth. The ducks dive very well and can get food from the bottom up to 1 m. It is not recommended to arrange very deep reservoirs on the site. In this case, duck droppings, falling to the bottom - where the water layers do not mix - begin to rot with the release of methane. As a result, the lake "blooms". Duck planting density can be significantly reduced in flow ponds.
And finally, we will give a few recommendations that may be useful to beginner poultry farmers, businessmen:
- The daily routine for ducks should be complied with without fail. Otherwise, the bird will reduce productivity.
- It is impossible to transfer ducks to another room when the laying period is approaching. Otherwise, the bird may start to molt. Duck eggs at the same time will cease to postpone.
- The bird is very shy. Therefore, it must be handled with care.
As you can see, growing ducks for meat at home is not particularly difficult. The main thing is to make the bird have a comfortable barn, develop the diet correctly and comply with the regime In this case, you can get dozens of pounds of tasty, environmentally friendly and expensive duck meat for the season.
How to breed and grow ducklings for beginners?
The content of ducks in the home for beginners is not much different from the cultivation of chickens or geese. But, There are some nuances that should be considered when breeding this bird. They should definitely stay in more detail. Including on how many ducks live.
Growing and breeding ducklings
An interesting point is that duck eggs can be laid under a chicken or a turkey, and they will hatch eggs, taking them for their own. But a duck or a goose is unlikely to want to do the same with alien eggs. So, as a hen they choose any of the three domestic birds - chicken, duck or turkey. Of course, it is better if it is a duck.
Up to 15 eggs are usually placed under the duck if the brood is planned to be received in the summer and up to 12 - in the spring. This is due to the ambient temperature. Naturally, under the turkey put more eggs, which is explained by its large size, and under the chicken - less. The main thing is that all eggs in the clutch should be under the hen in order to evenly heat the hen body.
For the hen they make a nest of straw in the shape of a wreath so that the eggs do not roll in different directions. The rest of the components (eg, feathers) the hen itself will add. On the bottom of the nest, if it is located on the floor, put sawdust and chaff.Cultivation of ducklings by duck
It is better to make the nest on a small hill and away from direct sunlight, in the darkest part of the house. Artificially pritenyat this place is not necessary. If it seems uncomfortable to you, make an improvised partition. This will separate one nest from the other and create a feeling of extra comfort.
The first brood is received on day 27 after the start of incubation.
After 1 to 2 days, all chicks should hatch. So that the hen doesn’t hesitate them, the ducklings are taken to a separate box immediately after birth. To do this, you can take a cardboard box, strewn with straw and sex. The normal temperature for them at this time is 30 degrees. Therefore, if the brood turned out in the spring, take care of an additional source of heat.
After all the ducklings are born, they are returned to the hen - the duck. Better to do it in the evening. Make sure that the duck mother takes them to her, because during this period the chicks especially need warmth.
How can you grow ducklings in an incubator and how much time is needed for this?
The main advantage of growing ducklings in an incubator is the opportunity to get a brood at any convenient time. In addition, do not take care of the hen, and the incubator can be made with your own hands. Modern home incubators are equipped with temperature and humidity controllers. Therefore, you just have to follow the process, turn the eggs (if it is not provided for automatically by the incubator design) and occasionally open the apparatus for a small short-term cooling and for the removal of accumulated gases.
Before laying the incubator is heated, setting the temperature at 1-2 degrees higher than necessary for incubating eggs at the very beginning of the process. Besides, It is recommended to make high humidity. To do this, on the pallet set several trays with water.
Due to the fact that the shells of duck eggs are stronger than the hens and they are larger in size, somewhat different in chemical composition, the brood appears later.
In the first week after laying the temperature in the incubator should be at 38 degrees (the first 3 days - 38.2, the next 4 - 37.8). Humidity is required to keep at 60%. After two weeks of eggs in the incubator twice a day, it is worthwhile to open the incubator door for 30 minutes, reducing the temperature to 32 degrees. Then the temperature is resumed.Grown-up incubator ducks in the pen
If there is an ovoscope, you need to check the eggs for the presence of embryos after 9-10 days. Do not allow a sharp drop in air temperature. Chicks appear on the 27-28th day for one or two days. Humidity is maintained at 55%. After the chicks have dried, they are transferred to a box, basket, box, pre-laying dry sawdust, chaff, and straw on the bottom.
Proper maintenance and care
In the first 20 days of life, ducklings need increased attention in respect of compliance with the temperature regime. If they are close to a duck, there is no need to worry about an additional source of heating - the duck itself is able to protect them from low temperatures. In the first week of life, the temperature should be maintained at a litter level of 27-30 degrees, in the second week - 23-26, in the third - 19-22. Then they get used to the natural temperature of the air.
As mentioned earlier, litter should be dry. Otherwise, ducklings freeze and get sick.
The length of daylight at the beginning of life should be at the level of 20 hours with a gradual decrease to 12 hours at one month of age.
Ducklings with a duck in the morning and in the afternoon let out walking after five days of age. In the evening, closed in a room with additional heating, if the air temperature is below the above marks. And after three weeks of age, they can be left outside the premises around the clock.
The presence of the reservoir is very good for raising ducklings. With an adult bird they are released into the water after three weeks of life. Independently - after a month. You can keep ducklings in cages in the first two weeks. Then they are given more freedom. That is, partially walking. Monthly youngsters are transferred completely to the maintenance of walking.Содержание уток. Утки на свежем воздухе за изгородью
Как кормить утят: комбикорм, мешанка и витамины своими руками
Схема кормления утят в домашних условиях для начинающих проста. Молодняк быстро привыкает получать еду в одно время. Поэтому не приходиться приучать их дополнительно к конкретному режиму питания. У утят рост и набор массы происходит быстро. At three weeks of age, it weighs about half a kilogram, after six weeks it weighs an average of one and a half kilograms, and in 2.5 months it can already be scored because the weight reaches two and a half kilograms.
But it is better to slaughter them before the onset of frost, since in summer and autumn the main ration of food for ducks is greenery and all that they find on the pond themselves. That is, you have to spend a little on food.
You may also be interested in useful articles:
- All about incubating duck eggs at home.
- How to grow broiler ducks at home.
- How to breed Peking ducks on your farm.
- Description, characteristics and advantages of ducks agidel.
Feeding in the first days of life
Feeding ducks at home in the first week occurs 6-8 times during the day. You can make a schedule so that the first feeding was early in the morning, the last - before dusk. Finely chopped boiled eggs, low-fat cottage cheese, and other milk-based products are the main ration of ducklings during this period.
It is advisable to give food from narrow troughs, because wide dishes in the form of a brazier contribute to the fact that the ducklings simply trample the main mass of food. Drinking bowls should not be placed next to food, as the latter quickly becomes wet, and the water - dirty.
The fact is that a duck is a waterfowl. At the very smallest age, she manifests an instinct to eat food, which is either in the water, or drink it immediately after falling into the beak. Thus, if you put the drinker away from food, the duckling, while it reaches the end of the meal to the drinker, will already swallow the bulk of it. Thus, it is possible to keep clean water. By the way, it is recommended to dilute a little potassium permanganate, but in such a dosage that he could not paint the water pink.
After five days, begin to prepare mash for ducklings from the above products with the addition of ground corn and wheat sack.
What feeds should be given to individuals from one to three weeks?
What to feed small ducks at home? After a week of life, ducklings are taught to be green, because in the future it will become the main food in the diet of this bird. At this age, the duckling eats about 40 grams of various feeds. Gradually reduces the proportion of boiled eggs and dairy products, replacing them with large portions of wheat and corn sour. In the diet added feed of animal origin: fish and meat and bone meal.
