The grapes ripen en masse in autumn. Experienced winegrowers are able to create conditions in which the clusters remain fresh for a long time. It is important to comply with the right technology to preserve the crop. There are ways that are applicable in different cases: in a private house or a regular apartment. To keep the grapes as long as possible, the preparations begin long before the fruits are picked and each stage has its own subtleties and secrets.
Grapes differ very juicy and fragile berries, which quickly loses moisture and is not intended to be stored all year round. By creating certain conditions at home, it is possible to ensure the freshness of the crop for up to 6 months without losing the quality of the bunch and the taste of the fruit. There are several indicators that are crucial when determining grapes for storage.
Late-maturing varieties resistant to diseases and pests are best preserved. Lay hybrids are always distinguished by a dense skin on the fruit, loose cluster and tight pulp. Winegrowers note that dark grape varieties lie longer, the presentation and taste is preserved. Pay attention to the sugar content of the berries (from 15%) - the higher it is, the longer the shelf life.
Fruits with a late maturity are usually covered with a waxy bloom, which ensures safety. The berries of these hybrids do not lose color, taste and aroma from 4 to 6 months, poorly affected by fungal diseases.
During storage, those varieties whose clusters are able to remain on the vines after full maturity show themselves well. Such berries are not showered with a brush and can be stored until winter right on the bush. Shelf life ranges from 2 to 3 months. Their fruits can be removed from the bushes gradually and consumed fresh, and the last brush to send for storage.
On bright berries during storage may appear brown spots that are not associated with diseases or spoilage of grapes. In order to keep them in a marketable state, it is necessary to fumigate clusters several times with sulfur smoke. On dark fruits such marks are not visible.
A significant impact on the keeping quality of fruits has care for the vine throughout the season. The right grade is not a guarantee of success. If the crop is intended for long-term storage, agricultural machinery should be special:
- 1. Watering is stopped 40-50 days before harvest. Fruits will not receive excess moisture, the sugar content in them will be more.
- 2. By unloading the vine a quarter of the ripening fruit, you can significantly increase the keeping quality of the remaining clusters.
- 3. Nitrogen supplements in any species to limit. Such plants should be fertilized with phosphorus-potassium mixtures. Good results give foliar dressing.
Do not neglect preventive measures to prevent fungal and viral diseases of the garden. Even a few infected berries can ruin the entire crop during storage.
The later the grapes are removed from the vine, the better for storage. All berries must have time to ripen. Unripe grapes have no chance to survive even for a short time.
To collect grapes intended for storage, choose a sunny day. In the morning and in the evening dew fallout is possible, and the berries should be as dry as possible. The cut is made with a sharp pruner, depending on the method of further storage: with or without a runaway.
For removal of fruits, they must put on soft gloves and try not to touch the berries, but to hold the bunch by the comb or stalk. It is very important to preserve the prune (wax coating) on the berries.
Properly grown and carefully collected clusters should be carefully inspected and any damaged - immature, dried fruit should be removed. In order that the procedure was less traumatic for healthy berries, use tweezers or scissors with blunt tips. All brushes carefully examine, touching them only with a soft cloth.
The damaged fruit left in the cluster will quickly become covered with mold and infect the rest of the grapes. It is necessary to remove dubious berries at an early stage. Mold - the main enemy of grapes during storage. If it is noticed that the bunch is wet, it is left to dry completely. The grapes that have been washed cannot last for long.
For storage, rooms, sheds, cellars are selected that meet several main requirements for temperature, humidity, lighting and odors. Optimal conditions:
- 1. Temperature is from 1 to 5 degrees Celsius. The closer to the bottom mark, the better. When lowered to 0 ºС the room should be warmed up to the positive mark.
- 2. Storage humidity should not exceed 80%. If it is required to lower an existing indicator, in a room establish capacities with charcoal or lime for removal of excess moisture.
- 3. Foreign smells can be absorbed into the pulp of the fruit, their use will become impossible, even with complete safety.
- 4. Light destroys fruit acids and sugars in the berries, so the room should be as dark as possible.
In front of the storage facility, the room is whitened from the inside with lime, fumigated with sulfur and cooled. In the dry cool nights necessarily spend airing. During the daytime and during the rain they leave the room closed.
