Few know that the Norway maple has excellent beneficial properties. With proper use of it, you can get a lot of benefit. Of course, many people know about its most important quality. This tree is widely used in landscape design due to its amazing decorativeness, especially in autumn.
The article presents a description of the Norway maple, features of reproduction, use in the decoration of garden and park areas, etc.
Maple grows all over the world. It is often used in landscaping urban parks and suburbs. In total, there are more than 150 species of this tree, among which there are decorative and simple forms.
The most common types are:
- Norway maple,
- Ginnala (or river),
- naked paniform (fan),
- sugar (silver),
- leaved (American),
- the black.
This type of maple grows in Europe and Asia (western part). The northern border of the distribution of the Norway maple reaches the southern regions of Finland, Scandinavia and Karelia, and the southern passes through the northern territories of Iran.
Grows mainly in deciduous and mixed forests in small groups and singly. In Russia, this maple grows mainly in its middle lane.
Various species of maple trees are widely distributed in deciduous forests. More often than others here you can find Norway maple, or ordinary. The flowers are fragrant, yellowish-greenish hue. The flowering of the plant occurs before the leafing and after.
This rather decorative look is used for gardening alleys and parks, ponds, gardens and suburban areas. Fruiting begins with the age of 17 years. Maple is unpretentious, tolerates winter frosts, and is not afraid of shading, but loves fertile soil. It should be noted that wild species are more frost resistant than cultural ones. A tree can die in excess moisture and in saline soil.
The tree has the finest qualities - a large wide crown, a beautiful slender trunk. Norway maple leaves are the most attractive part of this plant. For all these qualities, a tree is very much appreciated as a decorative look. In the autumn period, the plant stands out particularly clearly among evergreen conifers. It should be noted that the maple perfectly transfers transplantation, urban conditions with a dusty atmosphere, smoke and gases. Norway maple is one of the main species intended for landscape construction.
It is important to note that the leaves of this species are used for the manufacture of medicines, as they possess such beneficial enzymes as carbohydrates and aldehydes.
Norway maple description
This maple is very similar in appearance to another species - the Canadian (or sugar) maple. They differ from each other, first of all, in the sap that stands out from the petioles: it is transparent in the Canadian maple. And the color of the leaves in the autumn period at the Canadian maple is brighter, and its bark is more rough and coarse. The form of the leaves of the olypolist is more razlapisty, and the buds have a reddish tint, in contrast to the bright green in Canadian.
From the stalks and veins of broken leaves stands out milky-colored juice. The crown of the Norway maple is dense, the bark has a red-gray tint, the dark green leaves are five-lobed in shape. The lower part of the sheet plate is slightly paler. In autumn, they turn yellow-red hues, and this phenomenon of nature acquires an indescribable beauty.
Flowering tree occurs in the first half of May. Flowers of yellowish-green shade are collected in shields (15-30 pieces). Due to the fact that the maple of this species is dioecious, then it has flowers either male or female. Pollinating plants occurs insects. The nectary in the form of a flat ring is located between the petals and the ovary. The fruit of the Norway maple is a lionfish splitting into 2 single-seeded small fruits. It ripens at the end of summer, and sometimes it falls to the end of winter.
Maple of this species has several decorative forms and many varieties.
- Spherical shape is used most often. This is a slow-growing tree grown by grafting in the root neck or shtamb. This is achieved bushy shape of a tree. Such a form is used, both in single landings and in group ones (in avenues). You can graft it in the root of the neck for use in decorating lawns.
- The long-cut form is a spectacular plant with dark green leaves separate to the base.
- The Norway-leaved Drummond is a tree with pink leaves when blooming that further become white-bonded. With its unusual beauty, such a plant makes an indelible impression.
- Golden Globe - a form with a spherical crown and foliage golden color.
The most common varieties
- Norway maple Globozum. Height is 7 meters, diameter is 3-5 m. Leaves are palmate separate, pink color when blooming. As they grow, they turn dark green, in autumn they turn yellow-orange.
- Crimson King - a tree growing to 20 meters in height. The leaves have an intense purple, almost black color throughout the season. When blooming, they are bright red, and in the fall the upper part is painted in purple.
As noted above, maple leaves contain aldehydes (beta-hexene, alpha-hexene), alkaloids. They also contain carbohydrates, organic acids (succinic, acetic, phthalic), rubber, polyisopropenes (squalene), carotenoids (beta carotene, alpha carotene, etc.), nitrogen-containing compounds (methylamine, etc.), phenol carboxylic acids ( gallic, salicylic), vitamins C and E, tannins, higher fatty acids, flavonoids, lipids (phytin linolenate) and other substances.
Seeds contain rubber, cyclotry and fatty oil.
Propagation of Norway Maple
Seed propagation is the easiest way. It is best to sow the seeds in the fall, so that in winter they are stratified under natural conditions. When shoots appear in spring, they should be transplanted to a permanent place.
Sowing can be carried out in the spring (March), but for this it is necessary to stratify the seeds for 5-7 days in the refrigerator in the vegetable cell, placing the seeds in a container with moistened sand.
For reproduction by layering, it is necessary to make several cuts on the bark (obliquely) with a sharp knife, and then process them with a root-forming agent (“Kornevin” or “Hetero-auxin”). To avoid the closure of the edges of the cuts, you can insert grains of foam, and wounds with moist moss (sphagnum). On top of this part of the branch wear a plastic bag, tightly securing it below and above the cuts made. Then you should cover the bag from the sun with a foil or canvas. In places of incisions, roots will gradually grow. Next spring, it is necessary to separate the layers from the maple, and together with the sphagnum to land in the ground.
Reproduction by layering basal is as follows. On the root growth, located closer to the surface of the soil, cuts are made and treated with a root-forming solution. Then it is necessary to pile up high, covering the cuts with earth. Water and spud layers need for the entire season. His own roots will develop by the next spring, then it will be possible to dig him out and plant him in a new place.
Drugs that include Norway maple, are used in diseases of the kidneys, bladder and jaundice. It is used as a tonic and antiemetic agent, as well as for catarrhal diseases, inflammatory processes of the oral cavity and pneumonia. A decoction of the leaves is recommended and after childbirth (for the complete exit of the children's place).
