To get a good harvest of high-quality berries, you need competent care for raspberries in the spring. The main mistake of beginning gardeners-gardeners is that they do not properly care for the bushes in spring. But the plant itself can only grow in forests, creating impassable thickets. On the garden plot, bushes (and not only raspberries, but also grapes, honeysuckle, shadberry, ...) need to be cared for in spring and autumn, when numerous flowers in the garden still delight the eye.
Raspberry berries are very appreciated due to their beneficial properties. And the leaves of the bush are rich in vitamin C. To get a good harvest of useful berries, you must competently care for the plant.
Revision of raspberry bushes, their tying and trimming
After complete snowfall, it is necessary to inspect the landing site. It is worth checking how the raspberry survived the winter cold, whether it has suffered from frost. If since last autumn there were uncircumcised and broken shoots with snow, then they should be cut to the ground. It is necessary to collect all the old foliage, because it can be affected by disease, then burn it. If in the fall the branches of the plant were bent, tied up or pinned, then with the onset of spring the bushes need to be untied and straightened. After all, the buds that are close to the soil, can bloom ahead of time. But in early spring there are frosts and full-blown buds freeze.
After these manipulations, it is necessary to tackle the shoots of the plant. The plant requires support to ensure uniform coverage, accelerate growth, develop new shoots and facilitate the care of the bushes.
As supports it is best to use the trellis. Raspberry shoots should be fanned out on a wire stretched between the stakes (at a height of approximately 120 cm from the ground) and tied up using twine. After two years, between the stakes you will have to stretch a few more rows of wire - at a height of 40 cm from the ground and 150 cm.
An important component of spring care for the bushes of a plant is its pruning. Remove the tops of the shoots only after bud break. It will be possible to find out how much the top of the escape from frost has suffered, after the opening of the upper bud.
The top of each shoot should be cut to the first bud in growth. Pinching in this case will not work. Thanks to this care, the appearance of lateral shoots is stimulated, which will bear fruit.
Spring care for the soil around raspberry
You can not dig the ground near the raspberry, because its root system does not go deep into the ground. That is, when digging, you can damage the roots of raspberry. It is possible to dig up the earth only in the fall between rows of bushes. And in the spring you just need to well dig the ground.
In spring, the soil around raspberries needs to be mulched, that is, covered with a layer of material of organic origin - compost, rotted sawdust, peat or straw manure. Under this layer, the earth becomes more fertile, friable, capable of retaining moisture longer. Thanks to spring mulch, weeds grow less.
Mulching should not be done if the soil is very dense and wet. In this case, for the care will be enough deep loosening and making supplements.
If in the process of planting raspberry bushes in the country in the hole was added phosphate-potassium fertilizer, then the first 2 years to make additional feeding is not necessary. The plant is very demanding to make all types of fertilizers. Every spring during loosening it is desirable to apply nitrogen fertilizers.
The best for raspberries is urea. It is necessary to make a strip of about 60 cm along each row. Feeding with urea should be carried out in the spring of each season. After fertilizer, you need to mulch the soil.
On a square meter of a site for top dressing of raspberry it is necessary to take 8 gr. urea or 11 grams. ammonium nitrate. It is worth knowing that during the fruiting can not make nitrogen supplements. And annually, in the autumn, after picking berries, you need to make phosphate and potash.
If young shoots grow poorly, the plant needs feeding. In late spring, a mullein or chicken droppings should be brought under the bushes. However, organic fertilizers must be applied correctly. Otherwise, the bushes may suffer.
1. Before fertilizer is applied, dry soil under the bushes must be well moistened. If this is not done, the roots of the plant can be burned with fertilizer.
2. Organic supplements can be made exclusively in cool weather, as the scorching sun and heat can lead to side chemical reactions.
3. When processing is carried out it is necessary to ensure that the solution does not fall on the bushes of the plant.
4. After cooking, organic dressing should not be tightly covered, since organic infusions require access to air.
Shrub pest control and disease control
Care for raspberries is to protect it from diseases and various pests. After all, this plant, like other bushes of berries, is attacked by pests, it can be visited by fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, it is imperative in the spring, before bud break, we process the bushes and the soil beneath them with a 1% solution of copper oxychloride. I also gladly use Bordeaux mixture (3%) in this noble cause, and it can be used not only in the treatment of raspberries, but also for the prevention of disease.
1. Spider mite. Insect likes sap plants. Thus, raspberries can become infected with gray rot spores. To protect it from spider mites, it is necessary to spray the bushes with a solution of colloidal sulfur before flowering.
2. Raspberry beetle. Insect damages the bushes during their flowering. The beetle eats leaves and buds, the female leaves eggs in flowers. The remedy against this insect in the spring is a solution of nitrafen. Processing is carried out immediately after the snow. When the plant starts to bloom, it is necessary to spray the fitoherm.
3. Stem fly. The pest larvae eat the tops of the shoots, which is why the plant rots and becomes infected with infections. For the destruction of insects should be treated with bushes Agravertin.