A well-prepared room awaits the selection of selected grapes. It can be put in storage in several ways, depending on the amount of harvest and equipment available at hand.
We list the basic, proven methods.
Prepared brushes can be paired up with long twine, thrown over a beam, cable or any horizontal support in the vault. The first cluster is attached to one end, the second to the other. The grapes are hung so that the berries do not touch the walls and metal objects. Brushes are placed at different heights so that they do not touch each other.
Observing the same conditions, it is possible to fasten the clusters for the ridge or part of the fruit branch on the stretched wire, rope, horizontal beam. Attic, attic, utility rooms are suitable for storage.
A small amount of grapes can be saved with a portion of the fruit branch. The method is similar to the germination of cuttings. Fruits are cut together with a branch in two internodes on each side. The lower part of the shoot is dipped in a bottle of water, the upper one is shortened to one kidney. Aspirin or activated carbon should be added to the water to prevent rot.
In this way, it is possible to preserve the juiciness and color of the berries for a long time, but the sugar content and aroma are significantly reduced. Grapes on a green crest in a dark room can be saved up to 60 days.
At the bottom of the selected container paper or fabric is laid - any hygroscopic material. Bunches are laid in one layer with the comb up. When filling deep containers, layers of grapes are filled with sawdust or cork chips. You should know that when using coniferous sawdust, grapes change their taste. The safety of the berries can be 2 months, but periodically the crop is inspected for damage and rot.
Wooden boxes or barrels should not be contaminated, use fresh, dry wood or make special processing of the container before laying. During storage, there should be space for ventilation between the drawers. Do not cover containers with grapes tightly.
Experienced winegrowers say that it canned berries well by sprinkling them with straw ashes. Sterile, eco-friendly material serves as a wax coating and reliably protects the berries from rot.
In a dry basement or utility room, you can arrange special racks for storing grapes. Wooden shelves are arranged with a depth of 80 cm, for ease of laying and checking the clusters manually. If the structure does not have access from both sides, the width of the shelf should be no more than 0.5 m.
First, a layer of coarse straw is laid, and clusters are spread on it with crests up and away. Fill the shelves evenly, making sure that there is a small distance between the brushes. This layout is well ventilated and it is much easier to check the berries.
The most effective way to keep a small amount of grapes is to put it in the fridge. In the conditions of an apartment, such preparation is the only way to preserve the clusters for a long time, up to 7 months.
Set the following parameters: humidity - 90%, temperature - from +2 to 0 degrees. If the berries have been frozen and once warmed up, it makes no sense to re-put them in the cold. The flesh loses its consistency, appearance and beneficial properties. Whole clusters or individual berries, previously washed, dried and placed in containers or bags, can be placed in the freezer.
Knowing the basic principles, it is realistic to arrange a vault for grapes both in a private house and in a regular apartment and extend the season of using grapes until the very spring.
What grape varieties are suitable for long-term storage
The stability of grapes depends primarily on the density and degree of maturity of the berries, as well as on the level of sugar content in them. The most resistant are considered medium and late maturing varieties of dark color, covered with a thin wax coating (pruino). It protects the fruit from pest damage, drying out and mechanical damage.
Clusters intended for long-term storage should be loose, with large, completely whole berries, firmly seated on the stalk. Unripe grapes, as well as overripe, quickly deteriorate. No less important is the sugar content of the berries - the higher it is, the better the quality is.
The following varieties are optimally suitable for winter storage:
- Muscat Hamburg and Alexandria
- Moldavian black
- In memory of Negrul
- Tayfi pink
They are weakly affected by fungal infections, retain flavor and aroma for 4–6 months, do not lose their original color for a long time.
Properly collect and grow - store for a long time. Agrotechnical secrets
The choice of a particular grape variety is not yet a guarantee of its excellent quality. Of great importance are the conditions of cultivation, and most importantly, the collection of this valuable berries.
- Excessive watering adversely affects the shelf life of grapes. Therefore, 40–45 days before harvest, bush irrigation is completely stopped. As a result, the berries lose unnecessary moisture, and the sugar content in them increases.
