Mylnyanka - an ornamental plant, popular in gardening. Its cultivation is engaged in decorating borders, flower beds and other stony landscape forms. The varieties of this plant are unpretentious to the conditions of growth in open ground, but have some features in planting and care.
Description: varieties and varieties of culture
Myalnyanka or saponaria got its name because of the roots from which soap is made. The plant belongs to the family of Cloves. In the wild, it grows on rocky mountain slopes.
In Russia, the spread of two types of soapworm, which are cultivated in the open field:
Medicinal view of saponaria refers to perennials. It has excellent decorative characteristics:
- the size of the flowers is large: 2.5 cm in diameter,
- flowers are collected in paniculate corymbose inflorescences.
Attention! Blooms medicinal soapworm from July to September. The life cycle of each flower is three days. The plant is very fragrant, especially with the onset of evening coolness.
Basilicapus saponaria - evergreen herb. During flowering, it looks fluffy and compact pillow. Decorates any, even stony landscape:
- height - 40 cm in nature, but on the home plot form bushes up to 10–20 cm,
- stems - branched and creeping, with a light reddish tinge,
- leaves - lanceolate, medium-sized,
- flowers consist of 5 petals, slightly fragrant,
- color - red or pink, sometimes - pale shades,
Planting plants at home
Growing any kind of saponaria is possible only on an open sunny site. In extreme cases - in the penumbra. The soil should be weakly alkaline or neutral. Not necessarily fertile, but loose and light. Otherwise, the accumulation of moisture at the roots will cause their debate.
- Cuttings. Effective before flowering. Saponariya demonstrates excellent results in reproduction by the apical shoots of shoots, if landed in a container with wet sand. After the stem has taken root, spend growing in the open field, and then transplant to a permanent place.
Care of saponaria
In the process of growing this plant is undemanding to watering. It does not like excess water. The crop needs moderate watering, with an increase in the dose of moisture during drought. Care of saponaria - a combination of loosening the soil and weed control. Removal of wilted inflorescences stimulates the plant to bloom again, albeit less luxuriantly. In the fall, the plant is pruned: the medicinal type is 1/3, the basiliculiferous is up to a height of 5 cm.
Council The soil around the plant is sometimes covered with a thin layer of gravel, rubble or expanded clay. It helps in the fight against weeds and emphasizes the beauty of flowering. In cold weather, the plant does not need watering.
Fertilizer and dressing baby soap
In the care of saponaria is not necessary to make fertilizer. The main thing is to monitor the density of the soil. If your site has heavy clay soil, add compost mixed with sand to the soil in the spring.
Some gardeners feed the plant 1-2 times a year with mineral fertilizers. Mylnyanka positively responds to the introduction of fertilizing with phosphorus before the beginning of the growing season, after the snow melts.
Transplantation and reproduction of plants
At one place with proper care, saponaria grows no more than 8 years. Then it needs to be transplanted. In October-November, carefully remove the plant from the ridge and plant in a new place. Reproduction occurs by seed, cuttings and division of adult shrubs.
The division of some gardeners consider mandatory cultivation procedure. It should be performed annually in spring. Indeed, during the season the plant can grow greatly. To divide the bush, carefully cut it with a shovel in a vertical plane.
To get the seeds for breeding culture is easy. They appear in ovoid capsules after flowering. Dry them after collection, and in the spring plant under the seedlings or immediately in the fresh air. Seeds can ascend independently, falling on the ground next to the flower.
Council To get the cutting, cut off the top of the branch and remove the lower leaves.
Diseases and pests saponarii
Decorative culture is resistant to many negative factors. For example, it almost never freezes in open ground without shelter. Critical to it is considered the temperature of -21 ° C. But in a snowless winter the plant is better to warm.
From pests the flower can be chosen garden scoop. Its caterpillar is gray with a red or yellow tint. A medium-sized butterfly with dark brown fore wings shows activity in the first half of summer. The most effective way to care for a plant in this case is manual pest collection.
Saponaria: combination with other plants in the garden
Mylnyanka is widely used in group decorative plantings. Looks good in combination with salvia, sage, edelweiss. Harmonious with sunflower, sprinkling, saxifrage. Combination with saponaria shade higher flowers and covers the ground at their base.
Mylnyanka - not capricious in comparison with other ornamental cultures. Adapted to our climate, the species perfectly take root on the site and respond positively to breeding. With a little effort, you get the beauty on your site.
Saponaria officinalis (Saponaria officinalis) is a plant with almost a meter of growth with branched, slightly fleecy stems, densely covered with oval leaves. Its large five-petal “carnations” are snow-white, red or pale pink. This decorative and medicinal culture is widely distributed in the gardens of central Russia. It does not require special care, and thanks to the gentle aroma itself takes care of its pollination, attracting insects.
The most popular are its varieties:
- Flora pleno - terry flowers of creamy pink shade. There are three more types of varieties of Alba, Rubra and Rosea Plen, respectively, of white, purple and pink flowers.
- Betty arnold - complex white flowers on high stems.
- Variegata - variegated form with different shades of green pattern on the leaves.
- Dazler - variegated variety with large bright pink complex flowers.
Saponaria ocymoides is a short-growing ground-cover plant with bright leaves covering the ground on branched stems. Their tops are pink-red from numerous inflorescences, exuding aroma. This species originates from southern European regions.
- Rubra Compact - with bright pink numerous colors.
- Luxury - has pale pink flowers.
- Snowy top - immaculate white flowers and a bright green shade of leaves and stems.
This perennial in nature grows in the mountains, where the soil is limestone. Therefore, before planting in the garden, humus-rich soils are made looser with the addition of sand and pebbles. Need a plant and drainage.