Fresh crushed maple leaves heal wounds and ulcers. Before using them, it should be well treated with an antiseptic. It is also possible to simply apply steamed leaves on boils, bandaging the wound site every day, changing the leaf. The course of treatment is about 5-7 days. Maple juice can be taken with scurvy and as a tonic drink.
Maple, after birch, oak and pine, is the leader among other trees in terms of the amount of bioenergy that can replenish human energy. Moreover, its amount is constant from spring to autumn. The best time to communicate with him is early morning, during and after sunrise. Maples are “friendly” in the forest with oaks, aspen and birch.
Use in the household
Norway maple is popular in the design of gardens, parks, and it is planted along highways. Decorative plant the entire growing season. From a simple stump gives abundant growth, well tolerated transplant and growing conditions in the city. Within its range is one of the main species among the trees used in landscape gardening. In garden culture exists for a long time.
Maple is a good honey plant, of great importance as an early polleniferous and honey plant. Maple honey belongs to the light varieties and has good taste. Bees from a plot with a flowering maple of 1 Ha produce up to 200 kilograms of honey per season.
The wood of this type of maple is used for the manufacture of furniture and various wooden crafts. Leaves are used as dyes for wool. Maple wood is used to make the most singing clarinets and flutes.
Once, an evil mother “sworn” a naughty son, turning him into a maple tree. It grew and became sprawling and beautiful. Once the musicians, passing through the grove past this tree, settled down to a halt under it. From the branch of the tree they liked, they made a violin, which for many years in the voice of their enchanted mother told the whole world about its fault in front of him.
Maple and in fact tree melodious. It was from him that the Sadko gusli were made.
Maple in landscape design
Gardeners in Holland, Germany, and England often use large trees with brightly colored or variegated foliage to plant their gardens. A variety of Norway maple varieties opens up tremendous opportunities for designers. For example, the slopes of ravines or mountains, seated maple with purple and yellow shades of foliage, and even with variegation, look fabulous.
For registration of homestead and suburban areas, even one maple variety of Crimson King is enough to bring a unique flavor to the design. And compositions with his participation together with other ornamental shrubs and trees can achieve even better success. Of course, this task is not so simple, since when planting seedlings it is necessary to take into account not only the compatibility of plants in their colors, but also their future sizes. With deliberate and correct calculations, this task is quite feasible.
This species - one of the most famous, includes several varieties, grows throughout the European part of Russia. Another name for maple is: plane or platanolaceous - according to the characteristic shape of the leaves (in the photo).
This species includes many decorative forms, differing in stem height, size and thickness of the crown, a shade of leaves. The holly maple is demanding on the composition of the soil, prefers medium-humid fertile, slightly acidified soils, does not tolerate sandstones and stony lands. In height, such trees reach 20–30 m, have a wide rounded crown. The bark is light gray, young maple trees are quite smooth, with age it becomes covered with cracks. The size of the leaves is about 15–18 cm, they are located on long thin cuttings, have a five-lobed shape with pronounced notches: the middle lobes extend far forward, the lateral ones are slightly shorter. There are types of maple with horned or ash-like foliage: transversely arranged on long cuttings with toothed elongated leaves of small size.
In the autumn period, green maple foliage acquires bright yellow, orange, red and burgundy shades, creating a picturesque natural carnival of colors. A five-blade maple leaf is depicted on the national flag of Canada.
Trees grow quickly, especially in the first years after planting, their life expectancy is up to 200 years. Holly maples are immune to the polluted air of cities, therefore they are suitable for landscaping streets and creating beautiful landscapes. They are planted along roads, courtyards, squares, parks.
Amphibious maple is widespread throughout Europe, in Western Siberia, the temperate zone of the North American continent.
This tree is widespread in the northern and eastern regions of the United States, being the official symbol of some states. Another name for the species is sugar maple. It is from the sap of its wood that the famous maple syrup is made, and the sawn timber is used in construction. American maple is resistant to cold climates, can grow up to 30-40 m, has a thick dark bark and a thick crown.
This species is often called sycamore or lozhnoplatanov. Slender trees up to 30 m in height have a tent-like dense crown. The foliage is dark green, on the back side it is much lighter - whitish, slightly bluish. Sycamore does not tolerate severe frosts, therefore it is rarely found in the middle zone, it grows mainly in the Caucasus, in the Carpathians, and also in the southern regions of Europe.
It is also called black clown. Most often forms shrub forms no higher than 9 m, the crown is spreading. The bark has a dark, almost black color, foliage with finger-shaped lobes, dark green, smooth. Tatar maple blooms beautifully, in the spring on the branches soft pink rather large inflorescences, similar to bells, are formed. Chernoklen grows quickly, gives a good haircut, is used as an ornamental plant. It tolerates drought well, it is common in the steppe regions of the European part, in the Caucasus, in the Balkans.
Large shrub, thick and high, up to 15–20 m. The foliage is five-lobed, bright green, the bark is dark, grayish or brown, the inflorescences are small and inconspicuous. The field maple has good adaptive properties, adapts to almost any climatic conditions, is wind-resistant and shade-tolerant, and tolerates a short-term drought. It grows in deciduous forests, forest-steppe zones, in urban environments.
Planting and care
It is possible to propagate maple by layering, sapling or seed. Seed material is planted in April to a depth of 5–10 cm. It is important to choose loose and nutritious soil, avoid planting salt marshes or strongly acidified areas. Seedlings appear after 2-3 weeks.
If desired, it is possible to propagate the tree by layering: in the spring, cut the selected shoot with a knife and treat it with a special compound to stimulate growth, then delimit the cut point with a pebble, cover it with moss and wrap tightly with foil or foil. A year later, the shoot sprout is separated and planted separately. Watering seedlings is often necessary: they consume about 15 liters of water per week. With sufficient humidity and the absence of strong winter frosts, young maples grow to 1 m per year.
The main enemies of maples are mealybug, weevil, maple whitefly. Sometimes the leaves and bark affect coral spot and brown rot. For the prevention of diseases and getting rid of pests trees are treated with reagents: chlorophos, nitrafenom or dimethoatom. Spray preferably with the first onset of heat, before bud break.
