Milk mushrooms can be called “native Russian” mushrooms, because it was in Russia that since ancient times they were considered the best for salting and cooking lean dishes, while in the West they were constantly included in the category of inedible. Theoretically, all milk mushrooms (more than 20 types are distinguished) are conditionally edible: their use in raw form is impossible due to the unpleasant burning-peppery taste that disappears only after prolonged soaking and cooking (cooking, salting). But the mushroom pickers still deserve respect because of their predictable abundant fruiting, high nutritional value and excellent gastronomic qualities. Since these mushrooms always grow in groups (the name “milk” comes from the Church Slavonic “milk” is a bunch), and even the heads of adult specimens often reach a diameter of 20 cm, “quiet hunting” for them is rarely unsuccessful. And if we take into account that salted milk mushrooms are not inferior to white mushroom, meat and milk in taste and caloric properties, then people's love for them becomes quite understandable.
Types of moorie
From a scientific point of view, it would be correct to call mushrooms, belonging to the genus Mlechnik (Lactarius), but, strangely enough, not all milt plants are considered to be “moths”, but they are called such by many representatives of the genus Russula. If you delve into the intricacies of botany, you can find out that the lacteals and russules are included in the common Russulaceae family (Russulaceae), although the former differ from the second ones by the presence of many hyphae, the thick-walled vessels with milky juice. Both those and others are either edible or conditionally edible, so some of them with a similar appearance, growth pattern and the best taste qualities of the mushroom pickers were conveniently combined into a common group of milk mushrooms. Milk mushrooms often appear in the literature (especially Western) as “inedible”, but knowledgeable mushroom pickers and “mushroom hunters” claim that absolutely all these mushrooms become edible and very tasty after proper cooking. Despite the fact that there are no poisonous (false) twins in the crawlers and syroezhek, it is impossible to consider them absolutely safe: weakly toxic and too unpleasant taste (odor) that if insufficiently treated can cause repeated vomiting and diarrhea can occur among the mumps. Since these mushrooms are acquired “safe edibles” only after a long soaking and salting, all dishes (fried, boiled, canned) from far away are strongly recommended to cook only from salty mushrooms. Older specimens, which are much worse treatable and retain bitterness even after it, should not be collected at all.
The best taste characteristics of mushroom pickers, as a rule, are attributed to Gruzdyu present (Lactarius resimus), which is also commonly called white, raw or wet. It forms mycorrhiza with a birch and usually grows in large groups in the thickets of young birch trees, on the edges and glades of mixed and deciduous forests (pine-birch, birch) of Western Siberia, the Urals, the Volga region and Belarus. The fruiting season of this mushroom lasts from July / August to the end of September. In adulthood, it is quite easy to distinguish it from other fungi along a wide (up to 20 cm in diameter) funnel-shaped cap with pubescent edges tucked inside and white-cream plates in its lower part. The surface of the cap at this end is light - white or with a yellow tinge, and the mucous, often with parts of leaves or soil, the leg is short (maximum height 7 cm), cylindrical and hollow inside. As he grows older, the yellow or yellowish watery concentric circles are becoming more pronounced on the surface of his cap, and even very expressive rusty spots on very old specimens. The pulp of the fungus has a dense structure and a strong fruity odor; at the cut, it emits white caustic juice, which quickly turns into sulfur-yellow. Appearance of the present gruzdy is considered “the most correct” among all the mushrooms and according to the taste characteristics this particular mushroom is included in the I category of nutritional value. From the beginning of salting (after soaking for at least two days with rinsing and changing water every 3 to 4 hours) only the present can be eaten after 30 to 40 days, since in all other mushrooms the fermentation process lasts much longer ( 40 - 60 days).