Acidic soils are limestone using dolomite, calcite, or hydrated lime. They are brought on a site in the spring or in the fall each 5-6 years. It is also the enrichment of the earth with calcium, which is necessary for the normal development of the plant.
Mylnyanka prefers loose soil with good drainage
How is planting carried out
Three methods are used for reproduction and planting: seed, cutting and root division.
The seeds of soapwort can be sown at different times, it all depends on the method of cultivation from seeds: for seedlings or in open ground. So at the end of autumn they are sown in the open ground for fast getting of shoots next spring. In March, they are sown indoors for seedlings, and in May - for growing perennials in open ground.
When sown under winter, seeds after natural stratification sprout in spring very well. But the seeds purchased in the spring are sold already hardened, so there is a special difference in the development of those and other plants.
Mylnyanka can be seated seeds
In either method, the seeding technology is the same:
- the soil is pre-mixed with sand and moistened,
- seeds scatter on the substrate and sprinkled with a small layer of dry sand,
- in order for sprouts to appear more quickly, the temperature in the room should not be lower than 20 degrees.
When sowing in the open ground beds covered with transparent greenhouse. When the first three leaves appear on the sprouts, the seedlings are planted in open ground, and if they are already growing in the garden, then thin out. To further plants do not interfere with each other, RThe distance between the bushes should be at least one third meter. With seed reproduction, flowering occurs only on the second summer.
Mylnyanka can multiply and self-seeding. This occurs when, after flowering from plants, fruit boxes are not pruned. When dry and warm autumn, they ripen and crack, scatter the seeds in the wind.
When grafting at the end of spring, before flowering, the apical cuttings are cut off, almost all the leaves are cut off, leaving only a couple of the upper ones. This material is first planted in the shade, and after rooting, together with the earthy clod, it is transplanted to a flower bed.
This method has two goals: reproduction and rejuvenation. Practice it in the spring. Divide the plant like this:
- from a dug bush shake off the ground,
- with a sharp knife cut the rhizome into 2-3 segments, each of them must have at least one growth point,
- some bone meal is poured into each well and a new plant is placed there.
Mylnyanka can be propagated by dividing the rhizome
Description and variations
The Latin name of Saponaria is saponaria, which indicates the main feature of this flower. "Sapo" means soap, in the rhizomes of soapwort contains saponin - a natural detergentgiving foam when shaken.
This perennial is grown for the sake of beauty and beneficial properties, but it also exists in the wild. It lives on mountain slopes in dry areas throughout Eurasia, especially in the Mediterranean, but is also found in the Caucasus, Western Siberia, and Asia Minor.
Separate several types of saponarii:
- Mylnyanka basilicolist (lat. Saponaria ocymoides). The most common decorative look. The plant grows with creeping shoots, forming pillows up to 20 cm in height. Its flowers are smaller than those of the medicinal plant, but much brighter and more fragrant, they cover the entire shrub. Flowering lasts all summer. Variety Moon dust belongs here. Being engaged in planting and caring for the basilicotus soapworm, novice gardeners need not worry. It is unpretentious, landing and care will not be difficult. Another popular variety of basilicapus saponaria is Inspiration. It is propagated and grown from seed like other types of soapworm.
- Mylnyanka turfy (lat. Saponaria caespitosa). This perennial grows dense low bushes. He is more demanding to care and therefore not so well known among florists of Russia. It blooms only in the middle of summer.
Lighting and location
Natural environment saponarii - open areas, hills, rocky terrain. Best of all, this plant will feel in direct sunlight, but will also be planted in light shade, where it requires more care. The lack of light can affect the shade of the flowers - they will be less bright.
What kind of soil does soapbox love?
This is a mountain plant, because it is well acclimatized on the low-lying calcareous lands. It tolerates stony soil and does not tolerate gluttherefore it is necessary to ensure good drainage in the area where the soap pot grows.
Also, the soil must be loose, with good access of oxygen to the roots, otherwise planting and care are complicated. Desirable high calcium content. Saponaria is most often planted on alpine hills, curbs, among stones.
The plant propagates in three ways: seeds, cuttings and dividing the bush. Here we look at the landing of the soapwort.
Seeds of saponaria are sown spring or autumnMay or October. If it is decided to grow the soapstone from seedlings from seedlings, sowing is done in March. Before germination, the container with the soil is recommended to cover the film. As soon as the fourth leaf was formed on the seedlings, they were seated in separate pots. Seedlings provide good lighting, otherwise the shoots will be long and thin. In May, it is already possible to land a young saponaria in open ground.
Cutting shoots for breeding mylnyanki possible, until the plant has flowered, that is, from spring to summer. Cuttings from the top of the bush gently cut off and cut from them the lower leaves. Then planted in containers with wet sand until the roots.
To do this, choose the most lush, overgrown bushes that do not suffer from the separation of the part. By dividing the bush it is propagated only in spring, as a top dressing add a little bone meal to new holes.
How to care for a plant
Saponarius is called the perfect solution for a lazy summer resident. But should be considered several features of cultivation and care of myalnyanka in the open field:
- Mylnyanka loves dry soil. Therefore, it should not be watered too often, and also provide good drainage.
- Every year it is cut to a third, to make the bushes creeping above the ground.
- The soil at the roots from time to time should be loosened to ensure access of air.
- Saponariya is a hardy plant, but it can freeze out in a harsh, snowless winter. It is believed that it carries frost up to -21 ° C, but it is better to provide shelter in advance.
- This perennial is well propagated by seeds. Therefore, if a large number of rose bushes are not included in the design plan, in September, seed boxes should be cut from the plant.