Wood and its application
Maple wood belongs to the sapwood, as the central part of the trunk is not very different from the rest of the array. White maple has a light cream color, in other species - from beige and pinkish to brown, with pronounced annual layers. The surface of the tree is silky, with a slight sheen. Over time, may turn yellow. The core rays on the cuts form a small mosaic pattern. The structure of the array is homogeneous, very durable. The most dense is the American maple: its figure is 705 kg / m³. Sycamore and holly species are slightly inferior to it: from 570 to 650 kg / m³. The strength of wood is slightly higher than that of oak.
A fresh tree is whimsical when drying: natural conditions are recommended at temperatures not higher than 45 ° C. With rapid drying, it is prone to cracking.
Finished lumber is suitable for any turning and construction work: it is well processed with tools, bends, holds all types of fasteners, is impregnated with stains, coloring solutions, polished, glued.
Maple is used in the manufacture of furniture, stairs, doors, parquet, finishing materials, wooden elements of various tools, kitchen utensils, objects for artistic decoration of interiors. This is an excellent ornamental material: decorative dishes are cut out of it, knife handles, cases and caskets are used for inlays.
The disadvantages of maple wood is low biostability, which makes it poorly suited for outdoor decoration. В процессе обработки материал требует покрытия антисептиками.
Эксплуатационные характеристики клена достаточно высоки: он не подвержен короблению и деформации, хорошо переносит влажность, устойчив к ударным нагрузкам.
Габитус культуры, дерева или кустарника, зависит от возраста и условий произрастания. Форма негустого куста ею приобретается «в детстве и юношестве» вследствие роста под сенью старых деревьев и обычного для этого возраста отлома верхушки.
But, having stretched and strengthened by a trunk with black and gray, strongly wrinkled bark, having reached the sun with a set of strong branches extending from the trunk at an acute angle, the adult giant gets the opportunity to sow the whole circle with his winged furrows at a considerable distance from the trunk, and in autumn the maple becomes literally the golden - for the acquisition of leaves indescribably beautiful beautiful bright yellow color.
Winter makes it possible to see well its skeleton, which has the form of a strongly stretched up egg or (rarely, with growth in the open) a ball. Acer platanoides never forms the thick-haired oak.
The fruits of Norway maple are a pair of fruitlets connected in the middle with a loose temporary suture, each having a wing-blade from 3.5 to 5.5 cm long.
The difference from the Canadian relative is the shape of the fruit, in view of which the wings together form either a blunt (almost developed) angle, or create a straight line. Such lionfish can either (disintegrating and spinning each by itself) plan for a long time with the wind, or (remaining doubled) all winter, in bunches, hang on a branch to fall in spring.
A bare, flattened oval seed without endosperm falling on the soil, containing a large, twice folded embryo under a thin skin, becomes a seedling only with a successful “landing” - other mass of maple seeds, having dried on the roof slate or asphalt roads, does not become the beginning of a new life.
But the overall result of the “plant expansion” (due to the successful structure of maple fruits) can be estimated by the huge areas occupied by the Canadian practically trash relatives - the normifery fruit his fruit no less.
Pollination of flowers (bright, greenish-yellow, collected at 15-30 in inflorescences-shields) is made from mid-May by insects attracted by their honey-sweet aroma, and damage to young leaf petioles and veins during this time is accompanied by the expiration of sweet juice. This time is considered by researchers of the plant world the beginning of spring.
Garden forms and cultivars of maple maple
In addition to the fact that culture is widespread in Eurasia, mixed forests with its obligatory participation occupy vast spaces in North America, the flag of Canada in general is the image in the form of a maple leaf, typical of the Acer platanoides species.
And the fact that Canada is the trendsetter for this tree species is not accidental - the number of different maple varieties of ordinary and interspecific hybrids based on it (cultivars) on the garden market of this country exceeds the figure of 100.
If you have a keen desire to plant a tree in the yard with a beautiful five-fingered type of leaf, you should take into account that the fruits of the maple are spread with the speed and methodical nature of the winter blizzard - you will have to deal with sprouting constantly (and not only the owners of this area, but also the neighboring areas).
There is a great variety of varieties for any, the most demanding and even absurd taste - some are good as a loose giant tree, others are valuable in the shape given by a haircut.
So, the maple variety Globosum (Globosum) or Globoza (Globosa) is good because it doesn’t completely fill the space, giving the opportunity to see the details of the architecture of the mansion or the official building.
Here, the compactness of a round crown is achieved not by cutting, but by choosing a grafting site, which can be done either in a stem or in the root neck.
The first option gives a single-trunk tree, the second - multi-stem, but it will not reach any more than 6 m in height (with a maximum width of 6 m). Intensive summer green leaves in autumn is replaced by a golden color with a reddish tint.
Equally valuable for landscape design is the form of Pyramidale Nanum, the name of which speaks for itself (the literal translation is “a dwarf that looks like a pyramid”).
To solve the painful question - what would have such an extravagant one - will help laying the avenue of 10-meter "trees" with crowns having the shape of columns (hence the name - Columnare literally means "like a colonnade or a series of pillars or obelisks").
Likewise, you can warm your aesthetic ambition by planting trees with unusual or changing foliage color during the season:
- Princeton Gold,
- Red Emperor
In the first variety, greenish tones are added to the fall color of the foliage by autumn for the whole season; in the second, the dark red fades to pink; the third color is even more amazing: starting with purple tones, it turns into deep green with shades of bronze that are completely are approved in the fall.
In the Schwedleri serovar, the initial “bloody” color of both the foliage and the shoots is replaced by the standard for leaves with greens, while the color of the shoots does not change.
The Crimson King variety of hosts does not indulge in color transitions - it is as black as the whole season as black and purple can be.
And the Norway maple Crimson Sentry is even more exotic - not only is it red-leaved to almost total blackness, it is also columnar (with a height of up to 10 m the crown diameter is maximum 3 m).
It would seem that the wonders of color should end there, but no! There are also varieties Novus and Drummondii, which differ from the edges of the leaf plate from its general pitch.
At the first, the tips (tops of the blades) are colored yellow, the second, in addition to the pink palette of tones inherent in freshly opened leaves, has a white marginal border.
And the Latin translation of the name of the cultivar Maculatum literally means “spotted” (again, this is about the leaves).