The black and black (Lactarius necator), the yellow (Lactarius scrobiculatus), the aspen (Lactarius controversus) and the oak (Lactarius zonarius) also have good taste among the 2nd and 3rd categories. The places of growth of these mushrooms and their appearance, which, one way or another, differ from the “classical” characteristics of the present, can be judged by their names. A black bum (gypsy, nipper) has a short leg, a dark olive, almost black cap with a slightly pubescent wrapped edge and dirty greenish plates, and a dense grayish flesh, which gives off white milky juice on the cut and quickly turns brown. This fungus is found on the clearings and edges of coniferous and mixed forests, both near birch and spruce. The yellow weight looks more like other real ones: it forms mycorrhiza with birch, the pulp and milky juice of the fungus on the cut are similarly yellow, but its hat is already young and has an intense golden yellow color (sometimes with clearly visible concentric circles), and in cream. The noticeable salmon-orange color of the plates is also characteristic of aspen (poplar), but unlike yellow, it prefers to grow under aspens and poplars (less often under alder and willow), the color of the milky juice on the cut does not change and has a dirty-white sticky hat , often with slightly tucked (sometimes even with wavy) and slightly fringed (rather felt) edges. Oak mounds are usually found in oak and deciduous forests, on humus-enriched soils. It has a yellow-orange cap with concentric rings (for which he received the popular name "oak redberry") and yellowish-cream plates, on the fracture it gives off a very bitter milky juice, which is painted on contact with air in brown. Note: all these milk mushrooms before eating are highly recommended to soak and salt for at least 50 - 60 days. Among these mushrooms, black gruel has the best qualities in salting - it acquires a beautiful dark cherry color and maintains its density and excellent taste for three years.
Among the mushroom pickers, other milk mushrooms are less popular - “colored” (blue-blued, resinous-black, etc.), which do not have fringed rims on the cap (squeaky, peppermint) and do not emit any milky sap from the genus Syroezhka (dry, blackened , often plate, etc.). Many of them can be recognized externally by the characteristic dry, often velvety surface of the cap without an “edge” on the edge and the color change is not cut: in the blue, the flesh turns violet, in the pepper it is olive-green, and in the podgruzk at first it turns red and then quickly turns black etc. These mushrooms form mycorrhiza not only with birch, but also with pines, beeches, oaks, therefore they are found in deciduous and mixed forests. An exception is a dry load, it is white under load, which does not change color at a break and often prefers to grow in lowlands (holes and ravines) under old trees. Despite the fact that fungi that “suspiciously” change color on the cut, most mushroom pickers are suspicious, practical experience confirms that these mushrooms, after proper processing (salt for at least 2 months), become quite edible, although in a gastronomic sense may be inferior to those listed above.
It is definitely not possible to distinguish clearly defined “false” (that is, completely inedible or poisonous), but when collecting and cooking it is especially careful to refer to the pepper campus (Lactarius piperatus), the violin (Lactarius vellereus) and the camphor (Lactarius church) . The pepper weights and the violin look very similar to the dry weights (white podruzhdok) - they have creamy-white, dry funnel-shaped caps without a folded edge at the edge, but they are distinguished by higher legs and a rich milky juice that is colored by pepper pepper, bluish or olive. -green, and the violin after drying - in a red-brown shade. A characteristic burning pepper taste, which disappears only after a thorough soaking, is characteristic of pepper pepper, and mushroom pickers easily determine the creaking by the creaking that occurs when the edge of its cap is held with a wet knife or tooth. It is very similar to peppermint and is found in mixed woods (parchment) (Lactarius pergamenus), but its flesh is not so sharp, the cap turns yellow and has a slightly wrinkled surface, and the milky sap does not change color. Theoretically, these milk mushrooms are conditionally edible, but many mushroom pickers and authors are recognized as inedible because of too unpleasant taste and more rigid (compared to other weights) pulp in salty form. Although some lovers, by the way, pepper fungus is successfully dried, they make up seasoning powder and use it instead of regular pepper.