What to plant next?
Best of all soapbox looks on lush alpine hills. Stones and crevices - natural habitat this flower. It favorably emphasizes plants with high cuttings, such as sunflower, iberis, sage or eldweisce, covering the bare soil at their roots.
In landscape design, it is advised to cut it by a third every year, but if you allow the plant to grow, it will form large airbags. This property is used by saponarii, planting it in hanging pots - falling, twisted shoots form flowering clouds.
Little about the healing properties
The roots of saponaria contain triterpene saponins, which provide soap properties. But this does not end their meaning. Broth roots - a folk remedy for the treatment of eczema, dermatitis and liver disease.
He also proved to be an expectorant, used for bronchitis and coughing. To prepare the broth, just two tablespoons of chopped roots pour 0.5 liters of hot water and boil for 5 minutes. Saponarius is added to the composition for cleaning blood. On its own, it has a diuretic and laxative effect.
Planting and caring for a blueberry is an easy thing to be rewarded with the long flowering of this perennial. Numerous photos confirm the beauty of the plant in various flower beds and flower beds.
How and where does saponaria grow in the open ground
Mylnyanka loves stony, scanty soil, because it is easy to cultivate even lazy growers
This beautiful grassy culture grows on high rocky slopes and plateaus in Europe, Siberia, the Caucasus and Asia, starting its flowering from mid-July to early autumn and reaching from 10 to 80 cm in height. There are several varieties and varieties of saponaria, but they all have thin, straight stems with small oval leaves.
The color of the petals of different plant varieties can be completely different, and the flowers themselves are collected in small fragrant inflorescences. Decorative saponaria unpretentious, does not require special conditions for growing.
Types of plants: photos with a description
In the wild, there are more than 40 plant species, but only 10 of them are used as ornamental crops. The most popular and common varieties are the varieties of medicinal and basilicapus saponaria.
The medicinal species includes plants up to 1 m in height with well-leafy numerous stems and long oval-shaped leaves about 10 cm long. The flowers reach 3 cm in diameter and are collected in loose inflorescences of pink or cream color.
Drug saponariya deserved the love of flower growers due to its unpretentiousness, beautiful flowering and bright, strong aroma.
The most common varieties of medicinal saponaria:
- Flora Pleno is a plant with lush terry flowers of soft cream color,
Thickets of this plant look very decorative
- Variyegata is distinguished by an interesting motley color of leaves, in which light green and dark green stripes alternate,
Variegata does not bloom as bright as other varieties, but it looks good in a flowerbed due to interesting greenery.
- Betty Arnold is characterized by long stems with snow-white terry inflorescences on the tops.
Planted in the center of the flower bed, this soapbox will decorate it
Separately distinguished varietal group with large bright and very dense inflorescences lilac, white or pinkish:
Unlike medicinal varieties saponarii, decorative have larger and neat inflorescences
- Rosea Plen,
Rosea Plen - very effective, "noble" grade of saponaria
Этот вид мыльнянки интересен необычной формой цветков и фиолетово-бордового-розовым переливом
Не менее интересной и красивой разновидностью растения можно назвать базиликолистную сапонарию. This is a low (up to 20 cm) groundcover culture with soft stalks creeping along the ground, at the very tips of which large inflorescences are located, and oblong bright green leaves.
To its popular varieties include:
- Luxury, characterized by bright pink flowers growing right on the shoots,
- Rubra Compact - its difference from the previous variety is only in a darker shade of pink,
Bright flowers of these plants will decorate any alpine slide
- Camilla - light pink color,
The delicate shade of flowers of this species is very pleasant to the eye.
- The top of the snow - with white flowers, collected in a loose inflorescence,
Due to the rich white color and neat lines of flowers, this type of saponaria looks very beautiful in a flowerbed.
- Moon dust is a very popular variety among the basilicone soapwort.
Ground cover soapstone is also used for vertical gardening.
In addition to these two species, several more hybrids and varieties of saponaria, not widely spread, have been developed. This Olivan saponaria is a short, perennial hybrid with large, dark pink flowers growing in small bushes.
This type of soapworm fits very well into rockeries
A separate species is also distinguished: soddy mylnyanka — a ground cover plant with elongated dark leaves and thin stems up to 7 cm in height, which at the very base can lignify. It is characterized by delicate light pink inflorescences.
Turfly Saponaria can also be used as a border plant
Only seeds of varieties of medicinal or basilicapus saponaria are on sale. The remaining varieties are extremely rare and inaccessible to a wide range of amateur flower growers.
Role in landscape design
A beautiful rug of overgrown miniature bushes of Mylnyanka perfectly looks on rocky rock gardens, sloping areas or individual flower beds decorated with large stones.
You can put a little saponarii in the middle of the lawn or as a border near roses, decorative daisies, lilies or peonies. Stony hills are ideal for it, and it also makes sense to place the plant in hanging pots or small pots. This arrangement will allow the stalks to hang freely down, forming bright compositions for decorating the walls of the house or gazebo.
Best of all saponaria looks in combination with the following plants:
Mylnyanka will look great in pottery compositions to decorate the stairs
- sun light
This fragrant plant looks great in and of itself, without neighbors.
Often it multiplies self-seeding, which should be considered when choosing a place. To exclude independent dispersion, it is necessary to cut faded inflorescences together with a small part of the stem. This procedure will help to achieve a more magnificent subsequent flowering.
Growing methods and planting options mylynyanka
In its natural habitat, saponaria grows on poor stony soils, which should be considered when choosing a site for planting.
