Select for domestic breeding of egg-laying chickens is a rather difficult task. However, having certain knowledge in this direction, it is, of course, possible to cope with it. In this article we will look at the most popular breeds of egg-laying hens and their characteristics.
Common signs of egg laying hens
There are many different breeds of chickens in the egg direction, but all have many common characteristics:
- Egg-bearing breeds of chickens have a relatively low weight, which does not exceed 2.8 kg. However, representatives of meat and egg directions have at the height both meat indices and egg production.
- The wings are long, with a wide scope.
- Comb straight, bright red, large.
- Egg-bearing chicken breeds are active and mobile.
- Birds have a good metabolism, so they always need food.
- Egg-laying hens quickly ripen and are ready to be born at the age of five months.
- The instinct of hatching is missing or minimized.
Egg-breeding chickens do not require any special care and do not need any special conditions. But at the same time, in order for the eggshell to be sufficiently strong and solid, they constantly need various vitamin and mineral supplements.
Breeds of egg-laying chickens (the description of the best representatives will be given below) have the following undeniable advantages:
- High egg production.
- Great egg weight.
- Egg shell hardness.
- Resistance to diseases.
- Good survival of offspring.
- Unassuming in the diet.
- Lack of aggression.
Thanks to the efforts of the poultry farmers in modern representatives of the egg direction, all these qualities are developed to the maximum.
Consider which egg-bearing breeds of chickens are the best.
White leggorn is a classic egg poultry industry. This is probably the most egg-bearing breed of chickens, which was bred in Italy in the 19th century.
The bird is of relatively small size: the live weight of an adult hen is 1, 6 kg, the rooster is approximately 2.5 kg. The body is quite proportional, the chest is round, the back is wide, slightly elongated. Representatives of the Leghorn breed have a medium sized head with a bright red scallop. In cocks, it is erect, in hens it hangs slightly to one side. Eye color changes with age. In young, they are orange, in adult birds are pale yellow. Changes with age and foot color. In young chickens they are bright yellow, in older individuals they are pale, bluish-white. By these signs, you can determine the age of birds. There are more than 20 varieties of colors of chickens of this breed, but in Russia the most common are white representatives. There are birds with golden, black, brown, blue and colorful feathers.
The leggorn begin to sweep at the age of five months (approximately at 18-20 weeks), especially birds are productive in the first year of life. Under comfortable conditions, one hen can give 250 and even sometimes 300 eggs per year. Eggs are quite large (average weight 60 g). The breed of white egg-bearing hens leggorn bears white eggs, in variegated birds the eggs are brown.
According to the owners, leggorn hens are quite active and almost always in motion. Keep birds preferably in the barn with the possibility of walking. In the place of detention for the full development should be enough light and fresh air. It is also important to ensure cleanliness. The barn should be equipped with perches, feeders and nests.
For walking the bird is quite a small area fenced with a grid.
It is a hybrid of leggorn and Russian mongrel birds. White Russian is considered one of the best egg-bearing breeds. Productivity is 230-250 eggs per year (in some cases it can reach 300 pcs.), Which is slightly lower than that of the leggorn. The average weight of one egg is about 55 g. In size, this breed of chickens is slightly larger than leggorn. Birds have a large leafy bright red comb.
According to the owners, the undoubted advantage of this breed of chickens is their resistance to stress, cold and many diseases. Birds ripen quickly, balanced and non-aggressive.
This is a very productive breed. The bird is great for growing in regions with a cold climate. Loman Brown tolerates severe frosts, chickens rush even in winter. This hybrid breed has been bred in Germany.
Since these are hens of the egg-and-meat type, they are large and massive. The body is broad, the back is rounded, slightly arched. The tail is big, the beak of both chickens and roosters is quite powerful. Color - brown. The live weight of an adult laying hen is from 2 to 2.5 kg, the rooster weighs on average 2.5-3 kg. Begin to rush about 5 months. During the year one bird can produce about 320 eggs weighing 63-64 g. The shell is light brown. According to reviews, representatives of this breed are distinguished by a calm temperament, resistance to stress, friendliness. Birds calmly carry the content in the cages.
This is a universal breed of egg and meat direction, derived by one of the Hungarian companies.
Chickens are virtually indistinguishable from birds of similar breeds. The body is well developed, rectangular, the head is not very large with a beak solid light yellow. The neck of the hens is rather long, the tail is of medium size. Legs are white and yellow in color, of medium length.
The wings are medium in size, adjacent to the body tightly, the birds' feathers are silky. Chickens are red or brown, roosters are white.
