Delphinium, popularly referred to as the “bungler”, is a perennial plant up to 2 m high with numerous stems (10-15). The plant has gained love and popularity due to large (up to 7 cm) unreal beauty of blue, white, blue, purple and yellow flowers, gathered in spectacular huge racemes with a diameter of 80 cm. Spore is quite unpretentious, tolerates cold snap and drought, needs moderate quantities moisture. Landing carry out seeds right away in open ground or seedling method.
Where to plant delphiniums?
Optimal plant a delphinium in clay and loamy soils, low acid, enriched with organic (compost, humus, ash) and granulated mineral fertilizers. It is better to choose a place sufficiently warmed by the sun and protected from gusts of wind. It is preferable to protect the plant from direct sunlight at noon, as some varieties of delphinium can fade.
It is not recommended to plant a delphinium in the lowlands, it is better to prefer a raised place. Excess moisture is not very well tolerated by these flowers.
Over time, the delphinium bushes grow, degenerate, shrink. Therefore, once every 3-4 years it is recommended to rejuvenate the flowers - plant them. At the same time the place to change is not necessary. It is necessary to carefully dig up the plants along with the roots and lump of earth, reject the weak and leave healthy specimens. They dig up the flower bed, add fresh soil, complex and nitrogen fertilizers and plant the bushes again.
Sowing seeds in open ground
Planting delphinium seeds in open ground produce most often in the spring - in the month of May. Humus, peat (2 kg per m2), nitrophoska (about 10 g per m2) and wood ash at the rate of 100 g per m2 are added to a small area. After digging up the soil to a depth of about 20-25 cm, tamping, leveling and watering the grooves made, the seeds are sown. Finally, the area is covered with a thin layer of sifted soil (about 1 cm), slightly compacted and covered with polyethylene, agrofabric (agrofibre) or sacking. To increase the similarity of seed, it is desirable to withstand 12-14 days in the wet state at a temperature of about 5 ° C.
A little about care: 1 time in 3 days, the crops are watered at the rate of about 2 liters of water per m2. Immediately after germination (for 20-25 days after sowing) the covering material is removed. Caring for plants in the summer is watering, feeding and loosening the soil. As a top dressing, preference is given to a solution of cow manure or mulching of the soil by 2-3 cm layer of peat. Next spring, the delphinium is seated at a permanent place, and even then the delphiniums will delight in lush flowering.
Planting delphinium seedlings
When growing delphinium seedlings bloom may be achieved in the first year of planting.
Seedlings are planted in pots or sowing boxes in late February - early March, and transferred to open ground in June. Seed germination can be increased by placing them in a refrigerator for 2 months (stratification). Depth of sowing seeds for seedlings: 3-4 mm. Grown up seedlings are recommended to swoop into separate containers with a diameter of 7-10 cm. And in May, they are hardened on a glazed balcony or outdoors at a temperature of at least +8 degrees.
All summer you need to regularly water the bore under the root, excluding moisture on the flowers and leaves. The delphinium perennial is especially sensitive to the lack of moisture in the budding phase.
Planting delphinium in autumn (wintering under the winter)
Delphiniums can be planted in the fall (in the event that I want to achieve early flowering, but not willing to mess with seedlings). Seeds are dipped in the ground in autumn - in early October. Other sources advise doing this in November. When sub-winter sowing, seeds go through a process of natural stratification.
Sown seeds are sprinkled with a mixture of river sand and peat (1 to 1) and covered with spruce, foliage or burlap. How to sprout shoots, shelter removed.
The survival rate of seedlings when the wintering season is lower than when planting seedlings in spring or seeds in open ground. Therefore, in the fall, you need to plant 20-30% more seeds than you would have done in the spring.
Reproduction division of rhizome
The rhizomes of plants 3-4 years old are dug in the spring or in September, cut with a knife into 7-10 parts between the buds or new shoots. Each part, which must be with buds or at least 1 shoot, planted in a flower garden. In the same year, the wiper is already in bloom. Usually bloom lasts 1.5-2 months.
Abundant flowering will begin only next season, but may occur twice: in June and August.
Planting varietal delphiniums
Varietal species of delphinium are propagated by seeds or segments of rhizomes. After sowing seeds in early March, the first shoots appear in the boxes after only 20 days without picking. In May, it is already possible to land delphiniums shallowly in a garden bed, picking them up 3 pieces per well. By August, the plants are already thrown over the small inflorescence.
Deep planting is not recommended to prevent rotting of the plant. In the phase of full bloom, the spurger enters the second year, and flowers may appear twice in the summer. Seed germination lasts 12 months.
The information was prepared by Elena Linenko on the basis of sources: “Reference book of a skilled grower” O. Ganichkina and “Flowers. Better than everyone! ”L. Vergiz.
History titles and key features
Almost all names have their mysterious history. Delphinium is no exception. One of them sounds like this.
Many centuries ago, when the mythical gods of Greece, controlled every human act, a talented sculptor lived on earth. His beloved girl died tragically. To find comfort, he made a statue of it from the stone, and then he revived it. Such an act did not like the evil gods, and they turned romance into a dolphin. The girl wept bitterly on the seashore, hoping to see her lover. After a lot of time, a dolphin came to her and put a pretty blue flower on her lap. He was called the delphinium, as a reminder of true love.
There is an opinion that the flower got its name due to the fact that in its undisturbed form it resembled a dolphin. Often he is known as a larkspur or a waggard. The adjacent variant of the plant (annual, perennial) was grouped into a group whose name is cone. Some gardeners believe that the flower is named after the Greek city of Delphi, where it grows in huge quantities. No matter what the story turns out to be true, it does not detract from the magnificence of the handsome garden.
