Goats are very unpretentious to feed. They make good use of coarse, juicy and concentrated feed, willingly eat wormwood, spines, leaves of shrubs and trees.
In order to properly feed a goat, it is necessary to take into account circumstances such as the age of the animal, sex, the period of sucrose (pregnancy), lactation and the level of productivity.
In the stall period, the basis of the diet of goats is hay. Goats weighing 40-53 kg are fed per day to 2 kg of benign hay. With a lack of hay farming, it is partially replaced with straw. Goats eat barley and millet straw well, worse - wheat and very bad - rye.
In this case, the hay should be put in special feeders, since the hay is not clean, lying on the floor, goats will not. Ensure that only clean, unharned hay is used to feed goats.Hay should be put in special feeders
The goat can be fed with dried tree branches with leaves (brooms), replacing them with half the daily need for hay. Brooms are harvested from branches of poplar, birch, willow, alder, linden, willow, mountain ash. Dried leaves are more nutritious in comparison with brooms.Goat Feeding Hay Option
Oats, barley and other cereal feeds feed goats up to 1 kg per day, goats - up to 0.5 kg. Grain is better absorbed if it is given in flattened or crushed form. For the young and goat producers, oats are the most valuable feed, it contributes to the rapid growth of the young and increases sexual activity.
Barley is a good diet for goats and young stock. To avoid obesity, goats are given to barley in a mixture with other concentrates. Goats can be given crushed corn. When feeding young corn to the diet, protein-rich feeds such as bean hay or oilcake are added to the diet. Peas, soybeans, beans, goat lentils are eaten in the form of wholemeal flour or shredded.
Bran is an easily digestible, nutritious protein feed, essential for goats of all groups, especially for growing young and nursing queens. Bran is fed in a mixture with succulent feeds or in wetted form.In addition to hay, goats feed on grain feeds.
Mineral top dressing
Goats for proper nutrition requires a small amount of minerals. However, the lack of them in the diet dramatically affects the livelihoods of animals. In sucrose queen sufferers lacking phosphorus and calcium, weak goats are born, the uterus has reduced milkiness, and in goats sexual activity decreases and sperm quality deteriorates.
Good food usually contains enough minerals for animals, but it is advisable that there is always salt lizzer in the feeder.
Diet for goats of various directions of productivity
Goat rations should be tailored to their body weight and physiological state. So, in a non-radial period, animals need less feed than in a wolf. For example, it is enough to give goats:
- hay - 2.5 kg,
- oats - 0.6 kg
- if possible, then silage (better corn) - 1 kg.
In such a period, the rate increases. During the pasture period goats eat up to 5-6 kg of grass.
In the first half of pregnancy, the baby and sucrose queens are fed the same way, since the nutrient costs for the development of the fetus during this period are small.
From the second half of the season, and during the period of rearing, the queen bees are given better food. Immediately after kozleniya uterus should get drunk with bran, bean hay, as well as a small amount of chopped beets and carrots. After 5-8 days the goats are transferred to normal feeding.
Feed the kids
In the first two months of life, kids are their main feed is mother's milk, and later the young are taught to coarse, juicy and concentrated feed. In winter, the main feed for young stock is coarse feed (hay and partly straw). However, the young need fertilizing concentrates. The first 2 weeks of stabling goats usually give good hay, then coarser, and in the frosty time they add straw. At the end of extreme cold in early spring, they should again be given good hay.The first two months of life, the main feed of kids is breast milk.
Feeding down and wool goats
In downy and wool goat breeding, it is recommended to give the following feed in the stall period:
- youngsters of one year old - 2 kg of hay, including 1-kg cereal-legume, concentrates - 0.5 kg of goats, 0.3 kg of goats,
- adult uterus - 2.5 kg of hay, including 1-kg cereal-legume, 1.5-2-2 kg of silage.
In addition, with early spring goat, 0.2 kg of concentrated feed per day is added to the diet for 2 months before the goat and 0.4 kg during the suction.
Other questions about proper feeding of goats
In the morning and afternoon they feed less valuable and average quality hay, and in the evening - the best. Goats are fed to the base, usually 30-50% of the daytime hay is given in the morning, the kids are fed up with concentrates at the rate of 0.1-0.2 kg per day, starting from one month of age before beating at stalls and on poor pastures.