The birds start sweeping at four or five months. Up to 300 eggs can be produced per year. Like all egg-bearing breeds of chickens, tetra is especially productive in the first year of its activity, after which egg production gradually decreases. Eggs are large (up to 65 g), brown in color.
Like all universal breeds, tetra is also famous for its dietary tasty meat, and gaining commercial weight quickly enough in just four to five months. Reviews of these layers are only good.
Considering the egg-bearing breeds of chickens (the names of the best representatives are given in the article) one cannot but mention such a bird as the dominant, bred in the Czech Republic. According to the owners, the breed has a beautiful appearance, quality of feed, resistance to diseases. It is also unpretentious to the conditions of detention, but the best quality of chickens is, of course, their good productivity and tasty healthy meat.
The breed has several subspecies, differing in color and body shape. However, they all have a large, massive body and a small head. The wings of the birds are tight, plumage is fluffy, the legs are short, which gives the dominants a squat and dense look. The plumage is light, black and white, motley, dark.
The live weight of an adult hen is about 2 kg, the rooster is 2.5-3 kg. Chickens start feeding at 4.5 months, and in the first year they give up to 310 eggs. Large eggs - up to 70 g, the shell is strong enough, brown, white or cream-colored, which depends on the subspecies of the layer.
The name of this breed comes from the locality where it was bred by breeders (Minorca Island, Spain). Minorca imported to Russia in 1885.
The breed looks very original. The birds have black plumage, a red comb, rather large white ear lobes and wide long scarlet earrings, giving them a rather impressive appearance. The back is rather long, sloping towards the tail, chest wide, legs high. The head is black, medium size, elegant. The neck is long, the birds beak is black. Roosters have an erect crest, large, hanging in hens.
Minorca are not suitable for industrial breeding, because they are demanding of conditions of detention.
Minorca sweeps begin at the age of five months. In the first year, they are able to carry up to 2000 eggs. Eggs are large (60-80 g). The advantage of this breed is that they can be carried regardless of the season.
The disadvantages include the effeminacy of the bird: in cold weather, the legs and scallops may be subject to frostbite. Also, this breed does not tolerate drafts, high humidity, cold.
Birds have no incubation instinct, as a result of which eggs must be laid to layers of other breeds or laid in an incubator.
Pushkin striped and motley
This is a relatively new breed, bred in 2007 in Russia.
The body of the birds is wide, trapezoidal, wide, the neck is a long vertical neck. On the crest clearly visible spike, which goes to the frontal part of the neck. The back of the birds is flat, narrowed to the tail, the wings are long. Head shape elongated, small size. Beak medium length, slightly bent. Eyes bulging, orange. Legs are long, gray. The color can be striped-motley with white down or black and white.
Pushkin's chickens are slightly larger than other breeds of the egg direction, which is especially attractive for their breeding, because after the end of the egg production period, they can be used for meat.
The weight of an adult chicken is 2 kg, a rooster is close to 2.7-3 kg. Egg production starts at about 5 months, productivity up to 280-290 eggs per year. The shell is durable, white or light cream, weighing up to 60 g.
Pushkin breed of chickens unpretentious to the conditions of detention. The temper is calm. According to farmers, in case of danger, the birds do not run away, but squat, bending down to the ground, so when they are slaughtered they are easy to catch.
The bird was bred in Germany by crossing the hens brought from other countries with local specimens.
The Hamburg breed is distinguished by a slender, elongated body of medium size, a long neck, and a raised chest high, which gives it a proud look. The color of the comb is pink, the ear lobes are as white as in Minorca.
Since several breeds of chickens participated in the breeding of the Hamburg breed, their color can be very different - black, white, fawn, silver-striped, partridge, spotted, golden-striped, blue.
Layers weigh 1.5-2 kg, cockerels about 2-2.5 kg. For the year, one chicken hen is able to carry up to 380-400 eggs weighing 45-50 g. White eggshell.
So, we looked at what breeds of chickens are the most egg-bearing, learned the reviews of the owners. When choosing poultry, it is important to consider:
- Purpose of breeding: for periodic sale or uninterrupted production of eggs.
- What is the area allocated for breeding chickens.
- Conditions in which the bird will be contained: in cages, aviary.
- In which region, and in what climatic conditions will be raised chickens.
- The degree of adaptation of a particular breed to these conditions.
- Availability and price of chicks of the selected breed.
It is worth buying young stock only after all the nuances of future breeding have been thought out and premises intended for keeping poultry are organized. It is also important to read the detailed literature on what breed of chicken is egg-bearing and full breeding description. Only if these conditions are met, the chickens throughout the year will be able to please with beautiful, large and even eggs.