- Part of the grapes is removed from the bushes (up to 25%), which contributes to improving the storage capacity of the remaining crop. If the vine is not relieved in a timely manner, the berries will begin to crumble and wither. The ability to store fruit will be in question.
- Grapes need to properly "feed." Nitrogen fertilizers - mineral or organic, made in large quantities, will not allow the collected berries to lie for a long time. But phosphorus-potassium compounds increase the sugar content of fruits and prolong their shelf life.
- Fruits must be protected from fungal and viral diseases - the affected specimens will quickly deteriorate.
- Gather grapes on a sunny day, trying as quickly as possible to transfer the cut clusters in the shade. Earlier morning and late evening are not suitable because of the loss of dew.
- If the harvest is planned to be kept in limbo, the grape brush is cut in place with a fragment of a vine, 7–9 cm long.
- For stacking in boxes, only clusters with a comb are needed.
- In order not to damage the valuable wax coating, collectors work in thin gloves and try not to touch the berries with their fingers.
How to keep grapes in the cellar for the winter
Before putting it in storage, all clusters are carefully inspected and damaged or dried, rotted or immature fruits are removed with tweezers (or scissors with rounded ends).
- The room should be well ventilated. From time to time additional airing is required. Only in this way can you protect yourself from dampness and mold.
- If the temperature in the cellar falls below zero in winter, it will have to be warmed, since grapes are best stored at + 1ºС - 8ºС. Higher rates are no good: the berries will lose moisture and dry out.
- Humidity should be 80%.
After all the preparatory work, the grapes are placed in the cellar for the winter. This is done in several ways.
Storage in water tanks
This method is suitable for small volumes of crop. The clusters are cut with the vine, the long end of which is then placed in a bottle filled with water or another narrow vessel. The container is fixed under the slope so that the grape brush hangs loose. A tablet of activated charcoal or aspirin is added to the water - they will not allow the multiplication of putrefactive bacteria and maintain the freshness of the berries.
Bunches of grapes are tied in pairs with a twine, winding the comb. Then hang the crop on a well-stretched wire, ropes or wooden poles. So that the grapes do not touch each other, the supports are placed at different heights.
This method is well suited for spacious rooms where there is plenty of storage space.
In boxes or wooden tubs
At the bottom of the container lay out a layer of sawdust, 2 - 3 cm thick, they have grapes so that the clusters do not touch each other. A tub or box is filled to the top, alternating between fruits and bulk material, and then closed with a lid, but not tightly, trying not to disturb the air exchange. Last make a layer of sawdust.
Before laying the grapes for storage, the container is recommended to fumigate with sulfur.
Racks for storing grapes should have a depth of about 80 cm, then it will be convenient to turn the grapes or get them.
The optimal distance between the shelves is from 25 to 30 cm. Straw is usually used as a softening bed, but this is not the best solution. It is more correct to take straw ash, which is an excellent antiseptic and well protects against pests, fungus or odors.
The clusters are placed in one row with the crests of themselves to make it easier to inspect the crop for damage or the appearance of rot.
How to properly store grapes at home. General recommendations
- Grapes gradually lose water and become slightly "dried up", while becoming not so sweet. You can rectify the situation by dipping berries for 10 seconds in a 20% sugar syrup, and then immediately immersing in cold water until it cools completely.
- The warmer it becomes in the room where the crop is stored, the more often you need to inspect the clusters.
- Regulate temperature with the help of vents.
- If the room becomes too cold (below 0 ° C), it should be warmed up.
- Grapes, laid on the shelves, inspect, gently taking the comb to the back. Clusters in water tanks or on ropes are unnecessarily taken at all. The fruits of the boxes or tubs during the test, shift in a clean container. If the storage conditions meet the necessary requirements, it is better to limit yourself to a superficial inspection so as not to damage the delicate product.
- Noticing that a large amount of the crop is affected by mold, the storehouse is well ventilated and re-fumigated with sulfur.
- The berries can not be in the light, from this they lose their taste and aroma.
Another good way to “extend the life” of tasty and healthy berries. The main thing is not to re-subject them to low temperatures. Dark grape varieties are stored longer light, although any species of this culture are suitable for freezing.
