Any gardener who has been breeding bulbous for years knows how to store tulip bulbs before planting. Seed material of plants of this family is not very resistant to moisture, often suffers from rot and pests, as well as temperature drops. Therefore, it is important to observe the time of extraction, storage conditions, sorting and processing of the material before planting in open ground.
Biological expediency of digging
Extracting tulip bulbs from the ground is the plant's biological need. The old onion dies off, leaving behind a family of daughter onions (children). Next year, the division process will be repeated, and the conditions for the normal development of tulips will worsen: the lack of food and space will be felt. The flowers are crushed and begin to degenerate.
The bulbs need a good warm up for the flower bud to be planted. If the flowers do not scoop up, they may lose decorative effect due to the lack of heat next year.
Digging for the winter allows you to prepare the soil: fertilize, add sand and peat, improve soil fertility, remove rhizomes of weeds without damaging the tulips. If the dug onions are cleaned of the remnants of the scales and the dead are removed, the risk of infection of the flowers by the larvae of pests and fungal diseases can be reduced. In addition, it is useful to process the planting material annually with a solution of potassium permanganate or Fundazole.
Bulbs that are not removed from the ground for the winter, over time, deepen. From there, the germ is difficult to break through to the surface, there is a shortage of heat to form a kidney. Therefore, digging and preservation before planting tulip bulbs is a good way to speed up the reproduction of valuable varieties.
Proper Storage Tips
With some effort and following simple storage rules, it is possible to store tulips at home before planting in the ground.
Tips on how to save planting material
- During extraction from the ground should be treated with bulbs very carefully, so as not to damage. Violation of the upper protective layer will increase the possibility of infection with fungal diseases.
- For storage, it is best to use a wooden box, because in cardboard boxes it is difficult to ensure good air circulation, moreover, they dampen and can become a breeding ground for bacteria and fungi.
- To protect against excessive moisture, it is recommended to pour planting material with sawdust.
- It is necessary to lay the material in a single layer so as not to impair ventilation.
- If there is a basement in the house, the seed can be laid out directly on a dry shelf and constantly monitor the air temperature.
- When breeding bulbs in the conditions of the apartment, you can put them in wooden boxes and store them on the balcony, controlling the temperature inside the tank with a thermometer.
- At professional cultivation of flowers the heat chamber is used, which maintains the temperature in the necessary limits.
- In some cases, you can store the material in the lower compartment of the refrigerator, where the temperature ranges from 3 to 5 ° C.
The health and further development of flowers after planting in the ground will depend on how accurately the recommendations will be implemented.
When you need to remove the bulbs
The bulb ripens within one month after the flowering of tulips. Elevated parts of the plant at this time begin to die off, from them is the outflow of nutrients. The scales of the bulb darken, acquiring a brownish tint.
Tulips can be removed when they have ⅔ leaves wither, and the stem itself softens and turns yellow. For the middle zone of the Russian Federation, this period corresponds to the last decade of July. We can assume that tulips are ready to be extracted from the ground if their stem can be wrapped around a finger.
Do not dig up tulips ahead of time. In this case, the replacement bulbs will not have time to form a protective membrane and fully mature, as a result of which they become shallow and undergo fungal diseases. Most of this defective material will not survive before planting in the ground, and from those that have survived, one should not expect good flowering.
It is also undesirable to delay the extraction of the bulbs until the aerial part of the plant is completely dry. In this case, sometimes it is impossible to determine their exact location, and the nests of the bulbs are destroyed, which leads to the loss of a large amount of material.
Preparation of bulbs for storage
The removed nests of bulbs, without clearing from the earth and scales, place in baskets or other ventilated capacities and dry in the dry and warm place within a week. For these purposes the verandah, an arbor, a canopy, a ventilated shed will fit. At the same time, it is necessary to avoid damage to the material by direct sunlight.
After a week, tulip bulbs are cleaned of roots and cover scales, removed, rotted or damaged, and the rest sorted by size. Minor damage is removed with a sharp knife and washed. Then the planting material is treated with a solution of sodium manganese or contact fungicides to protect against rot and fungus.