For a fortnight the duckling needs about 60 grams per head. By this period, boiled egg, cottage cheese and other dairy products are completely excluded from the diet. Instead, they give more greenery. Ideal if it is a duckling. She is happy to eat this bird in almost unlimited quantities. At the same time begins an intensive growth and weight gain.
We should not forget that the growing duck eats much less. After 20 days of age, ducklings are released into the pond with duck mother.
You can use the "dry" feeding, in which the basic ration will be purchased feed for ducklings. In this case, their cultivation will be more expensive, but the ducklings grow faster.
How should ducks eat from one month before slaughter?
How to feed the ducks at home in a month? Dirt of different grain crops, millet, meat and bone and fish meal, shells, chalk, sunflower oilcake, fodder yeast and greens - these are the components that make up the diet of young animals during this period of life.
In addition, grazing them on the pond diversifies food and reduces the cost of the content by about 2 times. The total part of the derty in the diet is 40%, greens - 30%. If the duck has the ability to eat duckweed, then the component of greens in the diet increases one and a half times.Adult duck looking for food
How to keep adult ducks at home?
An adult duck (drake) can weigh from three to four kilograms, depending on the breed. The most common breed of duck meat breeds.
- Beijing: growing and gaining weight quickly, good tolerates winter. Two-month-old young animals have a live weight of about 2.5 kg. The adult duck is up to 3.5 kg, and the drake is up to 4 kg. Egg production - up to 110 eggs per year. The meat is delicious.
- Bashkir color: meat of excellent quality, well adapted to the new conditions of detention, low fat content. Productivity is high.
- Black white tits: the weight of an adult duck is 3-3.5 kg, the drake is up to 4 kg. The meat is delicious. A distinctive feature of this breed is increased egg production - up to 130-140 eggs per year.
- Moscow white: The weight is the same as that of the black beaver. The meat is very tender and tasty. Egg production is high - up to 160 pieces per year.
- Gray Ukrainian: live weight of drakes is 3-3.5 kg. Ducks - up to 3 kg. Egg production is very high and sometimes reaches 220 pieces per year.
Among the meat-egg and egg breeds can be noted as follows.
- Khaki-Campbell - meat and egg breed ducks. Differs calm character. The average egg weight is 75 g, egg production is up to 330 pieces. The weight of the drake is up to 3 kg, the duck is up to 2.5 kg.
- Indian runner - egg breed. Got its name because of its high mobility. Egg production and weight is similar to Khaki-Campbell. To taste the meat is like chicken.
To decide on the choice of breed, you need to decide for yourself for what purposes you undertake to breed them. Meat breeds weigh more, egg production is less, in meat-egg and egg breeds - on the contrary. White and French ducks are also good for growing.
Ducks are kept indoors or by walking. In the first case, they must feed more intensively due to mixed feed and low mobility of the bird.
The room should be well ventilated, moderately bright and warm. An adult duck tolerates winter well, but it is better that the room during this period does not fall below 5 degrees Celsius. On 1 square. m square bred 4 ducks.
Walking method for this bird is better. But it depends on the ability to do such walking and the presence of a reservoir. In this case, it is better to split the livestock into small groups of 10-15 heads, separating them with low partitions. From reservoirs shallow rivers and lakes are preferable. Rounds fenced low fence. They can be made adjacent to poultry houses, so that ducks can, if they wish, hide in a covered room.Adult ducks walking by the pond
Food is the same as for the young. Emphasis is placed on the grain crops and corn, with more corn in the composition. Do not give the ducks breadcrumbs, which adversely affect the poultry's digestive system.
It is also forbidden to give no fresh mash. Generally, if there is a suspicion about the quality of the feed, it is better to refrain from feeding them the bird. Do not forget to give a green mass or let out for pasture on pasture, if not near the reservoir. If there are nearby rates or a lake - drive them there. On it, the ducks will find the bulk for their food.
If you feed the ducks with non-purchased feed, their composition may be as follows:
- 40% of the derti mixture of grain crops, of which at least half - corn,
- 30% green mass
- 10% grain waste
- 7% cake and meal,
- 7% animal feed,
- 6% shells, chalk, fodder yeast, vitamins, other mineral supplements.
It is very important to give the ducklings and adult ducks vitamins, especially in the autumn-winter and winter-spring period, when there is not enough sunshine and no greenery at all. If it is difficult to buy vitamins, you can use brewer's yeast, which contain many proteins, carbohydrates and fiber.
There is nothing difficult in breeding ducks. The main thing at the initial stage of their cultivation is to be attentive to the feeding processes, give balanced food and find a place for walking and a body of water for them. Then not only your family will be with tender and tasty meat, but you will also be able to more than cover the cost of maintaining this bird by selling surplus products.
03/08/2018 admin Comments No comments
In principle, caring for ducklings is not difficult. Even a farmer with no experience in keeping poultry will cope with it. The duck is an unpretentious bird, and the ducklings will not require any special care.
In the first days of life
Ducklings, the cultivation of which has its own characteristics and nuances, are usually bred for either a tribe or meat. Feeding them in the first days of life is very similar to feeding chicks at the same age. You can give crushed yolk and all sorts of mash. Feed of animal origin begin to feed approximately on the tenth day. Usually it is fish or bone meal. Sometimes you can give the young and fresh fish. From the second week, boiled potatoes are added to the diet, as well as greens.
Ducklings, the cultivation of which is not particularly difficult, should receive food in special troughs. Some poultry farmers use pallets or trays for this purpose. This is permissible but undesirable. The fact is that ducklings will climb into them and trample down food. As for the drinkers, they should be vacuum. Usually they are a bottle turned over on a saucer.
It is best to install the drinkers away from the feeders. Otherwise, ducklings, the cultivation of which has such a feature that in the first week of life they are fed six times a day, and starting from the second - four times, they will run up to the trough after each pecking, while simultaneously washing away the rest of their food from the beak. As soon as the young are one month old, it will be possible to switch to three to four meals a day.
Ducklings, the cultivation of which was carried out with feeding with dry feed mixtures, as well as with hanks, grow healthy and strong. If possible, it is necessary to arrange walking. In the water ducklings do not run until the down is replaced by a feather. This is if the young are grown without a duck. If the female herself has eaten eggs and brings up babies, the development of thermoregulation takes place much faster. Therefore, they can start swimming with her without harm to themselves already on the fifth day of life.
Daily ducklings up to two or three weeks of age are kept on a deep, periodically replaceable litter when using electrobuggerauz as a litter, they put dry straw, sawdust, shavings, and peat moss. The best litter is dry moss peat, which is almost 10 times the moisture of its weight. Initially, the litter is layed with a layer of at least 10 cm, and then periodically add a new litter so that it is dry and not very dirty. The temperature of the air in the brodergauz room during the first week is maintained at 20-22’C, and directly below the brooders 28-30’C. After that, the air temperature in the room is reduced to 16–18’C and maintained at this level until the end of cultivation. In the southern regions of the country in the summer, starting at about three weeks of age, ducklings can be kept in open enclosed areas with hard surface. In the center of such a site, troughs or a mechanized feed distribution line are installed. At a distance of about 3 m from the feeding line to the edges of the site, litter assembly trenches are arranged, covered with a metal grate, under which drinkers are placed.
Fattening open areas must be equipped with sheds protecting the youngsters from the sun and rain. The density of the birds on the site to 5-6 goal. on 1 m2.
From three to four weeks youngsters are kept in the fattening.
With the content on the litter, the density of planting of young animals at the age of up to 10 days for lightweight crosses of ducks is 20 goals., For heavy crosses there are 18 heads, at the age from 11 to 30 days, respectively, 12 and 10 goals. and over the age of 30 days - 8 and 10 goals. on 1 m floor.
Ducks have an increased sensitivity to the lack of oxygen and they require a greater flow of fresh air into the room (3-4 times more than the chickens). Therefore, the room where they are kept should be well ventilated.