The shape and appearance of the surface of the "palms substituted by the sun", though not infinite, but also varied. In royal purple Royal Red they are collected in numerous folds, wrinkles, the Latin term Palmatifida translates as “dissected to the extent of the gaps between the fingers”, while Laciniatum (lobed) also means dissection, but not so deep (only with smaller blades).
In addition to these, there are other features imprinted in the names of varieties with Latin roots:
- Erectum (raised),
- Dissectum (dissected),
- Cucullatum (hood),
- Dilaceratum (torn, another option - forming an angle),
- Heterophyllum Variegatum (with multi-colored leaves).
It is worth mentioning such varieties of Acer platanoides as:
- Emerald Queen,
- Faussens Black,
- Cleveland (Cleveland),
- Farlake’s Green.
The first of these is characterized by a high density of oval (rounded with age) crowns with a height of 15 to 20 m with a diameter of 8 m, formed by shiny foliage, dark green in summer and uniform yellowness in autumn.
Of all the “red-skinned” varieties of Faussens Black, the maximum is “red-and-black” (in the summer its blackness reaches frightening gloominess), at the same time differing almost with the mirror shine of the front sheet surfaces (with their red-green inside out). When landing in the shade, the color is much brighter.
Cleveland has a very fast growth and longevity (life expectancy up to 100 years), high honey content. With the growth of 12 m has a crown diameter of 4 to 5 m, the compactness of which is not lost throughout life. The leaves are arcuate notches divided into 5-7 blades. When blooming, they are pale-red, then turn green, in the fall to get a uniform yellow or yellow-orange color. Crohn - from oval at first, to ovoid in subsequent years of life.
The peculiarities of the last of the described varieties is a very vigorous growth and unpretentiousness when landing even in the shadow of a big city. The original form of the crown, formed by branches growing strictly upwards, over the years "softens" to almost round with an increase in the looseness of its structure. The color palette includes the transition from a bright red tone - to dark green, turning into autumn orange-yellow tone.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to grow
- 4.2. Pruning
- 4.3. Pests and diseases
- 5. Reproduction
- 5.1. Seed propagation
- 5.2. Reproduction by air layouts
- 5.3. Reproduction by root layers
- 6. Grades
- 7. Application in landscape design
Norway maple - description
The height of the Norway maple can reach 30, and sometimes more than meters. Its trunk is covered with brownish-gray, almost black fissured bark, and on young branches the bark is smooth, reddish-gray. The crown of Norway maple is rounded, with wide, strong branches directed downwards. The leaves of the maple are palmate, simple, opposite, with large-toothed blades pointed at the ends, which may be 5-7 pieces. The upper side of the plate is dark green, the lower side is paler. In autumn, sharp-toothed maple leaves are colored yellow or orange. Milk-colored juice stands out from the veins and scapes of broken leaves. The tree in bloom in the first half of May is fragrant yellowish-green flowers, gathered in shields of 15-30 pieces. Since the Norway maple is a dioecious plant, the flowers on it are either female or male. The plant is pollinated by insects. Nectary, which is a flat ring in which the bases of the stamens are immersed, is located between the ovary and the petals. The fruit of the Norway maple is a lionfish breaking into two one-seeded fruit, ripening at the end of summer and sometimes not falling from the tree until the end of winter. The plant is a honey plant.
Norway maple looks very similar to another species - Canadian maple, or sugar. They are distinguished first of all by the juice that stands out from the petioles: it is transparent in the Canadian maple. In addition, the autumn color of the leaves of the Canadian maple is brighter, and the bark is more rough and rough. The shape of the leaves of the Canadian maple is not as razlapisty as the leaves of Norway maple. Two of these maple trees are distinguished by the appearance of their buds: they are bright green in the Canadian, and with a reddish shade in the oligochondria.
Planting of Norway Maple
Planting of Norway maple is carried out in early spring or autumn. The distance from the maple to any other plant should not be less than 2.5-3 m. When creating a hedge, Norway maple saplings are placed with an interval of about 2 m. The Norway maple is planted in a sunny or slightly shaded place in a well-drained soil. The landing pit should be at least four times wider than the root ball, but of equal depth. However, when planting maple in the area with high groundwater, the pit needs to be made deeper so that a layer of drainage from broken brick, crushed stone or screenings with a thickness of at least 15 cm can fit into it.
Make sure that the seedling's root system does not dry out before planting: soak its roots for a few hours in water.
The fertile mixture, which will fill the pit, should consist of three parts of peat compost or humus, two parts of sod land and one part of sand. At the bottom of the pit you need to throw 120-150 g of nitroammofoski, then lower the roots of the seedling into the pit, straighten them and fill the space with a fertile mixture. The root neck of the seedling should be several centimeters above the surface. After planting in the tree trunk circle, at least three buckets of water should be poured, and when it is absorbed and the soil settles, the root collar will be where it should be - at the surface level. In the next few days, the area around the seedling should be covered with a layer of peat or dry soil with a thickness of 3-5 cm.
How to grow a maple maple.
After planting, maple must be watered frequently. But not only saplings, but already matured and even adult maples need regular watering, especially in summer. They are watered in spring and autumn once a month and every week in summer. Consumption per adult plant - about 2 buckets, and young maples need water twice as much. However, if the leaves of the tree become too light green, then it means that you have overdone it with the moistening of the soil. And drooping leaves are a sign of insufficient watering. After moistening the ground, the trunk circle is loosened from time to time, at the same time removing weeds that appear in the root zone.
If you were planting fertilizer in the pit, maple will not need fertilizing until the end of the current season. From the second spring, rotted manure is used as a fertilizer, with a layer of 3 cm thick, the tree trunks are evenly mulching. The plant responds well to tablets with a slow release of nutrients that are laid out in the root zone twice a month from the beginning of the growing season to the end of spring, and then once a month until the end of summer.
The rest period at the maple lasts from the first frost until March. Young plants need to be sheltered for the winter: the holly maple stem is wrapped with sacking and tied with a rope, both from frost and rodents. Be sure to cover the root neck of a tree with spruce branches. With age, the hardiness of maple increases, and these measures will become redundant.
Pruning of Norway maple.