The most important material storage conditions are stable temperature, good ventilation, low humidity and lack of light. It is best to store tulips in natural wicker baskets, wooden boxes or on shelves, in paper containers or nets suspended from the ceiling.
The sorted material is laid out in a container in one or two layers. Over the next two months, the formation of buds and leaves takes place in the bulbs, therefore planting materials should be provided with optimal conditions.
- Humidity should be in the range of 60-70%. Dry air can lead to shrinkage of the fleshy shell of the bulbs, and excess moisture contributes to the early germination and reproduction of putrefactive microorganisms. When wrinkling the material should be slightly moisten the air in the store.
- Ensuring the correct temperature is the main condition for saving material. The first three weeks of storage must be maintained at a temperature of 25-30⁰ C. The rest of the time is no higher than 15-20 C.
- One of the main storage conditions is to provide ventilation in the storage. You can not store the bulbs in plastic containers with high sides and plastic bags. In such conditions, the material will not survive before disembarkation.
In conditions of high humidity and unstable temperatures, inspection of the bulbs should be carried out regularly. Rotten material should be discarded. The refrigerator is not the best place to store bulbs. Low temperature inhibits budding. The bulb will be well preserved, but the plant will not give flowers.
Adult bulbs shallow from year to year and degenerate, so children should be given maximum attention. They should be stored at a temperature of 20 degrees, inspect and air.
If there is a risk of damage to tulip bulbs by rodents, then it is best to save them in nets or stockings suspended from the ceiling.
When is it better to land
Unlike other types of ornamental plants, it is better to plant tulips in the fall. The optimal time for this event is the second and third decade of September or the first week of November. During this period, the soil at a depth of 15 cm has a temperature of from 10 to 13⁰ C.
Cooling during this period stimulates the plant to the formation of sprouts and budding. Bulb plants cannot bloom without prior cooling. Timely planted material has time to take root and tolerates frost well. If tulips are planted in the ground after freezing the top layer of soil, then it should be well covered planting brushwood, peat or other insulation.
Existing methods of storing bulbs
If the material does not have time to land on time, then you can use one of the proposed options for storing bulbs. The most important condition for winter storage is stratification, otherwise the plant will not give flowers after planting.
Wet germination of tulip bulbs will be an excellent storage option. To do this, put wet sawdust or peat in a plastic perforated container. On it onions are set bottom down and lightly covered with substrate. Store containers with tulips should be in the cellar. Sprouted in this way, the plants begin to bloom at the usual time.
With a small amount of tulips they can be stored in the vegetable box of the refrigerator. At the same time each bulb should be wrapped in a paper sheet.
A good place to store tulip bulbs will be the basement. In order to create the optimum conditions for the plant, it is necessary to pour the material with dry sawdust or sand. Plants planted in spring begin to bloom later than usual.
If the material is unlikely to persist until spring in the usual way, it is possible to make an early distillation, then grow in open ground. Bulbs to plant in containers with the usual ground from the garden. Before the first frost they can be stored on the veranda or balcony, and then covered with polyethylene and lowered into the cellar. Ventilate once every 2 weeks, moisten the soil as needed. After the sprouts appear, the containers are exposed to the light.
Preparing for landing
Regardless of the time of landing, you should pre-process the material. It is identical to the preparation of the bulbs for storage.
Processing planting material includes several steps:
- cleaning the bulbs of scales,
- inspection and sorting,
- processing of material with small defects.
If the process of preparing tulip bulbs for planting seems to be time consuming, you can buy ready-made material in the store, which is processed in accordance with all standards. At the same time it is necessary to buy high-quality bulbs from a reliable large supplier.
Thus, tulips require annual excavation and appropriate processing. The process of proper storage includes drying, warming and disinfecting the bulbs of plants, which, in turn, stimulates the establishment of flower buds. Planting material, which has undergone proper storage and processing, gives a good flowering and growth of young onions for breeding varieties.