However, such increased ventilation should not create drafts and reduce the temperature of the air that is optimal for the ducklings of a given age. Ducklings do not tolerate high humidity, so it should not exceed 70-75%.
Duration of coverage: the first week is round-the-clock, the second week is 16-18 hours, from the third week until slaughter for meat is 10 hours. The illumination intensity for the first three to four weeks is 17–20 lux, later it can be reduced to 7–10 lux.
Ducklings can be grown without litter in cellular batteries for chickens. Compared with the floor content of ducklings in the cells grow 10-15% faster. When growing in two phases, the density of planting ducklings to 15–20 days of age is 30–40 heads, followed by 10–15 heads per 1 m floor of the cage. Young animals are taken into each cage, leveled in growth and development.
When adult laying hens are kept in the house: with the floor method, no more than two ducks are placed on one square meter of space, as with a more dense planting they reduce egg production and resistance to diseases.
Repair youngsters up to 7-8 weeks of age contain 30% metal mesh and 70% litter on litter or combined floor. The mesh size of the mesh floor is 20x20 or 30x30 mm. Concrete floors in poultry houses. When maintained in typical poultry houses, mechanized equipment such as KRU-3.5 or KRU-8 is used. Upon reaching the specified age, the replacement youngsters are transferred to acclimatization poultry houses. For every 100% of the hens replaced, 115% of the females are selected, and for every 100% of the replaced adult drakes - 130% of the repair males. When kept in acclimatizers, the normal density of poultry landing for local populations of birds is 3.5 goals / m2 and for heavy crosses 3.0 goals / m2. The specific front is fed by me or watering - not less than 3 cm. At the age of 21-22 weeks, young animals are transferred to poultry houses for adult birds. The length of daylight in the houses is 8 hours, the illumination at the level of feeders and drinkers is 30 lux. Air temperature 14 С, relative air humidity - within 65-75%. In the transitional period of the year, an increase in the relative humidity of up to 85% is allowed, and in the winter, a decrease of up to 50%. During the warm period of the year, air temperature in poultry houses is allowed up to 26 C and for a short time (no more than 4 hours per day) - up to 33'C. The minimum amount of fresh air supplied to the house during the cold season is 0.6 m3 / h, during the warm period of the year 5.0 m3 / h per 1 kg of live weight of ducks. The optimal speed of air movement in the area where the birds are located is not more than 0.2 m / s in winter and 0.4 m / s in summer.
The maximum allowable concentration in the air of the house for ducks: carbon dioxide 0.2% by volume, ammonia 15 mg / m, hydrogen sulfide 5 mg / m3. The noise level should not exceed 60 dB.
In areas with a hot dry climate, poultry houses for breeding poultry should have a solarium with hard surface and with bathing grooves with an area equal to the area of the house. The depth of the grooves is not less than 25 cm, the width of the upper part is not less than 80 cm, the angle of inclination of the side walls is not more than 36 ′.
When breeding ducks, special attention should be paid to what to feed daily ducklings, as well as how to care for daily ducklings. Most often, daily ducklings, especially musky, cannot begin to eat on their own and because of this they have to be fed.
Therefore, it is likely not to survive without feed intake. To avoid this, you need to know how and what to feed daily ducklings. First you need to drink light pink manganese in solution using a pipette. Independently begin to eat ducklings must first three days. Further, the feeding of daily ducklings is recommended to continue, pouring mixed porridge and boiled eggs on a dark sheet of cardboard.
Also, ducklings should be fed with feeds containing minerals, such as chalk, limestone, egg shells, and shells. For the first time 15-10 days after birth, the feed based on minerals in combination 1g. for each duckling once a day, later in 2-6 months the quantity increases to 7-11 g.
In the first days of life
The most important condition for fruitful breeding of ducklings is the effective eating of feed from the very first days. Therefore, it is necessary, not sparing time and energy, to ensure that all the kids start to consume food and drink water immediately after they are brought home. Sometimes, in the case of a large number of young animals, it is necessary to additionally use an assistant during feeding.
In order to attract their attention to the feed, one should imitate the duck's behavior, take the food with one's fingers and, rubbing it, tap the feeder. Such actions increase chickens' interest in feed several times.
Given the fact that the feed passes through the entire digestive system of the young for 3 hours, it is necessary to feed the ducklings up to 8 times a day.
After feeding, it is recommended to control the degree of zobikov filling. When detecting hungry and weak babies, they should be set aside and fed separately.
Drinking bowls are placed near the feeders, but no closer than 3 cm. It is recommended to add ascorbic acid at the rate of 1 teaspoon per liter of water at room temperature. This helps to stimulate appetite and increase metabolism.
From the 6th to the 15th day, the ducklings are fed less frequently, namely, 6-5 times per day. Now you can give wet mash. Knead them on yogurt or skim milk. You also need to ensure that the resulting composition was not sticky, pasty or too liquid. Such food will clog the nasal openings of ducklings and can lead to unpleasant consequences. Основой мешанок является дробленое зерно или отруби, а в теплое время года желательно сюда включить зелень и траву с огорода.
Но помните, что зелень можно давать только с 15 дня жизни и не ранее. В качестве зеленой подкормки прекрасно подойдет хорошо измельченная крапива, вика, кормовая капуста, овес и горох. And finally, it is advisable not to forget to add to the mash from the 6th day concentrates of vitamins D and A, as well as fish oil. This will contribute to the rapid growth of chicks and good weight gain.
Most of the vitamins and minerals that are needed by chicks of one month of age are found in green foods. Feeding ducks, like other birds, is not limited to her. Grains, vegetables, and cleaning, as well as leftovers from other foods are added to the bird ration. And yet ducks can not do without green grass, as this is the most accessible and beloved food.
The diet of poultry must be balanced for all nutrients: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, fiber, crude protein and amino acids (lysine, methionine, tryptophan). Regarding feed, at industrial enterprises feed ducks on the basis of 100 g per day.
Feeding ducklings usually always start with green food. Or grazing them in the meadow, because it is there that they get a huge amount of nutrients by eating grass. Ducklings love nettles very much. Finely chopped boiled eggs and green onions can be given to very young chicks, and low-fat cottage cheese is also added to their diet.
Already at the age of one month, the birds must be fed with hanks (boiled root crops and grain). Adult ducks, swimming in ponds, get for themselves the duckweed, which is eaten with great pleasure. Feeding the ducks is a very profitable business that does not require much hassle and money. They get eggs, meat, fluff, feather. These products are highly valued in many markets.
Feeding ducklings must be 4-5 one-time. Birds are trained to free range even at two weeks of age. Let out on the open reservoirs: rivers, ponds, lakes, and meadows. But the little ducklings must be watched by their mother.
With free content feeding can be 2-3 single.
As mineral additives, chalk, shells, etc. will fit. It is necessary to maintain duck health. Feed (g / day) per head ducklings up to two months:
grain mixture - 15-50,
wheat - 20-30,
corn - 40-70,
millet - 8-19,
meat and bone meal - 5-6,
fish oil - 0.1-1,
fish meal - 9-12,
chalk, shell - 1-5,
yeast - 4-6,
salt - 0.5-1.
Recommendations for keeping birds
A dry shed, from which there is free access to the grass, is excellent for keeping ducks. These birds do not need special care. Therefore, the ducks are bred not only farmers, but also ordinary gardeners. Special troughs and drinkers are necessary for their feeding. The first are small troughs, elongated. And drinkers are usually made in the form of an inverted bottle on a saucer. There must be a small distance between them.
Until the down is replaced by feathers, it is not recommended to let the ducks into the water. This applies to ducklings without a mother. If the duck is involved in raising the chicks, then they can be in the water from the fifth day of life. This is explained by the fact that thermoregulation is formed in them earlier, if they are with mom. If small ducklings are surrounded with low temperatures, then they die from hypothermia. We can not allow them to overheat. Birds at the age of 1 month are more resistant to cold. Therefore, they can survive a room temperature of about 8 degrees.