The camphor (papillary, lactic camphor) mily was given this name due to its characteristic odor, the intensity of which weakens in adulthood and is replaced by the aroma of mature coconut. The danger of this fungus is that it accumulates too much muscarinic substances, which, even after processing, can persist and cause poisoning if they enter the esophagus. Externally, this fungus should be identified by a brown (from light shade to dark with a purple tint) cap and a yellow-cream plate. The shape of the cap at the camphor is often flat with a depressed center, and on the cut of the stem in the center the flesh is clearly visible in red, from which the characteristic odor emanates. The flesh of the cap after the break quickly becomes dark, but the milky juice does not change the color in the air. One of the surest ways to determine camphor mushroom is to press a finger on the surface of the cap, after which a brown with a rich golden brown shade usually appears. Despite the fact that camphor mushroom is also considered conditionally edible, it is difficult to determine at home the level of its toxicity (depending on the mass of the fungus and its age), therefore it is better to refrain from collecting it at all. Note: unlike the more “tasty” varieties (real, black, yellow), the milk mushrooms are camphor, pepper and squeaky much less often (only in the most lean years) are wormy, which can also be taken into account to determine their “edibility” during “quiet” hunting.
Milk mushrooms are ideal for mushroom pickers with aging: you need to look carefully for these mushrooms, looking under the leaves of last year, pine needles and moss, soak them thoroughly and salt for a long time. According to those who know “mushroom eaters,” any cooking of milk mushrooms without prior salting is only a “product transfer”, so those who want to appreciate the taste sung in the literature will still have to learn to savor the anticipation and wait for the time needed for fermentation (40 - 60 days). Proper processing usually eliminates the need to look for “false signs” in these mushrooms during a “quiet hunt”, but if you are confused by something in them (smell, color on the break, complete absence of pests even on neighboring specimens, age of the fungus, etc. .), better not take chances and refuse them in time.
The real milk has original taste. As an adult, this mushroom is very easy to distinguish from others. It has a large funnel cap and short leg. The pulp of the fungus has a sweetish pleasant smell.
But even this kind of baby requires soaking for three days with a change of water every 4 hours. Only after this treatment, the mushrooms are boiled and salted.
Symptoms of mildew poisoning
Mildew poisoning can manifest itself with various symptoms over time.
Regardless of the type of poisoning by these mushrooms, the main symptom is gastroenterocolitis. The difference will be only in the timing of the latent period:
- with a short latent period, it takes from 30 minutes to 2 hours from the time of eating mushrooms to the development of the clinical picture of poisoning,
- during a long latency period from two to 48–72 hours from the time the mushrooms are consumed.
There are cramps and abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, intestinal colic and diarrhea. Everything is accompanied by the loss of water and salts and the development of a dehydration clinic and electrolyte disturbances.
Treatment with mildew poisoning
With a timely start of treatment does not present much difficulty.
General principles of treatment for poisoning with these mushrooms:
- cessation of poison in the body,
- removal of poison from the body (washing the stomach and intestines, enterosorbents),
- symptomatic therapy (most often - antiemetics),
- forced diuresis method (infusion therapy and diuretic administration).
When the above symptoms appear, you must call the ambulance team. But before the arrival of a paramedic, you must:
- wash the stomach, after drinking more than 5 cups of saline solution (one tablespoon of salt per liter of water), induce vomiting, pressing the tip of the spoon on the root of the tongue,
- if possible, drink a laxative (vaseline or linseed oil),
- go to bed, take cover with a warm blanket, warm the limbs,
- Constantly drink salt solutions or warm water.
It should be remembered that in any food poisoning it is strictly forbidden to eat food and alcohol. It is also not allowed to receive antipyretic and analgesic drugs. Since such measures can erase the clinical picture of poisoning and mislead the doctor.
It is best if an adult is with the injured person who can describe the cause of this condition and describe the manipulations carried out at the pre-medical stage.
After collecting anamnesis (survey) in the hospital poisoned wash the stomach. Depending on the level of consciousness, this manipulation can be carried out both independently and through a nasogastric tube. Gastric lavage is best done in the first two hours after the onset of clinical signs of poisoning. The dose of fluid for washing the stomach should be 8-10 liters (for an adult).
In addition to washing the stomach in the hospital, the intestines must be cleaned with an enema. It also needs to be done in the first two hours after the onset of signs of poisoning.