There are different views on the feasibility of digging bulbs. Some growers recommend removing and drying tulips not every year, but periodically, but the experience of well-known breeders suggests that it is better to do this annually.
Since August, the temperature is gradually reduced: first to 20 ° C, and then to 15 ° C. It is best to place the bulbs at this time in the basement or cellar.
Bulbs need to be folded in spacious containers or boxes. Better in one layer, but with good ventilation inside the container, two layers are allowed. Each variety is stored separately.
When planting tulip bulbs
In mid-September or early October, tulip bulbs are planted in the ground. Tulips are planted 3-4 weeks before the first frost so that they can take root. The place where you planted the bulbs, it is better to protect from frost, covering with a layer of peat, straw or humus - then the bulbs of tulips in the winter should not freeze.
Diseases of tulip bulbs
Tulip bulbs affect various diseases. This usually happens if the soil in which the flower is planted is infected.
Tulips Gray mold is the most common disease. The main reason is strong waterlogging. Yellowish-gray spots appear on the bulb. They quickly increase in size and are covered with a gray bloom - spores of the fungus. Such a bulb can only give a deformed or diseased plant.
In addition, root rot occurs from excessive humidity, and its pathogen is fungi of the genus Routhium. It appears as brown spots on the roots. This rot is the cause of the deformation of the flowers and not enough high peduncle. To avoid this, the soil substrate must have good water and breathability.
Botrytiosis rot is very dangerous: the bulbs damaged by it do not germinate at all.
Tulips are characterized by the defeat of various types of rot: soft rot, wet rot (Fusarium). All of them are associated with bactericidal contamination of the soil and are provoked by excessive watering.
That is why it is so important for the health of tulips to comply with two conditions: storage in a well-ventilated area with moderate or low humidity and cultivation of tulips in well-drained soil. To eliminate rot, primer is treated with fungicides.
Time to dig onion tulips
When the tulips have already bloomed, the trunks with seed pods are cut off, and only leaves are left on the plot. After a time, they will wither and completely wither, approximately one month after the end of flowering. That's when they dig up the roots. But it is impossible to wait for the complete disappearance of the leaves, then the bulbs will be overripe and will begin to crumble.
Nobody will tell more exact time, because there are early, middle early, middle and late varieties. Each bloom has its own period, so whether you can already dig, it will be clear by watching each species separately. If you start the procedure before the leaf wilts, then the bulb does not form the characteristic brown husk, which protects it from excessive drying and withering. Immature tubers are not able to be stored for a long time, nor to give a full-fledged flower.
For extraction of roots use a pitchfork, a shovel more injure and often cut large tubers. If tulips are planted in special lily baskets, then removing the bulbs is easier and almost impossible to damage them.
To get tulip tubers from the ground or not
All varieties and hybrids of tulips by transplant frequency are divided into three groups:
- Annually. Parrot, liliapodobnye, fringed, all later and Rembrandt hybrids. If you don’t dig up these tulips at the end of each season, they quickly lose their variety signs and degenerate.
- Once every two years. Varieties Triumph, Darwin hybrids, not varietal. During one growing season, full-fledged tubers are poorly formed, so it is not recommended to disturb them more often.
- Once every five years. Varietal tulips Foster, Greig, Kaufman. This low-growing plants, use them in the design of the tracks. Over the five-year period does not degenerate and give a small number of children.
After harvesting the potato crop, it is important to determine its storage. Usually, potatoes are removed in the basement or cellar, but ...
Annual is a procedure or not, but it is justified by biological processes:
- The root of an old tulip is dying off, but it is preliminarily divided into a large replacement tuber and several children of various sizes. The division occurs annually, with different varieties and hybrids have a different number of daughter bulbs. Gradually, the place becomes less, and the plant degenerates, loses the signs of the variety, becomes weak.
- Leaving the rhizomes in the ground, increases the risk of spreading diseases, destruction by soil pests, such as onion nematode or furrow.