Cultivation of meat and breeding ducks. These birds have no significant differences in nutrition. If all the rules of feeding and keeping of ducks are followed, then at the age of two or three months they can already be slaughtered. Meat will be with good taste and high-calorie. It is recommended to slaughter a bird before it starts shedding. Because producing plucking will be very difficult because of the formation of hemp. Breeding ducks form by 5-6 months.
In the content of ducklings used lamp heating. You need to lay the litter in a thick layer and change it every day. This may be wood chips, sawdust, peat, hay, straw. Therefore, it is one of the best materials. With age, the layer of bedding is made thinner. And at three weeks of age, its thickness is about 10 cm.
Breeding ducks in the country
On warm spring days in the country, it sometimes gets boring if the owner is a poultry lover and there are no living creatures. Novice farmers often start a home business with an unpretentious bird, a domestic duck. And almost always turn out to be in the black, since breeding ducks at a dacha is relatively inexpensive, with a profitability of 100-300%.
You should not start breeding ducks if you are nervous about the constant quacking and noise. Duck family noise level differs little from thousands of din from the house. Even if you have 2-4 ducks, they will make noise all the time.
How to raise ducklings at home and what to feed?
Also, make sure that the potential noise does not disturb the neighbors, inquire in the area about the possibility and permissibility of keeping poultry in your area. For a start, a common duck, a white duck, will do. The growth rate with proper feeding in ducks is such that in the first 4 months the young can already be slaughtered.
How to breed ducks in the country: the beginning
Usually ducklings are taken not less than 5-10 days old. This period marks the overgrowth of the umbilical region, the down is quite strong and warm, the ducklings can feed on almost any kind of food themselves. To keep the ducks does not require special conditions, except for the presence of constant water (tray, pond, bath) and preferably - river sand for a full digestion of food. This is a food feature of a domestic duck; it absorbs sand and small pebbles so that solid food (ground grain, chitin, solid vegetable fibers) in the goiter and stomach is successfully ground and crushed. For a small herd, up to 20 individuals, you will need to build or use an existing pen (necessarily covered) of 2-4 square meters, with a tight-fitting door. The height here is not a matter of principle, 1.5-2 meters is enough for ducks (the question is more cleanliness and the presence of fresh air).
Water is central to keeping domestic ducks. Ducks are splashing in water, ducks are drinking more often than other poultry, so the cleanliness of water in an artificial container must be remembered all the time. It will simply be a great addition to duck farming, the presence of a decorative or natural pond next to the cottage, with your site. Usually ducks quickly get used to their place of feeding and shelter, so you can release the ducks for free grazing as early as 5-7 days. Ducks with pleasure and scatter, and polish aquatic living creatures, and in the evening return home. Be sure to follow in the early days whether it is safe to find a bird without control, and whether your farm is disturbed by a predator or bystanders.
How to feed the ducks
Feeding a domestic duck should be mixed. It is impossible to stuff a duck with exclusively grain and mixed fodders, losing important natural components (duckweed, small fish, edible herbs).
Ducks eagerly eat knotweed, chopped grain (shred), and just madly love duckweed. In Russia there can be found a leopard almost everywhere where there are reservoirs with stagnant water, or with an extremely slow current. It is floating on the surface of vegetation with roots the size of an adult's nail. If you have a decorative pond that constantly pulls on the duckweed film, then you can feed the ducks by simply releasing them into this pond, or manually catching the duckweed using an elementary net with a fine-meshed net on a flat rectangular frame.
The main ration of ducks is grain and grain products. Barley and corn, rye and wheat in different variants (proportions) should be at least 80% of the daily diet of the duck. For ducklings up to 2 weeks of age, double feeding is considered acceptable in the mornings and evenings (during daylight hours). Consumption of feed for poultry ranges from 20 to 100 grams of feed per day, depending on age.
If you have the opportunity to supplement the duck's diet with small fish and duckweed cheaply or for free, then a reduction in the grain mass to 60-50% of the daily norm is allowed, the rest is compensated by protein and vegetable food. For the convenience of eating fish, it is recommended to grind it so that the bird does not choke in large chunks. It is enough on a stump or deck with a light hatchet to divide the fish into pieces of 1-4 cm in size (for an adult duck). For ducklings up to 2 weeks it is better to chop the fish completely. Yes, and river mollusks are also an excellent addition to the feeding of domestic ducks (freed from shells).
How to breed ducks in the country all year round
If your summer house allows you to live in it during the cold season, and the desire to raise poultry has become stronger and stronger, then you can take note of the following: the duck, with all its feathered waterfowl, is quite vulnerable to cold weather. This explains, by the way, that even in the southern regions of Russia, they are trying to get rid of duck stock before the first frost.
What is detrimental to a domestic duck in the cold?
First, the power system. In winter, the duck eats more frequently and more actively than in the warm season, which is obvious without explanation. This means that in the very first week of standard two-time feeding according to the summer type, the bird will lose enormous reserves of fatty layer, and will begin to freeze (ache and die). It is also important to remember that water in an unheated room for ducks is deadly, as they are ready to drink ice water even in severe frosts, which are causing death. Either a warm room with a positive temperature, or a limited supply of heated water will help avoid negative consequences.
An adult duck is usually planted on eggs for hatching; in exceptional cases, laying hens can be used for brooding. The nest for hatching is done in such a way that eggs do not roll out over the side of the facade, and the duck could get out without any problems. Tray or box for incubation is better to remove from the main herd in a secluded place. Duck eggs in no case be eaten in any form!
We have ducks kept every second neighbors in the country. Quack from morning till night. And some sizzle, with tufts. And fly over the fence sometimes.
Mary, if a bird screams all day, there are only two reasons: tightness or insufficient food supply.
And the one and the other, it is better to prevent, not arranging yourself unnecessary problems. There is no place or feed, grass, protein supplements - it is better then keep 5-6 layers. And the crested and hissing ones are indoots, yes, flying ones. They need to neatly trim their primary feathers, the main ones, with scissors.
Bird ducks are completely unpretentious, for their breeding and maintenance there is no need to rebuild special rooms, they feel quite comfortable in any pet shed, whether it is a chicken coop, or a stable, and yet, if the farmer decided to rebuild his duckling for his ducks, it will be not at all difficult for him to do this, since the construction of such a room is easy to accomplish by following the specific, listed below instructions.
Rules for building a good duckling
It is not necessary for a good duckling to be large and beautiful, the building may be small and small, and its area is quite small. The ducks are kept on the floor, because the height of the room does not matter.
The main rule that a farmer who wants to rebuild his own duck-up should observe is that ducks, despite their belonging to waterfowl, do not tolerate dampness and excessive moisture, especially in the place where they sleep, so the duckling should be dry and warm. it should not leak moisture, including that which can get into the building along with rain and melt waters. The duck feathers suffer first from the increased humidity and dampness, they begin to fall out, an artificial molt occurs, the feathers cease to shine, their quality decreases significantly. The duck living in dampness loses appetite and, accordingly, weight.
The Utyatnik should fit the birds in size and be such that no more than 2 adult birds can fit on one square meter in it.
The best one is a duckling built of planks and wood, and any tree is suitable for such construction, including boards previously used in construction. The construction begins with the fact that two boards nailed butt, and the third across them - overlap, inside the duck-up can be upholstered with plywood, and the roof can be covered with slate, previously insulated with roofing material.
Construction should begin only by conducting preliminary exploration, choosing a slightly elevated dry place under the drain, located away from the living quarters and places of food storage. In the event that there is no land dry and free from groundwater over the entire length of the site, it will be necessary to carry out drainage ditches, which can divert water dangerous for the duckweed. ditches should be dug from each side of the building.