The place should be sunny, because the lack of light leads to the fact that the color of the flowers becomes more pale and inconspicuous. Allowed planting in the penumbra, but will have to pay more attention to it and provide full care.
The soil should not be too fertile, but lime is best, but with good drainage. It is needed so that the soil is not saturated with moisture, which is detrimental to the roots of the plant. Ideally, the ground should be loose, high in calcium and low in nitrogen. It is better to ground the ground around the landings with gravel or fine rubble.
Planting seedlings into the ground is better to remove a clod of earth from the cell as a whole, so as not to injure small roots.
Saponaria is propagated in three ways:
- seeds - you can plant it or seedlings in March, as well as immediately in open ground in May or late October,
- dividing a large, well-grown bush - in the spring it is carefully dug up, divided into 2-3 parts and planted in prepared pits, where a little bone meal is added in advance,
- cutting the strongest and thickest stems before flowering - they cut the tops, remove the lower leaves and root in the wet sand, and after the roots appear, seedlings can be planted in the open ground.
With a seedling method, several drainage holes are made in a small container, then ground is poured. Seeds are planted in it, watered and covered with film or glass before the first shoots. As soon as the sprouts hatch, the shelter is removed, and when the fourth leaf appears, the seedlings swoop in separate containers and provide bright illumination. In May, young plants are planted in a permanent place.
Saponaria is an ideal ornamental plant that does not require special care. It is quite drought-resistant and loves direct sunlight. It is necessary to water it rarely and only with a long absence of rain.
The main condition for rapid growth is well-drained, loose soil. Therefore, after watering or rain, the soil should be slightly podpushit, to give the roots an oxygen supply.
Before wintering, the plant stems should be cut by a third, and it does not need additional feedings and fertilizers.
It is better to cover the saponary for the winter so that it does not freeze out, because only the medicinal variety is considered to be frost-resistant, and the basiliculiferous is not able to withstand temperatures below -20 ° C. This perennial is well scattered on its own, and if the gardener does not want to allow uncontrolled growth, it is necessary to cut the seedbags from the stalks no later than September.
It is better to remove the box from the plant over a bowl or other container so that its seeds do not fall to the ground in the process.
Possible problems and solutions
A perennial is rarely affected by diseases and pests, but can sometimes suffer from an attack by a garden moth. This butterfly feeds on ripe seeds from fruit boxes, and lays its eggs directly on the stem of the plant. The greatest harm is caused by caterpillars moths that gnaw off the base of the shoots, leading to the death of the flower. To get rid of the pest, you can manually collect the larvae and larvae, as well as Fufanon, Zolon, Dursban, Danadim.
It is imperative to get rid of this pest, since it can easily “spread” to vegetables, cutting off young plants at the root
Excessive soil moisture is fraught with the emergence of various fungal infections: leaf spot and root rot. When black or brown spots are found on the stems and leaves, the affected areas are cut off, and the remaining shoots are treated with a Fundazol solution or 1% Bordeaux liquid. If an entire plant is affected, it will not be possible to save it.
Other pests and diseases are not terrible for the applewort, and it is not difficult to achieve its beautiful flowering in the flowerbed.
Mylinyanka's blooming carpet looks charming
Flower Cultivation Reviews
It is necessary to cut the stretched lashes to 2/3 of the length. By the way, it should be done regularly with blooming basilicolist after flowering. This gives the bush compactness and stimulates flowering.
Well she lives with us, sows new and sprawls old. On a sunny place it grows more compactly. Annually in the spring handed out in large quantities.
Mylnyanka Inspiration - carpet perennial. Grass, not a shrub. The neighbors are all asking about it: I liked it very much :-) It turned out to be a good idea to put both mylyanka and a carnation in tires: 2 fluffy caps turned out, and the tires are almost invisible!
Saponariya is an excellent plant for any flower garden. It is indispensable in landscape design for device ravatok and rock gardens, perfectly sets off flower beds and lawns. Perennial does not require regular care, has numerous healing properties and a strong pleasant aroma. Small bright bushes will decorate any area in those places where other plants do not take root.
What is needed care for my baby bath
All activities for the care of myalnyanka boil down to watering, weeding, pruning, feeding and preparing for winter. Watering should be moderate: the plant tolerates better drying of the soil than stagnant water. In the latter case, the roots rot.
The plant tolerates wintering normally and does not need shelter. Only with particularly harsh and snowless winters can you cover it with film and branches. But in most cases, the frozen bushes are restored by self-seeding.
To avoid the emergence of weeds and give the bushes more decorative, it is good to pour around them a small layer of rubble, gravel or expanded clay.
The plant is cut with different purposes:
- During the summer, faded shoots are removed to prolong flowering and to avoid spontaneous reproduction by self-sowing.
- In the fall it is pruned for better wintering. The medicinal species is shortened by a third, and only a five-centimeter trunk is left for the basilicoliferous.
Mylnyanka needs periodic rejuvenation by dividing the bush and transplanting delenok
It is permissible that the soapbox grows in one place for no more than 8 years, it grows quickly and needs rejuvenation. For thinning planting in the spring doing the procedure of dividing the bush. This was discussed above. For rejuvenation, the bush is dug out in the late autumn and immediately determined for a new bed.
Pest diseases and control methods
The most dangerous enemy of Mylnyanka is a garden scoop. She lives at the expense of fruit boxes ripening from the beginning of the summer and lays eggs on the stems. And the caterpillars eat them to the ground. Collect them only by hand.
With the stagnation of water plants are affected by fungal infections: leaf spot and root rot. Depending on the extent of the damage, either the ground part of the plants or the entire shrub is destroyed.