Attention! In the spring and autumn goats are driven out to graze after the dew has dried. Grazing on dew, especially cold, can cause hoof diseases, which leads to limping of animals. Do not herd goats and icy grass with ice, as they can catch a cold.
In the summer, goats are watered twice: in the morning and in the afternoon. During the pasture period, goats should receive salt in the form of licker every day.
Dairy goat diet options
The diet of dairy goats should consist mainly of roughage, root and tuber crops. Concentrates are given in view of the yield. The winter diet of goats consists mainly of hay, root and tuber crops, or silage. For example:
- In one embodiment, goats can get 2 kg of alfalfa hay in winter and 1.5-2 kg for daily milk yield, up to 2 kg of beets and 0.4 kg of oats.
- The second variant of the diet: meadow hay - 2 kg, kale - 3 kg.
- The third option: alfalfa hay - 1.5 kg, meadow hay - 1 kg, dry beets, roots - 0.5 kg.
- The fourth option: alfalfa hay - 1 kg, meadow hay - 0.5 kg, forage carrots - 2 kg, oats - 0.5 kg.
At higher yields, per kg of milk should be given 0.4 kg of concentrate.The diet of dairy goats may have several options.
Attention! Goat is not very carefully chews roughage, which first enters the rumen, where it is processed by microorganisms that break down cellulose and synthesize protein.
Between feedings the goat regurgitates part of the feed from the rumen and chews it additionally, which speeds up digestion. After the scar, food enters the following parts of the foregut — the grid and the book. Having passed these chambers, the feed enters a real stomach - abomasum - and further into the intestine.
Having such a long and complex digestive system, the goat is very sensitive to a change in diet. If, due to feeding errors, the scar activity stops, the goat may die.
The first sign of this is the absence of gum. Causes of the disease - overfeeding grain, especially after childbirth, randomly eaten polyethylene, rags, etc.
Massage every half hour and vodka sometimes helps to restart the work of the scar; vodka (50 g vodka mixed with 20 g water) helps massage
The basis of summer rations should be green grass.
Goat feeding rates
An analysis of European dairy breeds goat feeding showed that milk goats can consume from 5 to 8 kg of dry matter per day per 100 kg of body weight, which is significantly higher than the level of feed consumption by cows and sheep. Feed consumption also depends on age: goats of 2 years of age consume 50% of feed more than one year old young, goats of 3 years of age are 10% higher, respectively, than goats of 2 years of age.
The main feeds for goats are vegetable - coarse, juicy and concentrated. Fodder of animal origin - dairy products, blood meal, fish and meat meal - occupy a much smaller proportion in their diets.
Preparing for the first natural feeding
The goat in goats usually occurs easily. The female gives birth naturally, sometimes even without the help of the owner. After the baby was born, the intervention of the farmer is required. It performs the following actions:
- Cuts the umbilical cord.
- Wipes the newborn with a clean towel.
- It removes mucus from the nose and mouth of a newborn so that it does not get into the lungs and does not cause infectious diseases.
- Covers the animal with a dry towel, because the newborn has a weak heat exchange.
- Washes goat udders.
- It gives several streams of colostrum. The first drops are considered harmful and may contain bacteria.
- Within 1 hour after birth, the kid gives access to the colostrum and mother's milk. This can be done artificially (through a bottle with a nipple) or in a natural way (under the uterus).
Colostrum goat contains all the necessary substances to activate the immunity of the newborn goat. It contains easily digestible protein, a lot of fats and enzymes that promote the digestion of an animal's weak stomach.
Feeding under the uterus
Natural cultivation is convenient not only for the farmer, but also for the animals themselves. The kid is provided with maternal udder in free access up to three months of age. The farmer does not need to control this process. One has only to observe the state of the mammary glands of an adult. If after the baby has dososal its portion of milk, there is still a product in the udder, it should be finished. This will prevent the development of mastitis in goats.
As the kid matures, its diet is filled with new products. At the age of three weeks, they begin to feed them with salt, cat flour or chalk. These substances help to strengthen the bones and regulate the process of calcium absorption. The total weight of products should not exceed 10 g per day. When the animal turns three months, the number of additives is doubled.