After such unpleasant manipulations, the doctor will prescribe drugs for the enterosorption to the patient:
- Activated carbon,
Laxative drugs are prescribed immediately after gastric lavage at a dosage of one gram per kilogram of oral weight. If vomiting occurs, the drug should be repeated after 30–40 minutes.
The next stage of treatment is - forced diuresis with diuretic drugs (Furosemide).
Ringer's solution or an isotonic solution of sodium chloride is injected intravenously in order to eliminate dehydration and prevent collapse (acute vascular insufficiency, accompanied by a drop in arterial and venous pressure). Also use drugs to increase blood pressure (Mezaton, Noradrenaline).
It should be remembered that only specialized medical care can prevent possible serious complications. And the lost time can be fatal for the patient.
Measures for the prevention of the poison
Not all people know that even true milk mushrooms under adverse environmental conditions can cause acute poisoning. When collecting mushrooms, you should pay attention to the presence of any industrial enterprises, highways, factories near.
Thus, in the collection and preparation of mushrooms should follow some simple rules:
- collect in the forest only when you are sure that you have a grunt in front of you (and be able to distinguish the real from the false),
- avoid places with a high concentration of toxic substances for collecting mushrooms (routes, industrial production),
- macerate for three days at least, changing the water every four hours,
- after soaking, milk need to boil and then salt.
Thus, under certain conditions, it is quite safe to enjoy the results of the mushroom harvest. Is it possible to get poisoned with salty milk mushrooms? - No, if the mushrooms are properly collected and soaked before the ambassador.
Salting gruzdey should last at least 30-40 days (or even two months) - this is the time required for complete fermentation. And only then they can be eaten. Although some mushroom pickers believe that just one or two weeks is enough. But it's not worth risking your health.
Mushroom poisoning: what to do?
The first symptoms of poisoning with false mushrooms are always similar to each other. Человек через несколько часов начинает чувствовать слабость и боль в животе, его начинает тошнить, после чего появляется рвота и жидкий стул. Так организм всеми доступными ему способами пытается избавиться от токсинов. Если на этом этапе не начать оказывать помощь, состояние может ухудшиться вплоть до обезвоживания.
Первая помощь при отравлении ложными грибами – это промывание желудка. It is necessary to force a person to drink water or a weak solution of manganese, and then induce vomiting by pressing on the root of the tongue. The procedure should be repeated several times.
As soon as nausea and vomiting disappear, you can proceed to rehydration - the restoration of lost fluid. Sweet warm tea or pharmaceutical preparations, for example, Regidron, will help here. Drinking during this period should be plentiful. In addition, a person needs warmth and peace.
In case of poisoning with false mushrooms, one should not refuse qualified medical assistance. Even if everything was done correctly, a specialist consultation never hurts. It is necessary to treat your health responsibly, and not to hope for the usual and all familiar “accident” ...
Squish yellow (Lactarius scrobiculatus)
Squish yellow (Lactarius scrobiculatus)
A beautiful mushroom, with an appetizing golden hat with a diameter of up to 15 cm, concave in the center and fringed at the edges, mucous in rain and glossy on a sunny day. The leg is strong, small, up to 5 cm tall, with a yellowish tinge and patterned golden stains or patches.
Often located cream plates, descend on the leg. The flesh is juicy, burning juice appears on the fracture, which then darkens. When collecting and transporting on the ground touch may appear blackout.
Oak Wood (Lactarius insulsus)
Oak Wood (Lactarius insulsus)
The cap is prostrate, then funnel-shaped, with the edges wrapped down, up to 12 cm in diameter. The peel is brown-orange, with a red tinge, covered with brown spots. Yellowish plates descend on the stalk of the same color.
The flesh is fleshy, creamy-white, at breaking it acquires a pink tint and secretes a watery white liquid with a pungent taste and a slight mushroom smell. Use a mushroom for salting and consider conditionally edible.
In another way oak oak is called ryshik oak. If you are interested in learning more about mushrooms, read the article "Mushrooms mushrooms".