Building a duckling
Starting the construction of a duckling stands by digging a small foundation, the depth of which can be no more than 30 centimeters. To build the foundation, remove a small top layer of earth, reinforce the walls with formwork and pour concrete, and after the solution hardens to the desired consistency, proceed to the immediate construction.
Since the duckling is considered a small economic room, and it is impossible to keep there, except for birds, it can do without a foundation. The construction site is cleared of rubbish, deepened by 10-17 centimeters and covered with a layer of rubble or road gravel, covered with a solution of liquefied clay and broken glass on top. Such precautions are necessary in order to protect the room from the entry of rodents into it. After the clay hardens, a thin layer of bitumen is poured over it.
Building a duckling starts with the construction of walls. You can build walls of brick, stone, or boards, and the latter has a clear advantage. The tree is the warmest material, the wooden duckling is warm enough in winter and cool in summer, because ducks are very comfortable in it. A brick or stone Utinyak will require additional insulation and organization of the ventilation system, which is not always convenient or advantageous, besides, bricks are much more expensive than conventional boards.
For the construction of Utyatnik use reliable strong boards, fastening them to the dug in the foundation, or the ground iron, or wooden poles. It is important to understand that wooden poles deteriorate quickly, therefore they should be buried together with small pipes, the size of which will be sufficient for inserting columns. After the walls are built, they should be finished with dry plaster and whitewash.
The floor must also be wooden and sufficiently warm, for which it must be warmed with clay, sand, or special modern materials. Floorboards need to pick strong and heavy, such that for a long time remained as if new.
During construction, you should not forget about the need to make openings in the walls for windows and doors, which, like the walls, should be made of wood. The space left between the door and window frames should be sealed with tow or any other insulation and clogged with thick slats. Cold air can penetrate through holes that are not sealed, due to which a draft forms inside the room, which is most dangerous for ducks.
The roof of the duckling should be made as strong as possible and try to design it so that between the ceiling and the walls there is a minimum of free space through which wild and domestic animals such as weasels, ferrets, cats can enter. All gaps should be tightly sealed, especially if they are located at the side convenient for penetration.
In principle, there is no big difference between a Utyatnik and a hen house; the only difference is the presence in the last of the roost and the absence of them in the first. Especially to warm the room for keeping the ducks should not be, ducks are able to withstand even subzero temperature, therefore it is quite suitable if there is no drafts and moisture in the drain and the air temperature does not fall below 5 degrees Celsius. Low temperatures will cause birds to consume an excessively high amount of feed.
Since ducks are kept on the floor, in winter, as well as in the autumn cold, the floor in the duck should be covered with a thick layer of bedding, which is best used dry hay, straw, or ordinary sawdust left over from cutting wood. Duck paws are extremely gentle, it is them who are most threatened with hypothermia.
Keeping birds in a duckling without walking is almost impossible; ducks constantly need fresh air and sunlight, under the influence of which they begin to rush well and gain weight easily.
The plan for the construction of the walking range, which could be reached directly from the Utyatnik, should be included in the basic plan for the construction of the room itself. The size of the walk should be no more than a quarter of the total area of the catnip, it should be enclosed with any one that prevents the escape or penetration of the building material - mesh, slate, planks and equip with feeders and waterers. Высота изгороди должна составлять не менее 1.5 метра, так как утки с большой легкостью может перелететь через изгородь меньшей высоты, но в том случае, если желания конструировать высокую изгородь у фермера нет, он всегда может воспользоваться старым добрым способом устранения утиных полетов, заключающемся в простом обрезании кончиков утиных крыльев. Режут только сами перья, при этом уткам никакого ущерба такая стрижка не наносит, а сами крылья очень быстро отрастают.
Утки: кормление и уход
Уткам такой небольшой выгул крайне необходим, в особенности, если содержат их в утятнике круглогодично, не выпуская на выпас, или же в водоем. Над выгулом обязательно нужно соорудить маленький навес из куска старого брезента. In summer, ducks will be able to hide under this canopy, both from heat and heavy rain, being on the run all the daylight. In addition, the risk of heat stroke by birds, which are located on the range, may reduce not only the pile, but also the leaves of trees laid out on top of it, as well as weeds with large branches and leaves. Such a natural canopy will need to be replaced no more than 2 times a month, and the effect of it will be noticeable in the near future, the birds will begin to feed better and carry more eggs.
Internal arrangement of the Utyatnik
The number of eggs laid by the ducks, their weight and appearance depend not only on the material from which the chaffinch is constructed, but also on how well the room is equipped from the inside. The Utyatnik, outwardly indistinguishable from a chicken coop, has a very distinctive difference from it inside, consisting primarily of feeding troughs, drinking bowls, nests, and other objects of bird life.
It is important to remember that ducks, perhaps more than other birds, need a constant light source, since light stimulates the work of all internal organs, affecting the ovaries, and thus increasing the egg production of birds. The Utyatnik should be lit no less than 15 hours a day when it contains adult ducks and around the clock when breeding, therefore it is necessary to conduct wiring and lighting in the room. It should be borne in mind that in order to illuminate a space of 1 square meter, bulbs of at least 5 watts will be required that are mounted on the ceiling. The larger the area of the duckling, the more light is required to illuminate all its corners.
In addition to lighting, the heating of the duck is also important, as well as the location and design of duck feeders and drinkers. It is important to remember that ducks are big fighters, they love to throw their whole bunch on food, throwing it away and not letting other ducks fill their stomachs, because the feeders should be designed in such a way that it would be inconvenient for birds to climb into them and spoil the food.
Feeders are made of wood, on top of them as an obstacle to everything, except for duck neck set a special bar, also made of wood. No matter how hard the duck tried to get into the trough, thanks to the plank she could not do that. As drinking bowls, you can use metal containers and old pots, from the use of which they refused.
Ducks should carry eggs in special nests, which can be made with the help of wooden planks and a regular hammer with nails. Also under the duck nests, you can use the old boxes from under the fruit and long obsolete pans. Nests are filled with fresh straw, or hay, after which they are considered quite suitable for birds. For 5 ducks, one nest is enough, but for 20-30 birds there should be at least 6. You need to have nests along one wall, preferably in a darkened place, so as not to create unnecessary anxiety for the birds.
So, it is not at all difficult to build a substation on your own, but for those who have already had similar construction experience, this will not be a worthwhile conversation. The Utyatnik, equipped in the old fashioned way, or with the use of new products of modern technology and construction, is just an ordinary bird shed and therefore it is necessary to treat building it much easier than, for example, building a house.
Among other types of poultry ducks are not very popular. You can often hear the opinion that keeping the ducks is supposedly unprofitable, they eat too much feed and give few eggs. In fact, breeding ducks, taking into account the characteristics of this bird, can bring considerable benefits.
Duck eggs really carry a little - usually no more than 120 pieces per se-zone. But the meat from this bird can be obtained more than from chickens and geese. The duck is growing fast, and therefore it needs a lot of food. Already in two or three months, she may be ready for slaughter, since her weight will reach 2 kg. Another advantage of keeping ducks is that they are not picky enough. These birds can independently feed on ponds, are not too sensitive to cold (if we are not talking about ducks hatching eggs, or about chicks), they are able to rush even in cold weather - only + 3 ° C.
If we consider that each duck can bring and sit up to a hundred eggs, then the average number of surviving chicks is about 50. The weight of a duck is at least 2 kg (adult drake weighs up to 4 kg), which means that by the autumn the poultry farmer can get almost 100 kg of duck meat.
Breeds of domestic ducks
The ancestor of all modern domestic breeds, except musk, is the wild mallard, whose habitat is very wide and covers the whole of Europe, several regions of Asia, North America, North Africa. The "grandparents" of musk ducks lived in South America.