To date, approximately 450 species of stately flower are known. Habitat extends from China to the tropics of the African continent. Unique photos of the delphinium help to see the flower in all its pristine beauty.
The plant belongs to the family of "buttercups". The bud has quite overall dimensions. Sometimes it can reach 2 meters. The inflorescences are located along the shoot and resemble a standing candle. There are the following shades:
- sky blue
- snow white
Perennial and annual varieties are grown, mainly from seeds. The most popular annual varieties have long been loved by connoisseurs of flora.
The plant is bred by combining two varieties of delphinium. The result was an original flower up to 100 cm high. Sessile leafy plates have a thick cross-section. Inflorescences in the form of a huge spike grow about 30 cm and are found in a variety of shades.
Fans of miniature plantings grow dwarf varieties that grow only 35 cm from the ground. Delicate terry buds are painted in bright colors and bloom until the first frost.
The annual delphinium flower has been cultivated since 1572. It grows to a height of 2 meters. Buds are simple and magnificently terry. Hue traditional character. Blooms in June. The last "lights" at the beginning of autumn.
Scientists began to develop perennial varieties in the 19th century. As a result, a number of original species appeared:
To date, gardeners grow perennial delphinium of various kinds. The main feature - the unique shades of buds. They have about 800 variations. Inflorescences are simple nature, terry and semi-double. The diameter of the flowers is from 2 to 9 cm.
To create homestead flowerbeds, breeders offer flowers of different heights - undersized options, giants and medium-sized plants.
Depending on the area of origin, the flowers of the perennial delphinium hybrid were divided into three main groups: Marfa, New Zealand and Scottish. Each of them has its own characteristics.
Marfinsky Group of Delphiniums
For example, plants of the Marfinsky group withstand low temperatures. Differ in unique decorative effect. Large inflorescences of semi-terry character are decorated with contrasting spots that resemble the human eye. These include the following varieties:
- the original “Pink Sunset”,
- tender and mysterious "Morpheus" and incomparable "Blue lace",
- refreshing "snow lace".
It is practically impossible to grow flowers from the seed of the marfinsky group. The main reason is that they do not preserve the varietal characteristics of the plant.
New Zealand Delphinium Group
Delphiniums, which belong to the New Zealand group, can grow to a two-meter height. They differ in terry and semi-double buds. Some species have corrugated petals. Flowers are resistant to disease, are not afraid of cold, perfectly preserved in the cut. The most common types are appreciated all over the world:
Their stately beauty never goes out of fashion. This is the beauty of flowering plants.
During the growing season, the delphinium develops a powerful bush of high shoots with large broad leaves. The formation of such a vegetative mass of the plant requires a large amount of energy. The maximum need for batteries falls on the period of spring regrowth. Therefore, perennial planting should be fed annually.
The first dressing is carried out with complex mineral fertilizers or diluted chicken manure at a height of shoots from 10 to 15 cm. The second dressing falls on the period of the appearance of flower buds and consists mainly of potash and phosphorus fertilizers, and also trace elements will be useful. The third dressing is carried out at the very end of flowering during the second wave of growth. The purpose of this feeding is to provide abundant flowering next year and prepare the plant for wintering. Nitrogen fertilizers should not be included in the last feeding.
It is necessary to combine top dressing with abundant watering. Only in this case, you can get the desired effect of fertilizers. The delphinium root consists of a rhizome and numerous adventitious roots that go deep into the soil. Therefore, it is better to irrigate less frequently, but with high rates, in order to fully moisten the root layer of soil.
In order to form strong flower stalks with large flowers, it is necessary to thin out bushes annually. Do it in the spring with regrowth of shoots up to 25 cm, removing weak and stunted shoots. The optimal number of peduncles, depending on the size of the inflorescences, is in the range of 5–10. It is desirable to remove the shoots in the center of the bush, thereby providing better airing and shape retention.
The peduncles of the delphinium are quite high and can break under the weight of the inflorescences and under the onslaught of the wind, which leads to a violation of the decorativeness of the bush. To avoid this, the shoots tie up twice: at a height of half a meter and a meter. During the garter, care must be taken, as the delphinium shoots are fragile and break easily at the base.
Garter ribbons are best harvested from cotton, which will not damage the shoots. Preparing the plant for winter, the entire above-ground part is cut at a height of 25 cm and burned. Leaving hemp smaller height is impractical because it can lead to the filling of loose shoots with water and the development of root collar rot. To protect against moisture, the upper part of the hemp is broken up or covered with clay.
The varietal delphinium winters safely without artificial shelter with sufficient snow cover and tolerates even extreme cold. Perniciously frequent alternation of long thaws and frosts. Hybrid forms have much worse winter hardiness.
With good care and a well-chosen place, the delphinium grows up to 7 years without changes. The main reason for the death of the plant is the aging of the rhizome, which dies away over the years, weakening the nutrition of the lateral shoots.
But a lot in the extension of the life of the bushes of the delphinium depends on human care. Many flower growers believe that after flowering shoots must be removed, giving growth to new flower stalks, which will bloom in August. However, the secondary flowering takes additional reserve forces from the bush and leads to the regeneration of buds. As a result, the plant does not have time to prepare for winter, and a weakened rhizome can completely die. And the resulting decoration at the end of the summer will result in weak flowering next year or even its absence. In order not to provoke a second bloom, it is necessary to remove not the entire shoot, but only the flowering inflorescences.