Black Lactarius necator
Black Lactarius necator
This dark mushroom in pickles is very tasty, getting a wine, reddish shade. The cap is rounded flat, later sunken, up to 20 cm in diameter, brownish yellow with an olive tinge or dark green, the surface may be covered with concentric circles. Bent edges, slightly fringed. The mucous skin, especially in rainy weather.
Greenish sticky leg up to 8 cm high, tight and full, becomes hollow to the base, the surface is covered with dents. In the upper part thin plates of yellowish-olive color descend on it. The white flesh is fleshy, with a grayish break, giving off a milky liquid, acquiring a purple hue in the air. The cap is often dirty, the surface is covered with particles of soil and litter, and before cooking it has to be scraped.
Podgruzdok white (dry sink) (Russula delica)
Podgruzdok white (Russula delica)
White podruzdok is a tasty and fragrant type of russules, a whitish-and-cream bonnet with brown spots, up to 20 cm in diameter, rounded-convex, and then concave. The plates are frequent, creamy-white, falling on a flat or slightly curved strong leg. The pulp is tight, creamy, with a delicate mushroom aroma and tart taste.
The surface is usually covered with ingrown particles of soil. In dry weather, dry fabrics can crack like parchment, which is why podgruzdok received the second name.
Locations and collection times
Most often, these mushrooms grow in large groups, families or, as mushroom pickers say, “flocks”, in late summer and autumn in deciduous or mixed forests.
Real grudge - a common species, is quite common in light deciduous or mixed forests, in lindens and birches. Settles small clearing, and sometimes quite extensive colonies. The best soil for its development is with white clay, coming close to the surface of the soil. Collect mushrooms from July to the very cold. Connoisseurs especially appreciate autumn harvests - fruit bodies are not so well preserved, but they also do not possess pungent bitterness.
Under thin ashes, according to its eloquent name, it occurs aspen weed, forming neat glades, not far from one another, fused together in the form of chains. He likes to settle at the root system of poplars of different species, often growing in poplar stands and forest belts. The collection time falls on only two months - August and September.
Bright yellow sink Fir-trees were chosen - under the dense paws of dark fir trees small small groups of these mushrooms grow, less often it forms whole glades. Harvest at the end of summer and the very beginning of autumn.
Oakwood grows in numerous families in oak forests, prefers soft calcareous soils, settles abundantly on the slopes of warm, sun-warmed hills. Find the taut greenish fruit bodies of this species from late summer until the very frost.
Separately or in large groups in birch groves black grudge. Gather it, carefully cutting off the short leg, in the period of mass offerings - from mid-July to late summer.
Podgruzdok white grows singly or clearings in oak groves, birch and mixed forests. The beginning of the collection falls in the middle of summer and lasts until September.
Light mushrooms grow in meadows or rows in deciduous forests, rarely among conifers, like dampness and thick shadow. A cap up to 20 cm in diameter, convex or flat, then concave, creamy, with a lighter shade at the edges, brown spots quickly appear at the site of damage.
The flesh is dense, but fragile, on a break a viscous white liquid stands out, tart, with a taste of bitter pepper. Eating is permissible in saline form and only after prolonged soaking with frequent changes of water. Dry powder from fruit bodies is used as spicy hot seasoning.
Camphor (milch) camphor
Camphor (milch) camphor
Camphorous milch grows more often near conifers on damp mossy soil and on lost wood. Hat 5–6 cm in diameter, convex, then concave, with a wavy edge, glossy, reddish-brown. The plates are pinkish, then brown, descend onto a flat, thin leg, up to 5 cm high, at the bottom of the tuber-like shape.
The flesh is fragile, friable, brick-brown, with a very strong, rather unpleasant smell of camphor or dry clover. Whitish juice, which does not change color in the air, is released on the break. The characteristic smell will not allow to confuse the fungus with others, as well as use in food.
Skripitsa (felt felt)
Skripitsa (felt felt)
In the oak and birch forests from mid-summer to October, you can meet the crepice - a conditionally edible mushroom with a pungent taste, growing in large glades. The white cap is fleshy, covered with villi, concave, later taking the shape of a funnel, with bent edges, up to 25 cm in diameter. The plates are creamy-white, sparse, descend on a rounded stem up to 8 cm.