Like other types of poultry, ducks are divided into meat, common-use, egg-bearing breeds. Cultivation of ducks of meat lines is most popular in a private farm.
The most common breed of domestic duck - Peking. She was brought out by Chinese poultry farmers more than three hundred years ago. Such a bird is large, has a wide convex chest, wings tightly to the body. The legs of the Peking duck are low and strong, reddish-orange in color. Plumage color - white with a cream shade. Adult breeds of the Peking breed weigh about 4 kg, females 3.5 kg, and two-month-old ducklings weigh up to 3 kg. Peking ducks are bred for meat.
Recently, musk ducks have become popular. This breed, bred in America, is distinguished by a rather long wide body, strong wings. Color plumage - black and white, different shades. A distinctive feature of the musk duck is red large warts around the eyes and near the base of the beak. The duck differs from its European counterparts in that it does not quack piercingly, but makes low-pitched sounds, similar to hiss. Drakes weigh up to 5 kg, females - about 2.5. Meat of this breed is considered particularly good. It is not too fat, like dichinu. Hybrids of musk and other species of ducks (most often Peking) are called "mulardy". Mulardy are sterile, fatten faster than musky, they have delicious lean meat.
Gray Ukrainian ducks are distinguished by a strong constitution: they have a developed musculature, a long wide body, and strong and widely spaced legs. Head slightly elongated, small size. Neck, chest, back, lower body black or brown, dark gray head with a characteristic greenish tint. The wings are gray and have shiny blue mirrors on the edges with black and white stripes on the ends. The drake of the gray Ukrainian breed weighs 4 kg, duck - 3 kg.
Khaki-Campbell duck breeding began in England when breeders crossed wild ducks with Indian runners and Rouen breed. The breed got its name because of the color of its plumage - khaki. Adult drakes weigh 2.5 kg, females 2.2 kg. Khaki Campbell is a common breed, each duck brings up to 200 eggs a year.
Room for ducks
The main requirements for the building, which will contain a bird, - reliable protection from moisture, sudden temperature changes, an adequate level of lighting. Breeding of ducks is permissible together with another bird or animals, but at the same time it is necessary to delimit their territory with a net or solid partition of light material. The size of the house will depend entirely on the herd population. The density of landing for ducks is 3 birds per square meter. m. Ducks do not tolerate overcrowding, interfere with each other, quickly cluster and are easily injured. Duck feeders are made of wood (for dry food) and metal (for wet mash). It is important to consider the design of feeders, since ducks eat food carelessly, scatter it on the floor. Each adult bird needs 15 cm feed length for wet foods and 6 cm for dry mixes. The watering front for an adult duck is 2 cm. The nest for ducks is made from the calculation of one nest for 5 layers. The width of the nest is 40 cm, height - about 30, depth - 50 cm. At the entrance you need to nail a 6-8 centimeter threshold. Set the nest on a deep litter, which spit as pollution and subsidence. For walking ducks equip manholes. It is best to install them on the south side of the house, at a distance of about 8 cm from the floor (taking into account the place for deep bedding). The width and height of the manhole should be 40 cm each. The space for walking is preferably enclosed with a metal grid half a meter high.
Non-replaceable deep bedding in the house helps maintain the desired microclimate, generates heat, eliminates the need for daily cleaning. Such materials as shavings, straw cutting, crushed corn kernels, sunflower husk well absorb moisture. It is important to prepare the litter in dry weather, in order to exclude damage by mold and fungi. Peat has an excellent moisture capacity, but because of the dust that arises it is better to use it together with other materials. Before laying the floor, the floor should be prepared, cleaned and sanitized, sprinkled with dry slaked lime. The litter is initially covered with a layer of 5 cm, then a new material is added as it is moistened, bringing the layer to 30 in the winter and 20 cm in the summer. As a rule, it is necessary to sprinkle a new batch every 10-15 days.
Care for ducklings
Competent care for newborn chicks is perhaps the most crucial moment in keeping a domestic duck. Breeding ducks provides for keeping young stock separately from the parent flock. For the first three weeks, the ducklings should be in a very warm room, where the temperature in the first days reaches 30 ° C. Each square meter should have a maximum of 25 goals. Gradually, the temperature should be reduced so that by the end of the third week it was already 20 ° C. On the first day the room with ducklings should be lit constantly, then the duration of the lighting is gradually reduced.
Breeding and growing ducks at home for beginners
Do not shy away from ducks and household waste, tops from potatoes, carrots and beets, in eating these birds are considered the most unpretentious of all that are usually bred in the household. The main thing is that for each bird accounted for at least 4 centimeters of space in the feeder and 2 centimeters in the drinking bowl. Such a limited space not only does not interfere with the birds, but on the contrary stimulates them to speedily feed on food and speed up saturation. In addition, a small drinking bowl, or the feeder will not allow ducks to climb inside and trample all the food that these birds love to do.
The diet of an adult duck should consist of not less than 70% of grain and mealy feed, 5% of green feed, 2% of animal fats, and mineral feed - 4%. Grain, flour, greens, supplements and even chalk should be included in the daily feeding plan.
In the morning, ducks should receive a so-called soft food, which should include potato peelings, kitchen leftovers, turnips, beets and wheat bran. In winter, this hay must necessarily be slightly warmed up, making sure that the feed in the feeders is not covered with an ice crust, and, if necessary, dilute it with hot water. Meat waste, earthworms and malt can also be added to the morning feed.
In the evening, ducks should be pampered with a good portion of grain, half a handful per adult duck. In strong cold dry food can be served in the form of wheat or oatmeal, mixed with meat and greens.
Thus, ducks eat almost everything, with the exception of barley grain, oblong grain, in which needles may be present have a bad effect on the duck's stomach, because before giving the ducks barley it is necessary to soak it for at least 15 hours, and then fill it with feeder and refill with water.
After the ducklings have grown up, they can be transferred to the poultry house, where they may well be with other birds, best with chickens, as the latter climb up on the roost for the night, leaving enough space to accommodate the ducks.
Deciding to breed ducks as the main bird in the household, you should take into account such a feature of these birds as increased molt, during which they should be fed in a reinforced mode. Birds molt for about two months, and molting has a direct impact on the weight of the duck, its appetite and appearance. If molting does not occur for a long time, livestock breeders artificially cause it, without touching the drakes, in which any actions to accelerate the onset of the molting period may cause a decrease in sexual activity. In home ducks, simple molting occurs in July and October, birds shed for a little more than 120 days, and at the same time they drop tail, fly and cover feathers.
It is necessary to select the most developed and well-fed ducks for the tribe, and it is desirable that the selected ducks have one age, which will considerably facilitate the process of egg laying and brooding, at the same time the drake should be at least 1.5 months older. The duck family should consist of three birds - one drake and two ducks. In order to get a good hen out of the duck, you need to choose for this purpose a calm bird, which could sit in the nest for a long time and not fall apart at the first noise.
You can lay eggs under the duck as soon as she starts to crouch and sit in one place for a long time. Under one duck should be placed from 8 to 15 eggs, depending on the weight of the birds, they may be less or more. As soon as the duck has sat down on the nest it is impossible to touch it, during the period of brooding, the birds become extremely shy and can pass eggs. Next to the duck nest, it is necessary to place food and water, bringing them as close as possible to the nest so that the duck can, without rising from it and not cooling the eggs to feed.
It is also not recommended to carry the nest with ducks to other rooms during incubation, an excited bird can crush eggs, or lose interest in brooding and refuse to continue sitting in the nest. A big role in the proper breeding of ducklings is played by light, so the room where the nests with birds are located should be lit at least 14 hours a day.