- The clusters are cleaned of debris and damaged berries, then thoroughly washed under running water and dried.
- Laid out on a tray and kept in the fridge for 2 hours.
- Then for 30 minutes placed in a freezer. Take out, packaged in portions in containers and completely frozen.
You can use not only whole brushes, but also individual berries. It is much more convenient when cooking desserts. Light varieties are frozen in a sweet syrup: for 1 cup of sugar - 2 glasses of water (it is necessary to adhere to this proportion).
When defrosting, berries are placed in cool water for about an hour. Eat the fruit right away. However, it is better to first hold the grapes on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for 10-18 hours. Defrosting will get smoother, so that the taste of the product will be brighter and richer.
Grapes - a wonderful gift of nature, which can and should be used not only in season. With proper storage at home, it is quite possible to submit fragrant clusters to the New Year's table, and even to please loved ones or guests in early spring. Of course, you have to make a lot of effort, but the result is definitely worth it!
Can I keep grapes at home for a long time?
No matter how long the expectations are, there comes a time when you have to remove all the grapes from the vine. Immediately process it into juice, wine and preservation, of course, you can. But an even greater desire arises to enjoy a fresh berry filled with a multifaceted aroma. To keep grapes at home for several months is quite realistic, given the important factors:
For storage of grapes are suitable only medium and late ripening varieties.
- cultivar medium or late ripening with loose bunches,
- the berry must have dense pulp and thick skin
- when self-cultivating grapes pay attention agrotechnical rules, they affect the safety of fruits,
- only ripe crops need to be harvested (не зелёный или переспевший), а работы проводить в сухую солнечную погоду,
- при снятии гроздей нужно стараться не повредить восковой налёт, он способствует длительному хранению (для этого рекомендуется использовать резиновые перчатки),
- перед укладкой на хранение следует отсортировать damaged or spoiled grapes,
- wash the collected brushes It is strictly prohibited, such a procedure only accelerates the damage of the workpiece.
What varieties are suitable for long-term storage
Before you buy grapes for planting, it is necessary to determine the further methods of storage and processing of the crop. If there is a desire to harvest fresh bunches for the New Year's table, It is recommended to consider varieties that are suitable for long-term storage and in the process of overexposure will not create problems.
In memory of Negrul
The variety was bred as a result of crossing Korn Nägr and Datier de Saint-Valle. The plant with an average aging tolerates frost well, characterized by high resistance to typical diseases. Clusters of cylindrical shape of medium size are sown on bushes; their weight reaches 400-700 g. The egg-shaped berries are almost black. The weight of each is 5-9 grams. The sugar content in fruits is 16–18% with an acidity of 5–7 g / l.
- fruit covered with a dense wax coating that provides long storage,
- the plant has good immunity,
- powerful skeleton bush allows you to shoot increased yields,
- insects practically do not attack the vine.
Fresh berries are stored at home at a certain temperature for up to 130 days.
This variety has several varieties, the main difference is in the color of the berries. There are three of them: white, pink and black. All plants have frost resistance (down to -21 °) and long-term storage of berries. This contributes to the dense skin of the fruit and wax coating.
Features of grapes Original:
- bunch weight - 400-600 gr., Some specimens curtain up to 2 kg,
- berry shape ovoid, the weight of one is 10-12 g.,
- taste without pronounced notes, but at the same time harmonious,
- high yield (with proper care, up to 100 kg of fruits can be removed from the bush).
Fresh berries are stored at home at a certain temperature for up to 130 days.
Plant late maturity with a growing season of 150-167 days. The strength of the bush is average, but it does not prevent large clusters of conical shape from forming, whose weight reaches 400-500 grams. There are instances and up to 1.4 kg. The taste is simple, but sweetness is well felt (18-19% with acid 8.5-9 g / l).
Features of grapes:
- early period entry fruiting young vines (in the second year after disembarkation),
- fertility indicators and yield high
- frost resistance (up to -25 °),
- strong immunity minimizes preventive measures.
Fresh berries are stored at home at a certain temperature for up to 130 days.