Benefits of Natural Feeding
- the number of nutrients and their preservation during breastfeeding is higher than feeding the same milk, but through a bottle,
- goats have a stronger immune system,
- growth and weight gain have the best performance
- staying with a goat contributes to better learning of the young in matters of feeding and getting used to the conditions on the farm,
- farmer intervention is minimized. The time spent on care is reduced.
When feeding under the uterus, a strong immune system is formed in the kids.
Disadvantages of natural feeding
- the likelihood of goat mastitis
- young during nursing often damage the rudimentary nipples of the mother. This causes pain and sometimes swelling. The consequences can lead to the need for medical treatment of the animal.
Artificial feeding of kids
Feeding without a uterus is considered more troublesome than natural feeding. Most often, the method is used in the cultivation of highly productive dairy goats. A newborn goat is taken from the mother and the first feeding is done by feeding the dried colostrum and milk through a bottle with a teat. Product temperature should not exceed 38 ° C.
Artificial feeding of young
Farmers recommend to teach animals to drink from a bowl right away. If, due to the death of the uterus or other circumstances, it is not possible to feed the kids to the mother's milk, it is necessary to use an artificial formula. In order to make the composition as close as possible to a natural product, you should monitor the presence of dry milk, vitamin supplements, animal and plant fats, as well as minerals.
Feeding from the bowl
Benefits of Feeding Without a Uterus
- the farmer can independently adjust the diet of their wards,
- The milk of adult females is spent not on feeding the young, but on sale.
Disadvantages of artificial feeding
- the method requires an increase in the cost of finance and time,
- weaker immunity of artificially raised kids can cause many diseases,
- excessive breeder savings on artificial nutrition can cause the slow development of kids and poor weight gain.
Approximate scheme of feeding the kids in the first months of life
How to feed newborn goats
The diet of a newborn goat mainly consists of colostrum and milk. They are given first 5-6 times a day. From the second week of life, the number of feedings is reduced to four times. The third week provides for three meals a day for babies. First give colostrum, if it is not enough - feed the animal with warm milk. Many farmer injected into the diet of 10-day goat semolina. At 0.5 liters of water take 1 tbsp. l porridge. The cooked product is diluted with warm milk.
Feeding two weeks old kids
At this age, you can enter into the diet of young hay. Early training for coarse foods will help the stomachs to quickly adapt to the adult diet. At the same age, farmers resort to using the “elixir of growth”. In 1 liter of milk diluted with 10 g of salt and 15 g of fish oil. 2 - 3 eggs interfere here. The mixture is heated to the usual temperature and in small portions, they are soldered to the kids.
Feeding monthly goatlings
At this age, milk will gradually begin to be diluted with water. To make a substitute product, bran or flax flour is added to the liquid diet. Sometimes mashed potatoes are added for nutrition. By the age of seven months, the proportion of milk should be reduced to zero. In the diet should appear concentrated and combined feed. Also at this age, you can let the young in the pasture. If it is winter outside, kids can be fed with hay and harvested vegetables. Well-washed carrots and beets, as well as cabbage leaves.
Approximate feeding scheme for kids up to 12 weeks
What to feed a three-month goat
At three months of age, the diet no longer contains milk. It is taken away from the uterus, or milk is removed from the artificial diet. Juveniles begin to eat with adults. Milk replace other nutritional products of plant origin:
- branch feed,
- dried grass and straw in winter,
- harvested vegetables and root vegetables,
- concentrated feed at a rate of 200 g per day per adult animal,
- crushed cereals (alternation of grain, oats, corn and wheat),
- legumes and their tops (beans, peas, asparagus),
- vitamin and mineral components.
Baby goat eating grass
If the kid was left without mom
Goat milk is undoubtedly the best product for feeding the goat. But sometimes it happens that after lambing the goat dies. In such cases, it is the farmer who has to take care of the newborn. In households, breeders use the milk of other goats. The most prudent farmers have frozen colostrum in stock. Large farms feed goat with the help of whole milk replacer (WMS). It is necessary to select it based on the age of the animal and its species. So, goat substitute is adapted exclusively for goats. This means that the product created for cows will not benefit the newborn, and may even harm.
Feeding whole milk replacer
Using WMS, you should follow the rules:
- Observe the amount of feed. Do not overfeed kid. Exceeding the natural needs of an animal can lead to diarrhea. Indigestion in infants of young lambs can be fatal.