As a duck nest, you can use boxes, or baskets, the bottom of which should be covered with a layer of sand with ashes, and covered with fresh hay and straw from above. In the middle of the nest you need to put a little chaff and only then lay eggs. Having sat down on duck eggs, the first thing to do is to pluck feathers and insulate them with a nest, this phenomenon is considered to be quite normal and therefore should not cause concern.
Ideally, a duck that sits on a nest should be placed in a separate shed, but if this is not possible, then it should be covered at night with a large mesh box, or with a regular cardboard box, the top of which is cut off. Such precautions will ensure relative safety of the bird by protecting it from other birds in the poultry house.
It is not recommended to touch the duck for the first two days at all, as well as to let it out for a walk, it can be covered with a box not only for the night, but for the whole day. The duck can be released from the house only for 3-4 days, the walk should not exceed 10 minutes, after which the duck should be pushed back into the house and let it sit on the nest, which is best covered with straw or old things during its absence .
If the duck does not wish to sit on the nest, it is quite possible to cover it with a box for the entire period of incubation, releasing it exclusively for walking and drinking and feeding. In the event that there is a need to lay new eggs under the bird, then it should be done in the evening in poor light, so that the duck does not have time to see anything, while the bird itself is allowed to slightly lift. The newly laid eggs of the duck itself will push in the middle to the others, and within a few minutes they will stop paying attention to them.
The duck incubates the eggs for up to 28-30 days, after which the first ducklings should appear, but if this did not happen, then it is likely that the eggs were either spoiled or the chicks choked at them. It is necessary to break several eggs and look at their contents, if at least one of them has a live duckling, you should wait a few more days to let them appear naturally. Understand how soon the ducklings will appear by the micro and macro cracks that appeared on the eggs a day before hatching.
As a hen of duck eggs, you can use not only the duck itself, but also chicken, goose, or turkey. In the event that the chicken is in charge of the duck brood, then a week before the intended hatching of the egg it is necessary to spray it with warm water. Make it necessary to soften the shell and speed up the process of ducklings. When placing the ducklings under the chicken, it should also be remembered that ducks are waterfowl and therefore, when walking the ducklings with chicken, difficulties may arise, especially if there is a reservoir near the house.
Usually, ducks are grown for meat up to five months of age, after which they are slaughtered, leaving exceptionally strong and healthy individuals that have no defects in the structure of the beak, membranes on the feet and the color of the feather cover.
What is the care for little ducklings
С наступлением весны многие частные фермеры начинают задумываться над тем, чтобы разводить домашнюю птицу, так как ухаживать за ней абсолютно не сложно, она не требует больших временных и материальных затрат, и при этом занятие довольно-таки выгодное и может принести прибыль. Для неопытных птицеводов вопрос о том, как правильно выращивать маленьких утят и ухаживать за ними, является весьма актуальным. Ведь от условий содержания и ухода зависит, насколько продуктивными и здоровыми они вырастут. This article will help find answers to the most frequently asked questions and will be useful not only for novice farmers, but also experienced poultry farmers to refresh existing knowledge.
Please note that it is best to buy ducklings in the spring at day old.
During the summer months they will get stronger, grow and will be suitable in the fall both for slaughter and for further cultivation and breeding.
How to properly maintain and feed the ducks at home
They can be placed in an already existing Utyatnik, at the same time it is good to wash and disinfect it beforehand, or to build a new one.
As a home for young residents, the most ordinary box is perfect. It may be plastic, cardboard, and some use an aquarium. The optimal size for such a volume is 45x65x45 cm. The box must be well insulated so that the ducklings do not freeze. Sawdust or old towels can be put on the bottom. Make sure that they are always dry, as dampness is bad for growing young.
If it is cool outside and you are afraid that the young may freeze, put a hot water heater at the bottom of the box and cover it with sawdust and towels. Water should be changed as it cools. The box must be placed in a warm place where there are no drafts, as they are very dangerous for ducklings that have not yet become strong.
Inside you need to put a bowl of water. It must be shallow, otherwise the kids will be able to climb into it and drown. Water must be changed every day, as the chicks in the chicks are still very gentle and dirty water can cause poisoning.
Lighting is important not only during the incubation period, but also during growth, as it affects the metabolism. The first 5-6 days of daylight should be 20 hours, and then gradually reduce the duration to 15-16. Do not use too bright lighting, as it often causes ducklings aggression and cannibal habits.
Be sure to take care of the house, regularly clean the litter and all inventory.
Properly selected temperature conditions - the key to successful cultivation of babies.
In a specialty store you need to buy a brooder lamp, best of all if it is 100 watts. With it, you can create the necessary temperature for ducklings. But be careful and do not place the lamp very close to the young stock, as they can overheat and in some cases get burned. By ducklings it is easy to determine if they are cold or hot. If they huddle together in a pile, then the temperature is not high enough, and if they each sit individually and at the same time breathe heavily, then this is a sure sign of overheating.
When they grow up a little, the temperature needs to be reduced, for this, simply change the light bulb to a less powerful one.
At the age of 5 days the temperature should be high - about 30 degrees, by the 10th day it is necessary to lower it to 26, then by 15th day to 24, and by the 20th day to 22 degrees.
Make sure that the humidity is in the range of 65-70%.
Ducklings grow very quickly and in two months already look like adult birds. But at the same time they are famous for high gluttony.
The first day after the appearance of babies should not be fed, as they feed on the yolk, from which they hatched. Then you need to slowly start giving them food. It would be best if you purchase it in a specialized place. This food is balanced and contains all the necessary substances for the growth of babies. To make it easier for them to swallow food, feed can be slightly soaked with water, it can be a little sweetened. They should have free access to food, as they often eat, but little by little. If the duckling refuses to feed, at first it can be fed with a beaten yolk.
In the first weeks of life, protein should prevail in the diet, so it is useful to add cottage cheese, preferably low-fat, and boiled eggs.
Ducklings very much like a wet mix of grain flour, eggs, cottage cheese and greens. All this should be finely chopped. It is best to use nettle as greenery, as it is rich in vitamins necessary for growth. It is also very useful to give babies yogurt. It can be entered both in pure form and based on it to prepare wet food.
If you want the young growth to grow strong, with good immunity, then do not forget to add vitamins and mineral supplements to the diet. After 12 weeks of life, ducklings can be safely transferred to feed for adult birds.
If the weather conditions allow the air temperature not lower than 20 degrees, then on the 5th day of life of small ducklings can be let out for walking. Young animals are not allowed to the reservoir before the 20th day. Be careful not to let them swim in cold water, as this can cause a cold, and sometimes even death.
If they walk not far from the Utyatnik, then build a canopy and a fence over the place of their walk. Such a shed will be able to save the little ones from the pouring rain or the scorching sun, and the fence will not allow them to run far away.
Without going into the process of caring for ducks, many inexperienced poultry farmers make mistakes that can greatly harm the young.
Check out the most common.
- Many people breed not only ducklings, but also other birds, for example, chickens. And in order not to spend money on different food, give them the same food. This can not be done, since the composition of the feed is different, and what fits one, can greatly harm others.
- Use processed feed. This food causes an upset stomach and causes irreparable harm to other organs.
- Add to the diet of kids food that they are not intended, for example, bread. You can sometimes add well-chopped vegetables or fruits to your food, but do not abuse it.
- Significantly prolong the fattening period.
- Let out youngsters for walking under the scorching sun.
After reading this article, you began to understand how to properly care for the little ducklings. The most basic rules are to observe the temperature regime, protect them from moisture and hypothermia, and choose a well-balanced diet. Observing these simple conditions, you can grow healthy ducklings.
Features of the microclimate necessary for ducks and their offspring
- Requirements for temperature conditions. Adult ducks are able to tolerate cold temperatures rather firmly, but not frosty. Therefore, the temperature in the house should not be allowed to fall lower than 0 ° C.