From spotting can be saved by spraying the bushes with Fundazole or 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Use in landscape design and in combination with other plants and flowers
Tips on decorating the soapy garden site:
- A tall medicinal variety is planted next to tall perennials - phloxes, dahlias, ferns or ornamental asparagus.
- Groundcover varieties look good on alpine slides, in curbs and other compositions with stones. They adorn the stone walls and fences. They combine iberis, saberjack, splinters, edelweiss.
- If the subterranean waters are close to the surface, the soapworm needs a mound or hill.
- The carpet of perennial low-growing varieties combines well with sage and bells.
Valuable selection varieties of tall mylnyanki are included in the flower compositions for cutting.
What are the healing properties of
Mylnyanka without exaggeration can be called a whole home pharmacy. These are rich in vitamins, trace elements and other essential compounds of the plant are used for the preparation of decoctions and infusions:
- they treat gastrointestinal problems.
- they help normalize metabolic processes.
- irreplaceable as expectorant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, laxatives.
- lotion of leaves and roots help to cope with dermatitis, eczema, depriving.
- Mylnyanka is also used to treat pets for worms.
Medicinal plant contains toxic substances. Overdose can cause severe poisoning with vomiting, diarrhea, headache. These drugs can only be used under the supervision of a physician.
Mylnyanka - this name is familiar to us since childhood. At my grandmother, in the village, it was possible to dig up an inconspicuous flower, wet its root and observe how foam, similar to soap, is formed. Indeed, the plant can not be called ordinary. This is not only a charming flower that adorns our gardens, but also a medicine, as well as raw materials for the cosmetic industry. In addition, the soapbox is famous for its unpretentiousness, so even an inexperienced, novice gardener will be able to grow it on its plot.
In decorative floriculture, the plant is used, most often, as a perennial, flowering groundcover, and the first varieties of soapwort were bred in the late 17th century. Her bright dense inflorescences of pink, purple or cream tones are crowned with thin shoots, decorated with a shock of delicate rich green leaves.
Mylnyanka - the name derived from the literal translation of the Latin word "sapo" - soap. The second, less common, perennial name is saponaria. The people of the flower received several nicknames: "soap root", "dog soap", "chistuha", "white carnation".
As mentioned above, saponaria has received wide practical application based on the properties of saponin, an organic compound contained in roots, shoots and leaves:
- First of all, the soapwort is known as a medicinal plant, rich in vitamins and useful organic compounds. Broths and infusions taken orally, treat metabolic disorders, diseases of the stomach, intestines, and lungs. The plant is famous for its expectorant, anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic and laxative properties. Gruel of leaves and roots is used externally, for the treatment of dermatitis, eczema and scaly depriving.
Before treatment with drugs from mylnyanki, consult your doctor! The plant is poisonous, the wrong dosage can provoke the poisoning which is shown in nausea, vomiting and a headache.
- Saponaria is also used to treat pets as an antihelminthic.
- In household chemicals saponin is used as a stain remover and detergent for delicate fabrics.
- Halva and Turkish delight are made from some plant species.
- In addition, soapworm is used in cosmetics based on organic and herbal products.
Here is an unusual, beautiful and useful plant you can plant on your site. But, in order to create the best conditions for mylyanyanka, it is worth getting to know her better.
Botany classifies the genus Saponaria (lat. Saponaria) to the numerous family of cloves (lat. Caryophyllaceae), and its closest relatives are the well-known carnation, adonis, and gypsophila. All species combined into a genus share several characteristics. These are herbaceous plants, perennial, rarely annuals, with upright stems oppositely arranged leaves of various shapes: lanceolate, oval, spatulate, etc. Flowers, depending on the variety, are painted in shades of pink, white, lilac, red and are collected in inflorescences in the form of a shield or panicle. The total height of soapworm varies between 5-80 cm.
In nature, saponaria is found mainly in the mountainous regions of Europe (the Alps, Pyrenees), on the Mediterranean coast and in Asia Minor. In Russia, certain types of soapworm grow in the European part of the country, the mountains and foothills of the Caucasus, as well as in Siberia.
Types and varieties of soapworm
The total number of species constituting the genus of saponaria is not so large - about 40. And even less adapted to the conditions of decorative cultivation. To date, no more than 10 species have been cultivated, however, work on plant breeding continues. The most popular types of soapworms in gardeners are:
Mylnyanka medicinal (lat. Saponaria officinalis). High (up to 90 cm) plant with numerous densely branched branched stems, bare or covered with a short nap. The shape of the leaves is oblong-oval. Large five-petal flowers are collected in inflorescences, their petals are painted in various shades of red, pink and white.
The species is widely used as an ornamental and medicinal crop and is commonly found in household plots of central Russia. This large flowering plant not only looks spectacular, but also has an easygoing temper, without giving its owner much trouble. In addition, the medicinal soapbox smells great, attracting insects from its delicate fragrance.
The most popular varieties of drug saponaria are:
- "Flore Pleno" (Flora Pleno) - different gentle, creamy pink, terry inflorescences.
- "Betty Arnold" (Betty Arnold) - double, snow-white flowers on long pedicels.
- Variegata (Variegata) is a variety whose main value is leaves decorated with a motley pattern of shades of green.
- "Dazzler" (Dazler) - another variegated variety with pink flowers.
M. “Flore Pleno”, M. “Betty Arnold”, M. “Variegata”
- “Alba Plena”, “Rubra Plena”, “Rosea Plena” (Alba Plen, Rubra Plen, Rosea Plen) - a group of decorative varieties with dense dense inflorescences of different shades: white, pink, purple.