The flesh is white, fragile, with breaking it emits acrid milky-white juice. The stem is almost completely buried in the ground, therefore only the heads of the violin are assembled. Before cooking, they are soaked for a long time, and then used for pickles.
Slippery golden yellow (golden crab)
Slippery golden yellow (golden crab)
In the dampness of coniferous or mixed forests, as well as in birch forests, singly or by clearing, the golden leaf grows, attributable to conditionally edible mushrooms. The fleshy cap is light yellow, it becomes darker and lilac in places of contact, the velvety edges are bent downwards. The form is outspread, then concave, the surface is sticky. The plates are yellowish, frequent, descend on a pale yellow high leg.
The flesh is creamy white, it emits a caustic milky liquid with a pleasant smell. Suitable for pickles and cooking marinades after soaking or boiling.
Highly nutritious fleshy mushrooms are rich in easily digestible proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. Content protein in fruit bodies it is high - up to 33 g per 100 g of dry matter; when boiled, they can be successfully used in the dietary diet as a substitute for meat or fish.
Significantly presented B vitamins, carotene and ascorbic acid, positively affecting the functioning of the nervous system, the stability of the immune system, the work of the blood-forming organs.
Unique mushrooms contain an active form. vitamin d, in a similar form it is contained only in products of animal origin. This important element is necessary for the prevention of osteoporosis, supports healthy skin and hair, directly affects the absorption and balance of calcium and phosphorus.
Minerals represented in mushroom tissues - sodium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus are in an accessible form, quickly absorbed and replenish the content of these substances in the body.
In the composition of the pepper gruzya found active antibacterial substances, oppressive tuberculosis bacillus, also known for its positive effect in the treatment of kidney disease, in particular, urolithiasis. These healing properties are widely used in traditional medicine.
During the preparation of fermented pickles, with fermentation involving lactic acid, special substances are produced that affect anti-inflammatory and lower cholesterol levels.
Mushroom dishes are too heavy food for people with impaired pancreatic, liver and gallbladder function.
Constant excessive consumption of these products, saturated with a large number of active substances, can lead to sensitization of the body, increase its sensitivity, and the manifestation of allergic reactions.
The use of improperly prepared fruit bodies, especially conditionally edible species, will cause disturbances in the activity of the gastrointestinal tract and the excretory system.
People suffering from hypertension and kidney disease, it is necessary to carefully include in your diet spicy, salty and sour mushroom dishes, in small portions and only occasionally.
Forest mushroom dishes should not be eaten by children under seven years of age and pregnant women.
The best recipes for cooking and preparation
All milk mushrooms are suitable for food after soaking for two or three days, and the water is changed several times, flooding fresh. This is the only way to get rid of the bitter taste of pulp and caustic juice. Salted fruit bodies are not only an exceptionally tasty snack, they are also an excellent preparation for first courses and stewing.
For one liter jar of preservation take 4 tablespoons of 5% vinegar, salt, black pepper, a few bay leaves. Prepare a hot brine at the rate of 20 g of salt per 1 liter of water.
Salted mushrooms for 30–45 days are laid out in a colander, scanned, removing damaged fruit bodies, and washed with running water. As soon as the water is completely drained, the billet is placed in jars on a layer of spices, then vinegar and prepared hot brine are poured. Preservation put on sterilization, keeping at the boiling liquid in banks for at least one hour, then sealed.
For 5 kg of prepared mushrooms take 200 g of salt, 300 g of sugar, 400 g of sour milk.
The fruit bodies are cut into pieces, dipped in hot water, salted to taste, boiled for two minutes and drained into a colander. They lay in a pot in layers, salt, put sugar, press down, releasing excess air, and pour in sour milk, covering the fermentation with a cloth, put a load on top.
At a temperature of 17–19 ° C, the product can be consumed in two weeks. For long-term storage, the billet is packaged in jars, poured with brine at the rate of 20 g of salt per 1 liter of water and sterilized for 40-50 minutes, and then sealed.