Pruning maple pruning is carried out exclusively for sanitary purposes: they remove broken, frozen, dry or diseased or pest shoots and branches, as well as root growth. To make the tree have a neat appearance, you can shorten the shoots sticking to the sides and cut those that grow inside the crown. The beautiful spherical crown of Norway maple does not need to form pruning.
Pests and diseases of Norway maple.
A characteristic disease for maples is coral spotting, manifested by the death of twigs and the formation of small maroon specks on the bark of a tree. The affected branches must be removed immediately, and the cuts must be treated with garden pitch. And before pruning, and after her garden tools need to be disinfected.
Out of insects, mealybugs, whiteflies and leaf weevils bring harm to the maple of the Norway-leaved. Whitefly larvae are destroyed by treating maple with Ammophos, having previously cut and burned the branches affected by fire. The occupation of maple with mealybugs can be avoided by treating the tree by leaves with Nitrafen before the buds swell, and Chlorophos solution prepared according to the instructions and used for processing the tree by leaves is a remedy for weevils.
Norway Maple Varieties
There are several decorative forms and many varieties of the maple of Norway. The most commonly used spherical shape of a maple is a slow-growing tree, which is grown by grafting in a stem or root neck, which results in a bushy shape of a plant. Standard form is used in lanes and single plantings. For decorating lawns, it is grafted into the root neck. The long-cut maple form is a spectacular plant with dark green leaves separated to the base. Norway maple Drummond - a tree with pink at blooming, and then white-leafed leaves, which makes an indelible impression of its unusual beauty. Form Golden Globe - a tree with a spherical crown and golden foliage.
Of the varieties of Norway maple are most often grown:
- – Norway maple Globozum - the tree is not higher than 7 m with a crown diameter from 3 to 5 m. The leaves of the plant are palmate-separate, consisting of 5 parts. When blooming they are pink, then turn dark green, and in the fall yellow-orange,
- – Norway maple Crimzon King - tree up to 20 m high with a typical crown-shaped plant and rich purple, almost black leaves throughout the season. When blooming, they are bright red with pink cataphylls, then the leaves gradually darken to a burgundy shade, and in the fall the upper side of the plate acquires a purple sheen,
- – Norway maple Crimzon Sentry - slender tree up to 20 m in height and crown diameter up to 8 m. The branches of this variety are directed upwards, the finger-separated bright red leaves consist of five parts,
- – Norway maple Deborah - a plant up to 20 m high with a crown width up to 15 m. Five to seven-lobed leaves with a slightly wavy edge reach a length of 15 and a width of 20 cm. When blooming, they are shiny, purple-red from the top, and dark from the bottom green. Then the upper part of the plate gradually turns green and eventually acquires a brown tint, and in autumn the leaves turn yellow-orange,
- – Norway maple Emerald Queen It is a fast-growing tree up to 15 m in height with a crown diameter of up to 10 m, palmate-lobed leaves, bronze when blooming, then acquiring a green color, and yellowing in autumn,
- – Norway maple Faassense Black - the tree is the same size with light red when blooming leaves up to 15 cm wide, which gradually darken, becoming shiny, almost black with a purple-violet shade,
- – Norway maple royal red - the height of this tree is from 8 to 12 m. The leaves blooming are blood-red, then they turn black and red and shiny, and in the fall they turn red again,
- – Farlakes Green - Norway maple red, then its leaves become dark green in color, and in autumn they become bright yellow. In height, this tree with an egg-shaped crown reaches 12-15 m,
- – Cleveland - The diameter of the wide-crown of this variety can reach from 6 to 8 m with a tree height of 12-15 m. With time, the crown becomes almost spherical. Finger-blade leaves of the plant, consisting of five parts, are light green in April, then turn dark green and bright yellow in autumn.
Norway maple in landscape design
Садоводы Англии, Германии и Голландии часто используют в озеленении большие деревья с пестрой или ярко окрашенной листвой, поэтому сортовое разнообразие клена остролистного открывает для ландшафтных дизайнеров большие возможности. Например, склон оврага или горы, усаженный кленами с пурпурной, желтой или пестрой листвой выглядит, как декорация к сказке.
Что касается оформления дачных и приусадебных участков, то даже один-единственный остролистный клен сорта Кримзон Кинг вносит неповторимый колорит, а если составить с его участием композицию из декоративных кустарников и деревьев, то можно добиться гораздо большего успеха. This task is not easy, because when planting seedlings, it will be necessary to take into account not only the color compatibility of the plants, but also their future dimensions. However, with the right calculations and good theoretical preparation, this task is doable.
Pests and diseases of the tree and leaves of Norway maple
The most common pests of this plant are pathogenic fungi that infect the leaves and lead to the formation of brown watery spots on them. No less dangerous for a tree is coral spotting, which leads to the death of individual branches. With this disease, red, bulging spots appear on the cortex. The affected branches should be removed immediately to prevent the spread of the disease throughout the tree. Slices should be smeared with garden bar and disinfected. When maple whitefly is affected, the tree is sprayed with ammophos, in June it is treated with chlorophos, and the larvae of the pest are killed as a result. When a weevil appears on the tree, the plant is also sprayed with chlorophos. Powdery mildew is fought with ground sulfur and lime, taken in a ratio of 2/1. The resulting mixture is pollinated damaged areas.
Norway maple Globozum
Norway maple Globozum (Globosum) - a small deciduous tree up to 6 m tall. It has a spherical, dense crown, preserving its shape without pruning. The branches are arranged asymmetrically, compactly.
Propagated by vaccination. The height of the tree depends on the height of the headquarters on which the plant is grafted.
The leaves are large, 5-7 lobed, first bronze, then light green, with cuts along the edges. In autumn, the color changes to an intense yellow, with a red tint or orange.
Flowering begins in April, lasts until the leaves bloom.
The flowers are yellowish-green, fragrant, gathered in corymbose inflorescences.
The fruit is brown in color. Ripens in September.
The tree has good frost resistance, shade-tolerant, wind-resistant. It grows slowly. Demanding of soil moisture and fertility. Resistant to diseases and pests. Easy to adapt. Does not tolerate saline, excessively acidic soil. Periodic feedings influence the growth and favorable development of the plant, which are added to the soil in accordance with established norms for fertilizer application.