M. “Alba Plena”, M. “Rubra Plena”, M. “Rosea Plena”
Mylnyanka basilicolist (lat. Saponaria ocymoides) is a classic, unlike the previous species, ground cover whose maximum height is only 20 cm. Soft long shoots low along the ground, forming a soft vegetable pillow. The elongated leaves have a bright green tinge, and the pink-red fragrant inflorescences densely cover the ends of the stems. This flowering perennial came to us from southern Europe, well-established in our conditions.
Самые распространенные сорта:
- «Rubra Compacta» (Рубра Компакта) – красивые, ярко-розовые соцветия, плотно покрывающие побеги.
- «Splendens» (Роскошь) – сорт, похожий на предыдущий, но с более нежным оттенком лепестков.
- «Snow Tip» (Снежная верхушка) – снежно-белые цветы на ярко-зеленом фоне листьев и побегов.
М. «Rubra Compacta», М. «Splendens», М. «Snow Tip»
Mylnyanka Olivana (lat. Saponaria x olivana). Hybrid view, derived specifically for landing on alpine slides. This is a very low (no more than 10 cm) plant, forming sprawling green curtains with a diameter of at least 20 cm. Large five-petal flowers growing from a glass-shaped bowl are decorated with pink or purple petals.
Mylnyanka turfy (lat. Saponaria caespitosa). A beautiful ground cover perennial with a base that has the ability to woody. The total height of the plant is 7-15 cm, the leaves are smooth, elongated, the flowers with oval petals have a delicate pink color. Due to its small size, as well as the previous view, it is excellent for planting in rock gardens.
Mylnyanka Lempergi (lat. Saponaria x lempergii). The hybrid form, different average (up to 40 cm) in size. Erect, strongly branched shoots are decorated with long narrow leaves and single five-petal flowers, the shade of which varies from light pink to rich lilac.
M. Olivana, M. Soddy, M. Lemperjee
Unfortunately, only two soapbox seeds are found on sale: drug and basilicoliferous. The rest in our country are not widespread and are, rather, exotics, inaccessible to a wide range of gardeners.
The use of soapworm in landscape design
How exactly to decorate your garden with a blueberry depends on the type of plant you are planting. For example, the medicinal saponaria has a rather large size, so it can be planted in the vicinity of the same high perennials, and both flowering flowers (phloxes, dahlias, aconites) and decorative leafy (ferns, asparagus decorative). In the first case, flowers of different shades and shapes will create a bright pattern, and in the second - delicate inflorescences of the soapworm will stand out against the background of rich greenery.
Valuable varieties of drug saponaria can also be used for cutting, for bouquets.
Mylnyanka basilica and other stunted species, planted primarily as a ground cover. Especially effectively, these plants look on alpine slides, in curbs and rabatka, as well as in landscape compositions using stones. Plant partners in such plantings may be other drought-resistant ground cover perennials: iberis, sunflower, and saxifrage.
A few helpful tips for those who decide to decorate their garden with a useful beauty soapy:
- Saponariya reproduces perfectly by self-sowing, therefore in strictly defined landscape compositions the spontaneous growth of perennials should be limited, preventing seed maturation.
- Mylnyanka poorly tolerates high groundwater. Planting a plant on the banks of a pond is a bad idea. And if the water layer lies close to the surface of the earth throughout the plot, the flowerbed with the ground cover needs to be slightly raised, making a mound or hill.
Mylnyanka: growing and care
Saponaria can be attributed to the group of decorative perennials, which do not require any special conditions from the grower. If there is no time for meticulous care, the soapbox can be landed and forgotten about it, and even then the unpretentious green beauty will regularly blossom, delighting the eye with bright colors.
However, some subtleties of care for a beautiful flowering ground cover is still there.
You can grow soapwort in almost every corner of your garden, the plant will take root in the open sun and in partial shade. The only exception is strongly shaded areas, although in such places the saponaria will grow, but it will bloom poorly, and its shoots will stretch ugly, trying to find the sun. It is best to land a perennial on the most bright southern part, the saponary is not afraid of burns and will feel great in the hot sunshine.
Planting soapwort, you should pay attention to the composition of the substrate. In nature, the plant can often be found in mountainous areas, where the soil is poor and saturated with lime. And in our gardens the land, on the contrary, is fertile and rich in humus. To make it more friable (water- and air-permeable) before planting saponaria, it is worth adding a certain amount of clean coarse sand or small pebbles.
Too sour, unsuitable for the landing of mylnyanki, soil can lime. To do this, use lime fertilizers (dolomite, calcite, slaked lime), making them every 5-6 years in spring or autumn. As a result of liming, not only high acidity is neutralized, but also the content of calcium in the substrate increases, which has a beneficial effect on the health of plants.
Mylnyanka, like all alpine plants, does not need a lot of moisture. Moreover, excess stagnant water can cause root rot. That is why it is not necessary to water the saponary specifically, it is quite enough rain.
The same applies to the feeding of the plant - all the necessary minerals saponaria receives from the soil. Thoughtless fertilization will only harm perennials. For example, too much nitrogen will lead to a rapid growth of green mass to the detriment of flowering.
Flowering, shaping and pruning
Mylnyanka has one indisputable advantage - the plant is able to bloom almost all summer. The first buds appear at the end of June, and the last - at the end of August. In order for perennial to bloom again, faded shoots can be removed, thus stimulating the emergence of new ones. In addition, the timely removal of peduncles will prevent seed formation and will not allow the soapwort to spontaneously multiply by self-sowing.
In the end of autumn, after the first frosts, the shoots of saponaria must be cut, this will help the plant to prepare for the onset of cold weather.