Legorn is a popular egg-bearing breed in the countries of America, Europe and Central Asia. The bird has deserved such popularity due to adaptive abilities and high egg production. Legorn is a highly productive breed, therefore it is grown both in large enterprises and in domestic conditions. The bird is calm and friendly, quickly getting used to the owner. Easily tolerates temperature extremes.
As for the deficiencies, in Legornov in the second year of life, egg production significantly decreases. Experienced farmers and poultry farmers advise to change the bird every one and a half years. But, due to the fact that this breed has no incubation instinct, eggs have to be incubated in an incubator, thrown to other chickens or to buy new young.Legorn chickens are calm and friendly
Butcher Brook Brown
Lohman Braun is a popular butcher’s German breed of chickens, originally bred in Germany. Although the bird is of the combined type, its fame was due to the high egg production.
- Eggs are large and strong, up to 65 g (at the beginning of laying eggs are small). With high-quality feeding, about 300-320 eggs are carried annually,
- The survival rate of a newborn bird is almost 100%,
- Unpretentious to the conditions of detention. Quickly acclimatize and get used to the environment.
- Puberty reaches 135 days, and grows to 161 days,
- They begin to rush to the fifth week of life (the peak of intensive masonry is 160-180 days).
- After 80 days of intensive laying, egg production decreases (poultry renewal is required),
- Reproduction is possible only by breeding, as crosses in "home conditions" are not divorced.
Egg Haysex Brown
Large breed of hens Hisex Brown brown color of the egg direction. To the environment Hisex Brown adapts quickly, but despite this, the bird requires good care and a large area for walking.
- Highly productive breed (300-320 eggs),
- Low feed intake (10 eggs - 1.4 kg),
- The eggshell is strong,
- Survival rate of 98%
- Deprived incubation instinct,
- Egg production is not transmitted to the next offspring when crossed with another species,
- It requires a lot of free space
- The bird is productive only with proper and balanced feeding.
Domestic Chicken - Andalusian Blue
Andalusian blue - an exotic breed, belongs to the hens of meat and egg direction. In chicken houses, chickens are popular because of their appearance, they are bred in small private areas for decorative purposes.
Adult bird weighs 2 -2.5 kg. In the first year of life, egg production is 180 pcs. weighing 60g. Puberty occurs at six months, the survival rate of newborns is 93%, and in adults - 87%.Andalusian Blue - meat-breeding chickens
Brekel is one of the earliest representatives of egg-laying hens. The bird has good immunity and good health. The meat tastes like a game, and this is appreciated. Breed large, roosters reach in weight up to 2-2.75 kg, and hens - 1.75-2.25 kg. The color is golden or silver.
- High egg production rates
- Energetic - they can walk around the territory all day long looking for food,
- They get along with other home animals
- Chickens quickly feather and gain weight.
- Unpretentious to external weather conditions.
- There is no maternity instinct,
- Does not transfer closed spaces and cells.
The Italian partridge (brown or brown Leghorn) is one of the first birds of the egg direction. Thanks to the excellent genetics that have been handed down from generation to generation, the layers have high egg production and survival rates, as well as strong adaptive abilities. Chickens are common in Russia and Europe.
Most farmers and poultry farmers who breed this breed respond well to it. Especially distinguish the fact that chickens are calm in nature, unpretentious to the way of keeping, and have greater productivity.Italian partridge chicken is calm and unpretentious to the conditions of detention
Chickens Minorca is a decorative look, which has an amazing color - it is black with iridescent green shades. The comb of the rooster is interesting, a little bit like a crown, and in the hen it is small, beautiful and slightly tilted. The lobes are large, white.
- Chicks grow rapidly and have a high survival rate,
- Begin to rush early - at 6 months of life,
- Egg-laying year round,
- Eggs are large, strong and nutritious,
- Friendly character.
- The bird is shy, therefore it is difficult to approach it,
- Poorly tolerates high humidity and low temperatures,
- Does not incubate eggs.
Egg breed I-33
B-33 - a type of mini-egg direction created in Russia. Nowadays, they are becoming more and more popular because they are great for small households.
- Nestlings grow quickly
- Well digests various food,
- Feels great in a cage or aviary,
- They carry large eggs relative to their body size,
- Do not dig the ground
- Highly profitable
- Character calm.
- In wet weather, because of short legs, chickens, touching wet ground, are at risk of getting sick,
- Weak spot - legs, which are recommended to be periodically checked,
- You can not cross the birds with different color, so they are kept in separate cells.