Maple Globozum is used in single and group plantings, it is used for gardening of streets and house territories. Looks beautiful in tree-shrub groups. Ideal for decorating gardens and creating hedges.
Norway maple royal red
Norway maple Royal Red (Royal red) is a deciduous tree up to 12 m high with a dense, wide pyramidal crown. Differs slender, pronounced trunk. The bark is dark gray, fissured.
The leaves are large, with 5-7 th lobes. When blooming bright red, then burgundy, shiny. In the autumn they become lighter. It blooms in May simultaneously with the blooming of the leaves.
The flowers are small, yellow, enclosed in inflorescences.
The fruit is a brown-yellow lionfish. Maple Royal Red photophilous, tolerates small blackouts. Demanding on the soil. Prefers moderately moist, fertile, weakly - acidic soil. It tolerates stagnant moisture and drought.
Planting is carried out on the lighted, protected from the wind places. The main pest of the tree is powdery mildew. It is popular due to its decorative crown. Used in landscape art. Adapted to urban conditions. Propagated by grafting.
Norway maple Drummond
Norway maple Drummond (Drummondii) - deciduous tree up to 20 m. It has an oval, dense crown. The leaves are palmate, green, with white edging, when blooming they transform into pink ones, in the autumn turn yellow. Young branches are light yellow-green.
The flowers are flat, round, yellow-green. The grafted form of Drummond maple has two varieties - yellow-bordered, rather rare, and silver-bordered.
Yellow-edged form in single plantings fade. With prolonged rainy weather, the leaves have a brown edge. The form can be maintained throughout the season only under the canopy of other trees.
Drummond Maple is quite picky about the soil. Prefers moderately moist, fertile sites. Sometimes leaves appear in the crown without border. They should be removed to the ground. Pruning should be done after full blooming of leaves, so that the tree does not lose a large amount of juice. Pruning during this period contributes to the rapid healing of wounds.
Foliage tree drops in mid-September. Propagated by vaccination. Used in single plantings, decorative groups, to create hedges. The decorative value of the plant lies in the lush crown and variegated foliage color.
Norway maple Crimson King
Norway maple Crimson King (Krimson King) - deciduous tree up to 20 m in height. It features a lush crown and unusual foliage color.
The leaves are deep purple, almost black. Retain their color throughout the season. In the autumn turn purple.
The flowers are yellow-orange. Effectively look at the background of red, blooming leaves. This combination of shades makes the tree amazingly beautiful.
Fruits - red lionfish. Merge with the background of foliage and become almost invisible. It prefers lighted and semi-dark areas. Growing fast. Not whimsical, transfers any soil. Drought resistant Grows better with moderate watering.
Maple Crimson King is very popular in landscape design. Gives the garden plot, garden composition originality and sophistication.
Application of bark and leaves of Norway maple
The bark and leaves of the tree are widely used in folk and traditional medicine. Wood serves for the manufacture of furniture, crafts and souvenirs. Norway maple is an early melliferous and polleniferous plant, is of great importance for beekeeping. Its decorative forms are planted in parks, alleys, gardens. Decorative value is a dense, spreading crown, slender trunk and carved tree foliage. Harmoniously looks with conifers.
Types of maples and their varieties of cultivation, reproduction and care for them
Maple, which everyone knows
The most common type of maple growing in our country is Norway maple (Acard platanoides), - unlike many others, it occurs not in mountainous, but in lowland forests. Its appearance and characteristic leaves are well known to all people, even those far from dendrology. This tree is up to 30 m tall with an ovoid, free-flowing tent-like thick crown.
Varietal variety of Norway maple is so large that, using only it, you can create interesting woody compositions. Color forms, varieties with a modified growth form and leaf blades are found. Maples with unusual leaf color, such as purple, like those of varieties, look particularly impressive. ‘Royal Red’, ‘Crimson King’, Deborah ’,‘ Schwedleri ’or with a white stripe along the edge of the leaf blade, as in ‘Drummondii’. Decorative forms ‘Columnare’ and ‘Globosum’ attract the attention of crowns - columnar and spherical, which makes them a bright accent in the compositions. They are also good at joint and private landing.
Types of Maples: High and Majestic
Among the maples there are very large representatives. One of them is a magnificent maple, or velvety maple (Acer velutinum), growing in eastern Transcaucasia and the mountains of Northern Iran. 50 m high, it looks like a real giant, besides its trunk diameter reaches 1.2 m. Particularly impressive this maple looks during fruiting, when it is decorated with large hanging fruitful panicles carrying up to 60 winged animals. A truly majestic sight.
False-plane maple, or sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), a typical representative of the mountain forests of the south-western part of Ukraine and the Caucasus, has a slightly smaller size. The tree is up to 40 m high and up to 2 m in diameter with dark gray bark exfoliated by plates that expose the bright young bark. Especially beautiful when free standing, forms a thick marquee crown. In the decorative gardening most often use various forms of maple loxalwood. In grade ‘Purpurea ’ two-color coloring of leaves, from above they are dark green, from the bottom - purple. Young leaves of the variety ‘Leopoldii’ covered with yellowish-pink spots, adults - variegated, with uneven, light green or cream spots.
No less monumental North American silver maple (Acer saccharinum), reaching a height of 40 m with a trunk up to 1.5 m in diameter.
A characteristic feature of this species is the deeply dissected five-lobed leaves on long petioles. From above, they are light green, from below - silvery-white, hence the specific name. In the autumn, this maple stands out with light yellow foliage. Looks great on the banks of reservoirs, in the alleys and group plantings, but it should be remembered that its branches often break off from the stuck snow and strong gusts of wind. The decorative variety ‘Wieri’ is notable for its elegant carved foliage and picturesque crown with long, hanging shoots.
Far Eastern Maples
Maples are believed to be the face of the Far East. There they live in the mountains and along the river valleys. They differ in their appearance from European and North American species, which has recently been appreciated by landscape designers, who use them very actively. In addition, the cultivation of most of the Far Eastern maples in central Russia presents no particular problems, with the exception of some species. In the Central Russian landscape, they look like real exotics, which by their appearance are able to decorate any composition.