Another feature of soapworm is that the old (5-6-year-old) specimens lose their decorative appearance: the shoots grow and grow bald, and the thick curtains break up, exposing ugly bald spots in the center. Such plants should be rejuvenated by separating them or rooting cuttings.
Resistance saponarii to winter frost depends on its type. So, for example, the honeydew medicinal is capable of withstanding cooling to 30 ° C, and the soapworm basil leaved is much less frost-resistant and in the northern regions, as a rule, it freezes.
When growing basilica saponarii in areas with severe winters, cut off its peduncles should not be. Even if the plant is frozen out, the ripened seeds will give new young growth next year.
In order to avoid damage, particularly valuable, rare varieties of hybrid soapwort can be covered for the winter. To do this, suitable dry fallen leaves, spruce branches or special covering material.
To multiply saponaria is very simple, you just need to choose the most convenient method from several. You can get young perennials with the help of:
Mylnyanki seeds are quite common in the sale. They are sown:
- In October, in the open ground,
- In March for seedlings,
- In May, in open ground.
If possible, planting is best done in the fall. So the seeds will undergo a natural stratification (hardening) and will grow together in spring. However, it is not forbidden to plant the seeds of soapworm in the spring, especially since they are already on sale for sale.
Whichever method you choose, the agrotechnology of the saponaria seeding is the same. First of all, it is necessary to mix the soil with a small amount of sand, making it looser, and gently moisten with a spray bottle. Then the seeds need to be scattered on the surface of the substrate and sprinkle them on top with clean, dry sand. Sealing up the seeds is not worth it, because of the microscopic size, they can not climb. The temperature optimal for the appearance of sprouts is 20-22 ° C.
After 3-4 leaves appear on the seedlings, seedlings should be planted in open ground (in case they are sown on seedlings) or thinned. The distance between individual specimens should be at least 30 cm. In the future, the bushes will grow and tighten the entire free area of land.
Cuttings and root division
Saponaria can be multiplied in other ways, for example, by grafting. For this, in spring or early summer, before the onset of flowering, they cut off apical cuttings, from which lower leaves are removed, leaving only 2-3 upper ones, and then they are planted in a shaded place. After the roots appear, the cuttings are carefully dug out and, together with a clod of earth, are moved to a permanent place.
It is possible to divide the root of an adult soapstone not only for the purpose of its reproduction, but also in order to rejuvenate the plant. The procedure is very simple: perennial carefully dug, extra shake off the ground, after which the root is cut into 2-3 pieces, using a sharp knife. Each of the parts must contain a certain number of roots and at least one growth point. Separated plants are again planted in the substrate, to a permanent place.
Pests and diseases
Mylnyanka is a perennial, resistant to most diseases and not afraid of pests. The only parasite, from time to time attacking saponaria - garden shovel. The butterfly feeds on ripe seed boxes and lays eggs on the shoots. It is necessary to fight insects by collecting the caterpillars from the plant and preventing further reproduction.
Of the diseases can be noted fungal infection, leading to leaf spot. In addition, due to excessive irrigation, root rot can develop, extending to the aboveground part of the perennial. And in fact, and in another case, the affected parts should be destroyed, and if the disease progresses, then the whole bush as well.
Other insects or diseases of the Myllyanka are practically not terrible and occur very rarely.
Mylnyanka - a wonderful representative of the kingdom of Flora. It blooms all summer, pleasing the eye with bright colors, does not require special conditions and does not annoy the gardener with his whims. In addition, saponaria has healing properties and a wonderful aroma. Without a doubt, this plant deserves the closest attention and is worthy of wide distribution in our gardens.
Saponariya or mylnyanka is a very beautiful ornamental plant, which has very lush inflorescences. That is why it is often used to decorate borders or various flower beds. You can grow a flower not only at your summer cottage, but also in the city, but for this you need to learn about some of the subtleties of care and planting.
In Latin, the flower is called saponaria. This indicates the main feature of the plant - glanders is translated as soap. The flower in large quantities contains saponins, which are used as a natural detergent. If the plant is shaken under water, then it forms a strong foam.
The flower is a perennial. Usually gardeners grow it to decorate their territory, as well as for the sake of useful properties. But it is worth noting that the plant exists not only in the territories of gardeners, but also in the wild nature. Saponaria can be found on mountainous slopes with dry terrain. Usually grows in Eurasia, but can also occur in Western Siberia, the Caucasus or Asia Minor.
In nature, there are several varieties of saponaria:
- Basilicapus saponaria. This variety is the most common and often used for decorative purposes. The plant can reach a height of 20 cm and has creeping shoots. The flowers growing on myalnyanka are very small, but at the same time they have a very bright color. In addition, they are quite fragrant and smell great. The flowering period can be observed throughout the summer period. It is worth noting that such a variety is ideal for novice gardeners, because mylyanyanka is very unpretentious in the care, as well as care and planting will not cause any difficulties. The popular varieties include soapworm Moon dust and Inspiration. These flowers can be propagated with seeds.
- Mylnyanka turfy. Plants is a perennial that grows a small bush. He is already more demanding to care than the previous version, and therefore is not too often used for growing on plots. May bloom only in the middle of the summer period.
There are other varieties of this flower, for example, yellow saponaria or Olivana. But these species can be found very rarely. Growing conditions Mylnyanka is a mountain plant. Although it is rather unpretentious, it is best to create suitable conditions on your site that will be as close as possible to the natural habitat.