Ushanka or Ukrainian Ushanka - distributed in southern Russia and Ukraine. Often divorced for decorative purposes due to the bright color and interesting appearance. The weight of adults is: rooster - 2.8-3 kg, layer - up to 2 kg.
The number of Ushanka has significantly decreased lately, as productive figures are below average, while mainly private and collection farms are engaged in breeding.Ushanka is divorced often for decorative purposes.
High Line is a well-established bird with no serious flaws. Calm and unpretentious, friendly attitude to other agricultural animals. Thanks to good immunity and high viability, the chicken is considered highly profitable.
Experienced farmers point out that High Line chickens are well bred both in large chicken farms and in small domestic areas. Separately, it is worth noting that this bird must be vaccinated on time, otherwise it will not be possible to avoid the almost complete extinction of the population. As for the conditions of detention, there are no individual requirements.Highly profitable grade High Line
Haysex White Breeding Layer
Hisex White stands out among the other breeds of the egg direction in that the low cost of feed corresponds to the high egg production of chickens.
- Puberty reaches the 20th week of life,
- Survival rate of young 96%,
- The weight of one egg is up to 70 gr.
- When crossed with other breeds, productivity decreases
- Large territory for walking,
- Ventilated coop with constant lighting.
Shaver layer hens are well known for their high egg production and low feed intake. The breed is one of the most calm and friendly birds that distinguishes it from the rest of the crosses. Was withdrawn in Holland. Significant flaws or deviations are not noticed.
- High immunity
- Laying time is 80 weeks,
- Youngsters are gaining weight quickly.
- Excellent taste of eggs.
For all the time of breeding work, about 50 breeds and crosses of egg-laying hens were created and improved: they all have their own characteristics and productive indicators, allowing to choose a more profitable breed.
The average weight of an adult female will be 2.7 kg, and the female 3.5 kg. In the year one layer is able to give 170 eggs. The mass of one is 58 kg, but the shell is yellow-brown. Young chicks have a fairly high survival rate. And all this thanks to the high immunity and unpretentiousness in terms of care. For these birds do not need to create special conditions of detention and to make an original diet.
Representatives of this breed are among the most egg-laying of all species of bird. This name was given to chickens due to the fact that they have fluffy hair on their ears. It seems as if they have a hat on their heads.
The following characteristics of this breed can be distinguished:
- The head of the birds is average; it is decorated with a pink leaf-shaped comb.
- The ear lobes are red and covered with sideburns.
- The bill is small and curved.
- The neck is short, the back is straightened. Such characteristics are peculiar to both male and female.
- Limbs naked, as there is no plumage.
- The color of the birds may be black-red or brown-red. View additional photos of Ukrainian Black Breed chickens, you can from the article on the link.
Representatives of this breed are distinguished by unpretentiousness to the content. They can be fed moderately so that the bird gains a weight of about 2 kg. Each year, the hen is able to give 160 eggs. The first time a bird rushes at 5 months of age.
This breed was bred in Poland in the early 20th century. Its representatives have an attractive appearance. The belly, thighs and sternum are covered with black feathers, while the other parts are covered in red. Males of this breed look more feasible against the background of females. Their mane is represented in a bright orange color, the comb is red, and the limbs are green.
Carpathian greengrass can give first eggs at 6 months. During the year one layer is able to give 180 pieces. There is no cholesterol in eggs, so this product is very useful for humans.
- Catherine, 43 years: “I have been engaged in breeding Tetra smokers for several years. I liked this breed because the birds are capable of producing enough eggs with minimal care, and after 2 years I send them to slaughter. Their meat is tasty, tender and lean. I feed the hens with fresh grass, wheat, corn, I buy special foods, rich in vitamins and calcium. I can get up to 5 eggs from one chicken per week. This is a pretty good result. In winter, they are kept in the barn, which is specially equipped for them. It has a heater and lighting. In the summer, they are all day on the street, where they can enjoy delicious grass and insects. ”
- Egor, 34 years old: “In my house there are two breeds of chickens - Minorca and Sussex. The first type of chicken is able to give only eggs, because the meat they have is tough, tasteless, and the weight of the birds is too small. But Sussex is a universal breed. I feed them the same way. I make the compound feed myself, in the summer, when it's warm, I keep it outside. Equipped for them a special place. The birds are quite calm, they do not show aggression towards each other. ”
It’s quite difficult to choose an egg-breeding breed among such a variety. Each of these types of layers is unique in its own way. So the choice should be approached as responsibly as possible. It is necessary to pay attention not only to the egg production of a particular breed, but also to the conditions of its housing, diet, health status and degree of survival.