- It is problematic to dig up and fertilize the ground with bulbs in the ground, so the soil is emasculated and becomes infertile, the number of buds is reduced.
- Over-grown daughter bulbs are crumbling and constantly deepened. And then just can not break through a thick dense layer of earth.
- To create comfortable conditions in the soil in the summer is difficult. And for the full development in the future season, the tubers need to maintain a constant temperature and humidity. On the flowerbed, the land is often wetted, later flowers are watered, and the onion of tulips may rot or ache.
Dry the flower bulbs in well-ventilated areas. Arbors, sheds, dry cellars, verandas, attics, and balconies will be suitable for this purpose. The main thing is to ensure compliance with the temperature regime, not higher than 25 degrees.
Destructive to rhizomes hit by direct sunlight. Only diffused light, twilight or shaded conditions are suitable for harmless drying.
What to do with the bulbs after drying
After the final drying, the seed is prepared for sorting and storage:
- Each tuber is inspected, and dry, easily detachable flakes are removed.
- The above-ground part is carefully cut with shears or small clippers, but not very deep, so as not to damage the root.
- It is disinfected for 30 minutes in a pale pink manganese solution and dried.
For winter storage use wicker baskets, plastic or wooden boxes, wooden shelves.
To absorb excess moisture in a container with tubers of tulips fall asleep wooden shavings. Each spine is wrapped with newspaper or wrapping paper for the same purpose. This method will relieve contact with neighboring bulbs and prevent the rapid reproduction of diseases and fungi.
The use of glass, polyethylene and plastic containers for the storage of planting material is not recommended. Created in such a packaging environment is detrimental to the future of the plant.
Практически все, у кого есть дачный участок, выращивают лук – кто-то немного, а кто-то — с запасом, чтобы хватило…
Допускается хранение луковиц тюльпанов в холодильнике, если их мало и других вариантов нет. Но это не лучший способ для сохранения вегетации растения.
The roots are placed in the "warmest" place of the refrigerator, designed for storing vegetables and herbs. To prevent mold, each bulb is wrapped in napkins or paper towels. As the paper gets wet, it changes to dry.
The ideal place to store tulip planting material are heat chambers. But their cost is affordable not for every summer resident amateur. Those who plant flowers for sale or are engaged in selection will have to fork out for such a device sooner or later.
In such chambers, the temperature is set automatically by automatics, the humidity level is set. And for a long time, and in this case almost half a year, the conditions remain unchanged.
On a note!
Thermal chambers are sometimes called homemade boxes, where the same storage conditions are constantly maintained. They are embedded or placed temperature sensors and humidity. Keep them on a warmed balcony or in a cellar.
Early distillation and wet germination as storage methods
When it is impossible to create suitable conditions, for example, the basement is wet, and it is impossible to fix it in a short time, then early forcing or wet germination will do. These ways
For wet germination fit plastic boxes or containers. At the bottom fall asleep sawdust, peat, moisturize, and the tubers set bottom down. Sprinkle with the same sawdust or other light substrate. Containers are stored in the basement.
Germinated tulips bloom at the same time as those planted in the fall.
Regular seed inspection
Primary processing before storage is often not enough. All bulbs should be periodically turned over and inspected for the appearance of new spots and rottenness. The spoiled roots are immediately removed, and the neighboring roots are wiped with a clean cloth and put into a separate box to prevent further spread of bacteria.
Before disembarking, dry brown scales are removed from the surface. The bulbous plants are re-treated with a fungicide and a weak solution of potassium permanganate. In potassium permanganate, the roots are kept for about half an hour. Even if the storage conditions were good, this procedure will save the tubers from exposure to microorganisms living in the ground. A friendly wild flowering in the flowerbed will be a reward for the work invested.
Recycling is advisable to carry out during the autumn landing in the ground, and in the spring.
If you follow all the rules for digging, storing tulip bulbs, competent handling and planting abundant bloom in the spring will be provided. Flowerbeds cottages and household plots will delight friendly and large buds.