Widely known in culture River maple (Acer ginnala) differs in high frost resistance and unpretentiousness. Growing up to 6 m in height, it is quite suitable for creating hedges and single landings. In the fall, its three-lobed leaves acquire a crimson-red color, saturating the landscape with bright colors.
In the mountainous mixed and coniferous forests of the Far East grows green maple (Acer tegmentosum)whose trunk is decorated with smooth green bark with longitudinal white stripes. With such an unusual bark, maple always stands out against other plants.
Enumerating the Far Eastern species, it is impossible not to mention the common in this region. small leaf maple (Acer mono). This tree is up to 15 m high with a low-lying crown. Leaves are similar to foliage of Norway, but 2 to 3 times smaller. In autumn, they turn bright yellow and red. Planting of small-leaved maple effectively reduces urban noise.
If we talk about the beauty of the leaves, then, of course, first of all it is worth mentioning to the longitudinal, or fan maple (Acer palmatum), without which no garden in Japan can do. In the fall, its laced dissected leaves acquire bright, picturesque colors. Unfortunately, this species is quite thermophilic and in central Russia frosts to the level of snow cover. Therefore, to create a stylized Japanese garden in our climate, the best substitute will be no less spectacular. Manchurian maple (Acer mandschuricum) and False Bezbold maple (Acer pseudosieboldianum).
Maples - breeding and care
Most maples are demanding on soil fertility, air and soil moisture, are relatively shade-tolerant, wind-resistant and have a thick crown and fairly rapid growth.
For maple trees that require fertile soils (norway maple, false maple maple, river maple, etc.). soil mixture should consist of humus, sod land and sand (3: 2: 1).
For soil-demanding maples (field maple, alder maple, silver maple, etc.), the soil mixture is prepared from leafy soil, peat and sand (2: 2: 1), the optimum acidity is pH 6.0-7.5, for red pH 4.5-5.
Maples are propagated by seeds, cuttings, and decorative forms - by grafting.
North American Maple Species
A large number of maples grows on the North American continent. Many of them have long settled in Russia, acquiring a second homeland, and yellow leaf maple (Acer negundo) so naturalized in our open spaces that sometimes behaves like a weed. Now it is difficult to imagine that this plant was previously grown in greenhouses as a valuable exotic. At present, the ash maple is widespread in culture. First of all, due to the rapid growth, frost resistance and low soil requirements. However, its fragility and low decorative qualities make it necessary to apply this species as a temporary breed with others - slowly growing, but more decorative. There are a number of interesting color forms of this maple, which are widely used in landscaping: Aureovariegatum, Variegatum, Flamingo, Odessanum.
Growing in river valleys and marshes red maple (Acer rubrum) perfectly reconciles with excessive moisture and stagnation of water, in addition, he is not picky about soils. Received its specific name for the red female flowers and orange-red leaf color in the fall. Its decorative forms - ‘Red Sunset’ and ‘Scanlon’ characterized by a pyramidal crown and dark red leaves in autumn.
Very beautiful smooth green bark with white longitudinal stripes attracts the attention of the maple of Pennsylvania Acer pensylvanicum). Its large three-lobed leaves in autumn turn a rich yellow. The flowering and fruiting of this maple looks spectacular: the flowers, and then the fruits are collected in long, hanging brushes.
Among the maples there are shrub species that fit well into small gardens.
They also perfectly tolerate a haircut, so they make very dense and spectacular hedges. Such maples include - in addition to the above-mentioned maple of the riverine and false-Ziebold maple - also bearded maple, curled maple, Tatar maple.
Bearded maple (Acer barbinerve) very beautiful during flowering, in the fall it can boast of dark yellow or orange leaves, and in winter its young shoots with purple-red bark stand out against the background of white snow. It is perfectly formed and shorn.
The North American is very decorative throughout the growing season.
Where else are maples used
Many species of maple have valuable wood, which is used in the furniture industry, for the manufacture of sports equipment and musical, in particular, bow instruments.
Maple juice contains quite a lot of sugar, especially in species found in North America, for example sugar maple (Acer saccharum). In Canada, the sap of this maple is used to produce maple sugar, and its leaf is the national symbol of the country. A stylized image of a carved leaf of sugar maple is emblazoned on the jackets of Canadian hockey players and on the national flag of Canada.
Types of Maples: photo and description
1. Grapple maple (Acer carpinifolium) H = 10 m
Deciduous tree growing in the mountain forests of Japan. The leaves are bright green, very similar to the leaves of the hornbeam, in the fall - yellowish-brown. Green-yellow flowers appear simultaneously blooming leaves. Relatively frost-resistant, in central Russia it grows with light shelter or in places well protected from the wind. This rare species will bring special joy to collectors.
2. River maple (Acer ginnala) H = 8m
A large shrub with a crown-shaped crown, grows along the banks of rivers and streams, hence the specific name. Three-lobed leaves with an elongated middle lobe, dark green, shiny, in the fall - crimson-red. The flowers are yellowish, fragrant, collected in multi-flower panicles, appear after full blooming of the leaves. Grows rapidly, winter-hardy, gives abundant shoots.
3. The maple of False Bezbolds (Acer pseudosieboldianum) H = 8 m
Slender tree with a thick, marquee crown. During flowering large, yellowish-white flowers with purple sepals appear. Racemes with pubescent axes. The leaves are bright green, rounded, palmate-dissected to half of the leaf plate; in autumn they are painted in red and pink tones. The fruit of the lionfish at the beginning of ripening pinkish-red, then yellowish-brown.
4. Manchu Maple (Acer mandshurirum) H = 20 m
Deciduous tree with a highly raised, rounded, openwork crown. The leaves are graceful, trifoliate on long reddish petioles, in the fall acquire purple-red tones. Inflorescences are yellowish-greenish, racemes, consisting of large flowers. Flowering short, 10 to 12 days. It is an excellent honey plant. Poses urban conditions and formative pruning.
5. False-plane maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) H = 40 m
A tall tree with a well-formed trunk, especially beautiful when free-standing, forms a dense tent-shaped crown. The trunk is covered with ash-gray bark, exfoliated by large plates. Narrow, many-flowered inflorescences up to 16 cm long look spectacular against the background of blooming leaves. Leaves 3-5 lobed, dark green above, bottom glaucous or whitish.