- Reduce the number of feedings with an increase in their volume. The older the animal, the less it is fed. From five meals a day in the first weeks of life, the number of feedings is reduced to three at the age of one month. In this case, the diet of young animals is gradually being replaced by non-dairy due to the introduction of new products.
- No mixture can replace colostrum. If the goat lamb field has fallen, use frozen colostrum or transitional milk from another uterus. The first four days of a goat's life, colostrum lays down its immunity.
- Transfer the young on the milk replacer gradually to avoid problems with the stomach. It should also be remembered that the milk replacer contains antibiotics.
- If there is no colostrum, no milk, no substitute, cow's milk will come to the rescue of the farmer. The transition to its consumption should also be gradual. It is important to know that such a kid will be able to survive, but its performance will be significantly inferior to the kids raised under the uterus.
- The introduction of dairy substitute obliges the farmer to maintain the cleanliness of drinking pots. It is recommended to install them so that animals cannot contaminate water.
Whole Milk Substitute
How to prepare a mixture for young
It will take about 45 days to grow a goat on a whole milk replacer. During this time, one individual consumes about 9 kg of dry mix. For 1 kg of milk replacer using 5 liters of water. The mixture is put on the stove and heated to 40-45 ° C constantly stirring. The finished mixture is filtered from the lumps. At the age of from two to seven days, the daily consumption rate is 0.9 - 1.2 liters per day. From one week to three weeks, 1.3-1.6 liters should be given. Further, up to the age of two months, one individual accounts for 1.7-1.9 liters of the mixture. Более взрослые козлята уже не нуждаются в заменители молока, поскольку полностью переходят на взрослый рацион.
Выпаивание козлят можно производить не только из бутылки с соской, но и из миски
- Чтобы удои не понижались, после окота козленка отнимают от матери сразу после того, как та его оближет от слизи.
- После окота козу отпаивают запаренным укропом. In 5 liters of water brew several branches of grass, 1 tbsp. l salt and 150 grams of sugar. The temperature of the decoction should not exceed 40 ° C. This drink helps to restore power after childbirth.
- Substituted colostrum is heated in a water bath. Never heat it in the microwave.
- During the first feeding immediately after lambing, pour the colostrum into a bowl and bring it to the kid. If he didn’t drink right away, gently poke his muzzle into the dishes. At the same time you should not pour a lot of milk so that it does not go nose.
- On the first day, feeding is not normalized by volume. Be prepared for the fact that the first 2 - 3 meals will be held at intervals of not more than an hour.
- On the second day of the life of a goat, they begin to let go of the goatling. Curiosity makes the animal walk and develop muscles. Within three days, the goat can travel 1 km.
- After taking the baby from the uterus, there will be little milk. Distribute a goat 4 times a day to increase the amount of milk.
- From the first days of life, young animals are provided with access to clean water at room temperature.
How much should a goat weigh
For the young to develop properly, you need 0.6 - 0.8 square meters. m. square in kozlyatnik for one individual and access to the farmstead
If a sick kid was born
A sick kid has a weight of less than 2 kg, does not get up on its feet, eats poorly and holds its head poorly. These symptoms indicate physiological impairment. Among doctors, this condition is called antenatal hypotrophy. The causes of the disease may be the following:
- premature lambing
- prematurity of the fetus,
- malnutrition goat during pregnancy,
- violation of conditions of detention
- lack of magnesium in the mother's diet,
- closely related mating of parents.
This article describes in detail the process of the birth of kids. Is it worth helping a goat during childbirth? How to care for a pregnant goat and what to feed during pregnancy to avoid problems with the appearance of offspring.
All these causes lead to metabolic disorders in the body of a goat. As a consequence, the formation of the internal organs of a goat does not fit into the norms and occurs with a lag. In all cases, except family relations and a lack of magnesium, the kid can be put on its feet. For this you need:
- Use medication. The drug "Gamavit" or "Katozal" contains the extract from the placenta, vitamins and substances that contribute to the development of the immune system of the kid. With it, eliminate anemia and start the metabolism. The rates of use and dosage are prescribed by a veterinarian.
The birth of a kid requires care not only from the goat, but also from the farmer. The better the host cares about his players, the more likely they are to grow up healthy and able to reproduce. Proper nutrition and care after birth provide animal productivity in the future.
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