Saponaria - landing and care
Saponaria is sown in early spring or before winter (in October-November). It is often advised to plant a plant in a seedling way, but such difficulties, a waste of time, are completely irrelevant. Mylnyanka perfectly grows right in the open field: she is not afraid of neither cold, nor rain, nor heat. For abundant flowering plants need only a sunny place, loose earth. If the soil is clay or black soil, then sand, bone meal, or sawdust should be added to the plantations of the soapyards. Special care saponarii not needed, tolerates drought well, so you can water it only occasionally. Do not forget to remove the weeds, loosen the ground. Bazikolistnaya mylnyanka perfectly tolerates pruning, the plant can be formed and give it different forms.
If you pour gravel or claydite under plants, soapwort will only benefit from this, because it grows easily on rocky soils, but weeds, on the contrary, will not like pebbles.
Saponaria grows in one place for about 8 years. If it is propagated by seeds or by dividing an adult bush, it blooms for quite a long time from June to September. When the soapworm blooms, boxes appear on it, filled with seeds, after a while the seeds fall out. From them in the spring will grow new plants. But such self-seeding is not a minus at all, because in winter, saponaria often vypryava, and scattered seeds are a guarantee that the plant will not translate. But for those who care so that the plant does not scatter, they can simply cut off the green part of the soapwort, together with the unopened boxes, the unripe seeds, after flowering.
Collection and preparation of medicinal saponaria
Saponaria can be used as a medicine (soap tea helps with respiratory diseases and bronchitis, decoction of liver and stomach diseases) and like soap. To harvest this useful raw materials begin in October. Dug up and washed roots are cut into pieces (2-3 cm) and, after drying, stored in a dry place.
Beauty, fragrance, unpretentiousness, domestic use speak about the benefits of soapworm, so you shouldn’t think about planting for a long time, and you can buy seeds in any gardening shop.
Description and photo
The rhizome of a saponarius contains a lather - saponin, before the plant was actively used for washing, replacing it with soap.
Mylnyanka forms perennial herbaceous bushes, consisting of green, upright stems, covered with small, pointed leaves.
Flowers collected in inflorescences of white and pink shades, bloom in early or mid-summer. Flowering lasts until frost.
Seed saponaria sown in open ground in May or in October, before the winter. It is possible to get self-seeding from the plant, if you do not remove the seed boxes from the bushes. You can grow soapwort through seedlings, sowing seeds in March in the prepared substrate. The soil for the plant is made from a mixture of humus and sand, as long as it is neutral in reaction and breathable.
To obtain friendly shoots, the seeds of soapwort stratify for about a month, holding them in a damp cloth in a refrigerator, or buried in the snow.
The seeds are rather small, and they are scattered over the surface of the soil, just a little sprinkled with river sand. The box with crops covered with glass or a film is kept at a temperature of +20 degrees. Shoots will appear in 15 - 20 days.
Caring for seedlings consists of moderate watering and picking up seedlings on individual cups when the plants grow with 4 true leaves.
In the open ground, a soapstone plant is planted in May, leaving a distance of at least 30 cm between bushes. For large species of saponaria, the intervals between plants are up to 60 cm. The soapstone plant will bloom in the second year.
The division of the bush is used not only to obtain planting material, but also to rejuvenate the bush. At one place saponaria can grow up to 8 years, then it needs to be transplanted to a new place.
The division of saponaria is carried out in early spring, as soon as the earth dries out. The excavated rhizome is cleaned from the ground, and it is cut into several delenok with a sharp knife. Be sure to on each part of the root should be 1 - 2 points of growth. Mylnyanku sit on the prepared places, pouring into the hole a handful of bone meal.
Cuttings can be cut from an adult plant in early summer, before flowering. They take apical shoots, 8–10 cm long. All leaves, except for a pair of upper ones, are cut off, and the branches are planted on a garden bed with loose sandy soil for rooting. Landings pritennuyu from the sun, and shed a solution of any root formers. The following year, the seedlings, together with a lump of earth, are transplanted from the school to a permanent place.
Choosing a landing site
Saponarius grows well in a lace shade and with partial shading (when the plant is illuminated by the sun only part of the day). Но в плотной тени склонна к вытягиванию и скудному цветению. На слишком ярком солнце пестролистные сорта могут терять свою декоративность — выгорать.
Почвы растению нужны плодородные и рыхлые, с добавлением перегноя, песка и щебня на дно посадочных лунок. To neutralize the acidity on the respective soils, make dolomite flour, calcite or lime. It is necessary to repeat such feeding once every 5 years.
Mylnyanka does not need frequent watering. It is more important not to allow an excess of moisture in the soil (the roots may rot).
To suppress the growth of weeds, mulch the soil around the flower bushes. In this quality, the plant is suitable expanded clay, crushed stone, granite chips or pebbles.
Saponary does not need shelter for the winter. Only young bushes can be covered with pine spruce branches or sprinkled with fallen leaves.
Mineral fertilizers are used, with a predominance of phosphorus and potassium. The first liquid dressing is given to plantings in early spring, as soon as the snow melts. The second - before the start of flowering.
To prolong the flowering of saponaria and avoid unnecessary self-seeding, it is necessary to remove faded shoots. In the fall, the plant is pruned: in the medicinal species, the soapworms cut off the shoots by a third, the creeping ground covers are cut off at the root.
The flower is rarely affected by pests and diseases. Sometimes a soap scoop annoys the garden shovel, the caterpillars of which will have to be collected manually. With the stagnation of moisture in the soil, the root system is affected by rot.
Role in garden design
Tall varieties of saponaria are planted in the company of phlox and dahlia, ferns and other large-sized trees with decorative foliage. Not bad mylnyanka looks in bouquets.
Low-growing varieties are ideal plants for alpine slides and rock arias. The combination of basilica myalnjanki with saxifrage, jascolk, edelweiss, alpine bell, sage are beautiful.