6. Maple Pennsylvania (Acer pensylvanirum) H = 12 m
A tree with a thick crown, the trunk is covered with dark green bark with longitudinal light stripes. The leaves are large, obovate with three shallow lobes; in autumn they are painted in pure yellow tones. Yellowish flowers are collected in elegant drooping brushes up to 15 cm long. Flowering lasts 7-10 days. Fruits are stored on plants for a long time. Outwardly, it is very similar to green-maple maple.
Maple varieties: photo and description
Norway maple H = 15 m
Дерево с раскидистой кроной и крупными лопастными листьями красно-пурпурного цвета, которые осенью приобретают оранжевую окраску. Цветки желтые с красноватым оттенком, появляются одновременно с распусканием листьев.
Клен остролистный Н = 12 м
Нарядное дерево с регулярной кроной. Молодые листья по краям розовые, позже на них появляется широкая кремовая кайма. Светлая окраска этого сорта хорошо сочетается с растениями, имеющими темноокрашенную листву.
Клен ложноплатановый Н = 20м
Дерево с ширококонусообразной кроной. Young leaves are red-brown, later they change color and until the autumn remain dark green above and thick red with a purple-violet underneath.
Ash maple H = 4 m
This is a low tree or large shrub. The variety is very beautiful, variegated. Young leaves are pink, later becoming white and variegated. Maple is suitable for small gardens as a tapeworm and for use in color compositions.
Silver maple H = 20 m
Picturesque tree with hanging, long, thin branches. The leaves are carved, strongly dissected, graceful, silvery-green in color, in autumn they become light yellow. Preferred to use as a tapeworm.
Norway maple H = 7 m
A tree without pruning forms a smooth, very dense spherical crown, which in adult plants becomes flat. Recommended for landscaping city streets, but suitable as a decorative element for a small garden.
Norway maple H = 12 m
The crown is wide-conical, the leaves are large, shiny, bright red throughout the growing season. Yellow inflorescences look very impressive against the background of brightly colored leaves. The tree grows fast. This variety is widely used.
Ash maple H = 5 m
Beautiful tree with decorative, white-green, variegated leaves and spectacular fruits. Used as a tapeworm and in contrasting compositions with other hardwoods. It tolerates urban conditions.
The autumn garden is bright and beautiful, because right now many representatives of the flora have dressed up in the foliage of all sorts of shades of gold and flame. And one of the best candidates deserving an honorable place in private domains is maple. By the saturation of the red, yellow and orange foliage, he can hardly be found equal among woody plants. In general, botanists have 150 species of the genus (Acer maple).
About 30 are suitable for the garden. At the same time, the maple “brothers” are not twins at all - they are distinguished by their height and “appearance”: the shape of the crown and the color of the leaves, including the autumn leaves (only 50 species of maple leaves). By the way, some trees even have decorative bark. Is that the flowers at all pretty nondescript.
In Russia, there are about 20 species of maple. Among them, the Norway maple deserves special attention (Acer platanoides). It is most common in our area and is best adapted to difficult climatic conditions: unpretentious, shade-tolerant and even resistant to air pollution, so that this type often adorns parks and squares in megalopolises. At the same time, the assortment of Norway maple is large and diverse: there are columnar species (‘Columnare' or 'Crimson Sentry’)" Spherical crown
A massive stone container contained at once several copies of the maple of the palate undersized variety ‘Dissectum Atropurpureum ’(‘Globosum’, ‘Charles E. Irish’) and even dwarf (‘Pigmaeum’). In addition, varietal plants differ in leaf shape and color in autumn.
According to the decorativeness in the “motley” family, the Asian maple is hand-shaped, which is considered the owner of the most picturesque “appearance”. It grows in the form of a tree or a bush up to 6 m high. By the way, this species is a must have garden in the Japanese style. The only, but tangible minus of the most beautiful of the beautiful - for the middle zone it is not winter-hardy enough. This Asian is suitable for growing only in the southern regions.
In order for the maples to grow well, in the garden it is desirable to provide them with a sunny place or partial shade. The soil must be fertile and with good permeability, since most species do not tolerate stagnant moisture. Care is reduced to regular watering during drought (the tree itself will relive it, but the lack of “drinking” will directly affect the aesthetics of the image) and pruning of diseased and dry branches in autumn.
- Redhead maple (Acer rufinerve) comes from the mountain forests of Japan. This is a low tree frost-resistant, but sensitive to heat. Autumn color of leaves - yellow-orange, up to carmine red.
- The breadth is more than the height - such is the majority of the varieties of the maple palm. On the photo along the track creeps red ‘Dissectum Atropurpureum’.
- Maple red (Acer rubrum) ‘Scanlon’ For maximum foliage brightness, you need to provide a sunny place with moist soil without excess of lime.
- Maple of Tatar ginnala (Acertataricumsubsp.ginnala) in the fall like a scarlet flame. The tree height up to 7 m and a crown with a diameter of 8 m grows well both in the sun and in partial shade.
- Curled maple (Acercircinatum) in autumn dress up in orange-red foliage. The plant height and width up to 5 m prefers moist fertile soil and penumbra.
- Many species of maple are very decorative and fruit-lionfish. Helicopters, as they are called by the people, are carried by wind over long distances.
When bright leaves fly around, some species of maples delight with an additional decorative “option” - bark. She's unusually catchy. So, in the summer, thin red-brown plates like papyrus, which, however, remain on the trunk all winter (pictured), start to peel off from the trunk of the maple gray.
The maple serpentine green bark of the trunk and branches are decorated with white stripes. Green-and-white coloration captivates the maple of Pennsylvania. Maple palmate can boast of yellow or red (depending on the variety) color of the branches.
- Serpentine maple (Acer capillipes) fully justifies its name: the bark of the tree is “painted” in green and white stripes. Thanks to them, the plant retains decorative all year round.
- Japanese maple (Acer japonicum) ‘Aconitifolium’ conquers dissected openwork leaves, which at the end of the season shimmer with all shades of orange and red.
- Maple leaves have very different leaves. While in the maple of the river ginnal they are mostly three-lobed (in the photo), in others they can be five-, seven- and even nine-bladed.