The plant is medium with a growing season of 156-167 days. The variety was obtained by crossing Nimrang and Pierrell. Beautiful clusters of a cylindrical shape weighing 700-800 grams ripen on bushes. but there are also real champions reaching 3 kg. Brush density is average. Yellow-green berry has an oval shape, at the stage of ripeness is covered with a pinkish tinge. The weight of one is 7-8 grams. The sugar content is 16% with an acid of 7 g / l.
- strong immunity (allows you to grow crops without spraying)
- frost resistance up to minus 21 °
- vine does not require shelter for the winter,
- the good transportability.
Fresh berries are stored at home at a certain temperature for up to 140 days.
Ways to preserve grapes in winter
Choosing the right grape for long-term storage is only half the battle. The second part is in choosing the right method and creating comfortable conditions for the bunch, so that she looks presentable and fresh on the table. Where to store the grapes and how long will it last?
Sorted grapes can be stored in the cellar or basement in winter, if there is observed a temperature from + 1 ° to + 8 °. Humidity is suitable with elevated rates (70-80%), otherwise the fruits will quickly dry out. However, waterlogging should not be allowed, otherwise soon rot or mold will form on the blanks. To regulate this process, it is recommended to regularly ventilate the room or install a forced ventilation system. A bucket with quicklime or charcoal installed in close proximity to the stored crop will also help reduce humidity.
From time to time (at least once a week) it is necessary to inspect the fruits, identified spoiled berries are carefully removed from the brush and disposed of.
When choosing a place for grapes you should give up the neighborhood with zucchini, potatoes and other vegetables, able to excrete moisture. It is better to find a nook separate from other products.
Use of water tanks
This method is appropriate to use when storing a small amount of the crop. The essence of the method is to cut the grapes together with the vine, after which the long end of the branch is placed in a bottle (or other vessel) with water. The bunch of grapes should hang loosely at the same time, so the container is fixed at an angle. To prevent bacteria from developing in the water, a tablet of activated carbon or aspirin is added to it. This will help prevent the formation of rot. With this storage, the clusters remain fresh for up to 2 months, sometimes until the New Year.
Dry wooden boxes or tubs are used as tare. Before filling the tree, the tree should be treated with an antiseptic or fumigated with sulfur. After thoroughly drying, a layer of sawdust or straw is laid on the bottom (2-3 cm thick). Dry clusters, pre-sorted, spread on a layer so that the grapes do not touch each other. Each row is filled with a layer of sawdust. Sawdust material is poured over the brushes, and the container is covered with a lid. It is not necessary to fill the box to the top with the fruits, it is important that there is little space between the lid and sawdust for air circulation.
Proper freezing in the freezer
Preserve the taste and aroma of berries You can also use them to freeze. Dark and white varieties are suitable for this method, but the first ones are stored longer. It is important not to expose the grapes to repeated exposure to low temperatures.Grape Freeze
Sequence how to freeze the fruit:
- Carefully clean the bunches from damaged berries and debris. Rinse them and dry naturally.
- Spread out brushes on a tray so that the grapes do not touch each other. Send them to the fridge for a couple of hours.
- Place the tray with the workpiece for half an hour in the camera and freeze.
- After aging in the freezer to get the fruit and packaged in portions in containers.
- Send to freezer for storage. Storage temperature is set at -24 ° C.
Before eating, you need to get it in advance and put it in the fridge for 18-20 hours for a smooth defrost. If necessary, the process is accelerated by immersing frozen berries in cool water, but with this method, taste is lost.Frozen Grapes
Light grapes are harvested with individual berries right in the sweet syrup. Grape processing sequence:
- to wash and dry the sorted bunches,
- neatly to separate every berry,
- put on a tray one layer and send to the freezer for 30 minutes,
- cook syrup from water and sugar, cool it,
- get berries and spoon from the freezer water it abundantly,
- send again for 30 minutes in the freezer,
- repeat the procedure after 30 minutes, turning frozen fruits,
- frozen berries in syrup put in a container and store in a freezer (-20 ° to -24 °).
If you follow the recommendations of experts and experienced gardeners, to savor the most delicious berries that benefit the body, it will be possible all the New Year holidays. In addition, the grape itself is a worthy decoration of the holiday table.
And a little about the secrets.
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