During the laying of ducks, it is optimal to maintain the temperature at 18-20 ° C, which will have a very favorable effect on their similar activity. When keeping small ducklings that just hatched from eggs, the temperature should be maintained at between 29-32 ºС.
Every week it gradually decreases to 20 ºС acceptable to adults.
The need to increase the temperature can be determined by the behavior of the birds. If they start to constantly lump together, eat less, lose weight - it means that they are freezing. In this case, be sure to insulate the house by any means.
With very high heat, birds will have rapid breathing, they will walk with their wings spread, they will drink a lot. In this case, you will need to improve ventilation.
The required level of humidity in the house. Humidity ducks tolerate very problematic, although they belong to aquatic birds. It is better that it does not exceed the figure of 65-70%.
Too high humidity has a bad effect on how birds gain weight, they can also start to fall feathers. With very high humidity, duck immunity is greatly reduced. We must not allow very sharp drops in the described indicator, ducks are very sensitive to this.
Ventilation is one of the main aspects of breeding ducks. It is very important to make the house so that in the late autumn and early spring fresh air can always enter the room and the dirty one go outside.
In winter, artificial ventilation with warm air flows will be needed. And in hot weather, birds will always be on walks or in aviaries, so they will have enough fresh air.
Artificial and natural lighting house. Natural lighting should not be too abundant, because it will have to do large windows - the direct sources of cold. But if you want your birds to lay eggs better and longer - it is very important to carry out artificial lighting in the house.
In particular, with the help of it, it will be necessary to extend the light day in winter, keeping it up to 12 hours (additionally including in the morning and evening). Starting to turn on the light is from the end of December-beginning of January, which will stimulate the loss of feathers in birds and improve the process of accumulation of body weight.
In the springtime, abundant artificial illumination well stimulates the sexual activity of the drakes, so the daylight period is prolonged by 2-3 hours.
In order for ducks to get good nutrition and grow quickly, their diet should contain not only mixed feed, but also fresh grass, mineral supplements and wet mash. Combined feed can be purchased ready-made or do it yourself. For this purpose, grain crops will be needed: barley, wheat, corn, as well as sunflower meal, fat, meat and bone meal or fish meal, salt, milk powder, premix and shells. Do not overfeed the bird, otherwise the meat will be too fat.
Feed should be poured as much as ducks can eat at a time.
In winter and spring, when it is too cold outside and there is no grass with insects, ducks at home are fed at least three times a day. In the morning and in the afternoon wet mash are issued, and in the evening a combined feed. If the ducks can already be fed on the run, it is enough to give out food 2 times a day, morning and evening.
If a sluggish bird appeared among the whole flock, it should be immediately separated into another cage and the cause of the weakness should be identified. After that, it is necessary to thoroughly clean and sanitize the Utyatnik, in order to avoid the spread of the disease.
We organize the optimal space for walking ducks: what to do if there is no body of water?
The best option for keeping ducks, and the best for both the birds themselves and their owners are free runs close to natural water. For birds, this is good in that they are able to access virtually natural habitats.
The reservoir will provide them with the necessary food - weevil, various bugs and small fish. Also, in the water, these birds just love to cool on very hot days. The advantage of this kind of maintenance is noted by the fact that such conditions stimulate very rapid growth of young animals and their entry into puberty.
Adults also gain a lot of weight, and even ducks are not obese, as they get the opportunity to move a lot.
Why are walking near water bodies beneficial for poultry farmers? Yes, if only because the summer time will not have to build special pens for the birds and bother with how to provide them with the necessary amount of clean water and food.
By the way, the feed also turns out very well to save - almost 5 times. With natural walking, the birds themselves choose the necessary diet, which is very well reflected in the processes of digestion. Also, in this case, the birds do not have to build special sheds, under which they could hide from the hot sun.
Your only task is to release them in the morning from the house and drive them to the pond, and in the evening give some food and close them back to the house.
If you have a small yard and no reservoirs, then all the necessary conditions will have to be created artificially. The most important thing is to build something like a pool or a small pond that could be constantly cleaned and replenished with fresh water.
Ducks will definitely need to provide a large amount of natural food, especially duckweed.
The pen itself should be large enough so that the birds can walk freely without interfering with each other. Ideally, the corral will be located right near the exit of their house.
Duck diet: what food is best given to achieve rapid growth of birds?
Ducks are best suited combined type of diet, when it combines not only feed, but also greens, wet mash, mineral components. This makes the food balanced, has a positive effect on the digestive process of birds.
Directly in the feed you can include:
- Various grains - wheat, corn or barley (or all in turn).
- Wheat bran.
- Meal of soy or sunflower origin.
- Peas (porridge from peas).
- Bone, feather, fish and bone and bone meal.
- Inedible fat.
- Powdered milk.
- Seashells, soldered salt and premixes.
What feeders should be installed for birds?
Duck feeders can be installed directly on the floor, as they are a type of bird with very low legs. In this case, it will be very convenient to eat. However, so that the ducks do not scatter food around, at one time in the trough do not fall asleep a lot of food, and exactly as much as the pack will be able to eat at one time.
Also, among all the birds, there are often one or two individuals who like to get into the feeder with their feet, trapping food and not giving food to other relatives. Therefore, above the feeder, it is important to do something similar to a pen that would prevent the ducks from getting inside.
Requirements for drinking bowls for ducks
The role of drinking water for these birds can also be carried out by the reservoir, but they must also be installed in the housing room.
It is best to choose wooden, with rather narrow walls. Ideally, if the water in them will flow, that is, constantly fresh. For small ducklings it is convenient to install vacuum drinkers.
Young offspring of ducks obtained through incubators and through hen
Ducks without problems can be bred and naturally by means of hens, and using the incubator.
Both of these methods are quite effective, however, when using the incubator, the ducklings will not have a mother and will have to be followed very carefully and looked after.
But the incubator is that it allows you to get the largest possible number of offspring.
After all, when a duck incubates eggs, hatchability of young stock will depend solely on the manifestation of its maternal instinct.
Also, the more brood of ducklings you want to get, the greater the number of chicks will have to be purchased.
How to grow duck young: feeding and conditions in the first month after birth
Only born ducklings are fed boiled and mashed egg. On the third day, it is allowed to add cottage cheese to it, another day later various boiled cereals. From the fourth day it is already possible to add greens and meat waste to the mixture.
In the second decade, ducklings can already be given boiled potatoes, but it will also have to be ground. It is best to provide ducklings with wet mash, which will be easier for them not only to swallow, but also to digest.
Little ducklings from the very beginning need to be taught to eat food. This problem is especially acute when young offspring are born using an incubator. To do this, the food should be brought directly to the beak so that the duckling will capture a little and feel its taste.
It is very important that the room for keeping ducklings is as spacious as possible. After all, if they are very much crowded, the strongest will take food from the weaker, thus slowing down their development even more.
They can be let out on their runs on the fourth day of life. However, be careful that the ducklings are not stuck anywhere, not lost and do not fall into the teeth of a dog or cat. Gradually accustom them to water.
How to care for ducks to prevent obesity and the occurrence of diseases
- Be attentive to the diet of your pets, try to make it as diverse and nutritious as possible. Add minerals to it regularly.
- Provide the birds with the greatest possible space for walking. It is also necessary to observe this rule in winter, because at this time birds are especially prone to obesity.
- Duck behavior is the most important symptom of the onset of disease. Therefore, if you notice lethargy for the birds, or, on the contrary, an incomprehensible activity, immediately examine the individual carefully, protect them from possible interaction with the flock and proceed to treatment.
- In order for the eggs to be fertilized, be sure to keep several ducks in the flock of ducks.
- Be attentive to the characteristics of the breed that you breed. After all, those recommendations that may be mandatory for some ducks may be totally unacceptable to others.