Video: how to collect milk
Favorite in folk cooking, thanks to its inimitable aroma, excellent taste, and undoubted nutritional value, deserves the closest attention of mushroom pickers. Obvious advantages - excellent yield, lack of poisonous twins and high transportability make this view one of the best trophies for lovers of “quiet hunting”.
Description of black saddle
The hat of the black hair is large, fleshy - in the girth it reaches 20 centimeters. The shape of the cap is flat, the central part of it is depressed, and the edges are bent downwards. In old chernushki hat made funnel. In rainy weather the surface of the cap is covered with sticky mucus. Dark concentric circles are clearly visible on the cap. The color of the cap varies from dark brown to dark brown, because of the color of the mushroom and got the name. The edges of the cap are much lighter.
The black moss is a agaric. The plates are under the cap, they are thin in shape. The color of the plates at a young age is white, and in overgrown copies becomes black.
The flesh is white, if damaged, it becomes gray. According to the structure, it is dense, but very fragile. From the pulp stands out white milky juice, not changing in air. This juice is not poisonous, but it tastes pungent.
The gypsy leg is thick and short - its height reaches 8 centimeters, and the diameter can reach 3 cm. The shape of the leg is cylindrical. Its surface is smooth. Color coincides with the cap. At a young age, the leg is solid, and in old mushrooms it becomes hollow inside.
Black gruel is one of the most fruitful types of mushrooms. If you find a family of black saddle, they can fill the entire basket.
Gypsies grow in spruce, mixed forests and birch forests. These mushrooms love to hide among the leaves and moss. Often they are found on the edges, old clearings and along forest roads.
The first layer of black wetlands appears in mid-July, with favorable weather, the harvest continues until the end of October. Intensive fruiting chernushki occurs at the end of August. Find these mushrooms until the first frost begins.
In some years, chernushki so much that mushroom pickers get tired of collecting them. When a large layer of black wetlands appears, mushroom pickers collect only them, and for the rest, there is no space left in the basket, as these mushrooms are large in size and have a decent weight.
Evaluation of the taste of chernushki
In terms of food quality, black milk belongs to the 3rd category. Basically they are used in food in salty form. Since chernushkas have caustic juice, before salting, they are soaked in water for at least 3 days, and you can boil them right away. But the best mushrooms first soak and then boil.
After salting, black milk mushrooms become dark cherry color. The most delicious mushrooms, the diameter of the caps does not exceed 7 centimeters, and with short legs - a length of not more than 1 centimeter.
In hotel sources, it is indicated that black cargo contains mutagen necatorin, the concentration of which is 3–20 milligrams per kilogram. After boiling in chernysha, about 25% of the original mutagen remains.
For this reason, black mushrooms appear in some reference books as inedible mushrooms. Since the end of XX century, these mushrooms are increasingly considered poisonous. In this case, the visible causes of poisoning, such as an upset stomach or vomiting, is not observed, but it is believed that these fungi cause latent harm to the body.
Other milk mushrooms
Aspen gruzd - edible mushroom. Its name speaks for itself, as it is most often found under aspen. This is a rather rare mushroom. Basically, aspen milk mushrooms are used for salting. The color of his cap is heavy white. The leg is strong, also white, and the plates are creamy pink.
The oak is another edible representative of the genus. The color of the cap is yellow, the leg is smooth and strong. A sharp white juice appears on the cut. There are these mushrooms in oak and thickets of hazel. They grow small families. Fruits from July to October.
Yellow gruzd - also edible representative of the genus. It is a tasty mushroom of the first category, it is a color twin of the real load. A characteristic feature is that there are small specks on the mushroom cap. Yellow milk mushrooms grow in young fir and coniferous forests.
The blue gruzd is also edible. In salt form, these mushrooms are incredibly tasty. When touched, they instantly turn blue, which often scares off mushroom pickers. When the pulp is damaged, a milky, purple color appears. These mushrooms grow mainly in Siberia.
A violin or a squeezer is also suitable for eating. Beginners often confuse a violin with a sap. You can distinguish the treble-bit by a pubescent hat and a fruit smell.