4. Weevil. An insect gnaws pedicels and leaves eggs in the raspberry buds. A way to combat pest - treatment karbofos plants in the spring.
5. Chlorosis is a viral disease of which aphids are spreading. At this defeat raspberry leaves are deformed, and shoots cease to develop. Combating the disease - first of all getting rid of aphids.
6. Rust. From the end of spring, the leaves of the plant begin to dry, turn yellow and fall, and on the shoots you can see dark-colored ulcers. If the disease has not yet been started, treatment with Bordeaux liquid should help. In the advanced stage of the disease, sick bushes must be removed from the healthy and then burned.
7. Defeat by gallfly. If the foliage of the plant in the spring begins to dry and thickenings appear on them, it means that the raspberries are amazed by gall midge. To get rid of it, it is necessary to remove all the affected stems to the roots. And after spring loosening of the bushes, you can spray the soil with Fufanon (in a 10 liter container with water, pour in 15 ml of the preparation). When the buds begin to form, it is also desirable to process the plant with Actellic.
8. Purple spot. The foliage forms spots of red-brown color, with time the leaves fall. Caring for a plant in this case is spraying the shrub with the drug "Zircon", but only after it has finished fruiting. Dried stems should be removed immediately after the fungus is detected.
In addition to chemical methods, in the fight against diseases of raspberries, you can use traditional methods. For example, an excellent prevention of the appearance of gray rot is pine needles, laid out along the raspberries. Regular garlic will help defeat fungal diseases. You can also prepare herbal infusions with insecticidal properties.
If the shrub at the dacha grow properly and implement the necessary measures to care for it, then the disease and harmful insects will not greatly plague raspberries.
Spring Raspberry Transplant
This plant is very strong and growing rapidly. If you need to plant bushes, then a shovel can be cut off from the large specimen new shoots with roots and earth, and then plant them in another place. You can sit down in the autumn, but it is better to do it in the spring.
For planting in the country should choose sunny areas. Also, novice gardeners should know that you should not plant it in those places where tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, bulbs or potatoes were planted before. Also, do not plant raspberries next to the wild rose, apple, blackberry, cherry. It is better to choose the area for planting, where legumes or grain were previously grown.
Growing Guide at the Beginning of the Season
With the beginning of the summer season, many of us are concerned about the improvement of the land in their backyard. After all, spring is the best time for planting young trees and shrubs, and raspberries are no exception. Observing the simple, generally accepted rules for growing this berry shrub will help you to get a rich annual harvest of fragrant and beloved berries.
The most important rule for growing raspberries in the spring - planting should be carried out before the buds bud on the trees. Many novice gardeners do not know about it and delay the planting time before the arrival of summer, which is extremely unfavorable for the full rooting of the shrub. It is necessary to think about choosing a place and preparing the ground for the future raspberry pan as soon as the earth is free from snow.
Approaching the choice of a place for planting raspberries, it will be worthwhile to think over the illumination of the chosen area, its protection from strong winds and relative soil moisture. You can not plant raspberries on wetlands and blown areas, it will not bring a good harvest and spoil the taste of even good varieties of berries. It is best to grow it in areas where legumes have grown, as well as cucumbers or zucchini.
Prepare a plot for planting in the spring need more in the fall. To do this, remove all fallen leaves from the ground and remove all vegetation. After that, all necessary fertilizers are introduced into the soil and carefully dug up.
The plot prepared in this way can be filled with mulch or covered with dark polyethylene - this procedure will accelerate the spring thaw of snow. Compliance with the simple rules for the cultivation of raspberry crops, later in this article will help you get a good harvest of berries in the first year of cultivation.
How to plant?
The following information will be useful for novice gardeners. Spring planting raspberries in open ground is made in April or May. You can plant it in two different ways - in the hole or in the trench. To plant the seedling in the hole, it is necessary to prepare a hole with a diameter of 0.5 meters and a depth of about 40 cm. The trench is made the same depth to a width of half a meter. The best location for planting - from north to south, it will provide the bushes full provision of sunlight throughout the day.
Garden raspberry is a very thermophilic plant, therefore choosing a place for its planting should avoid shady and blown areas. For those who are going to plant several trenches with seedlings at once, it is necessary to remember that the distance between them should be between one and a half to two meters.
When planting in the pits, seedlings are placed two in each well at a distance of about 70 cm from each other. The landing in the trench is made one bush at a distance of 35 cm from each other.
For planting should be selected healthy seedlings with two or three shoots and a well-developed root system. In the process of planting, in order for the space between the roots to be evenly filled with earth, lowering the seedling into a hole or trench, it must be slightly shaken. It is impossible to bury a seedling in the ground too much - this can delay the development of the plant, and planting too close to the surface can ruin the radical buds. Ideal is such a planting, in which after watering and shrinkage of the soil, the root bud will be on the same level with the ground.
In order for the soil in the raspberries not to dry, after planting and watering the bushes it is subjected to mulching. To do this, you can use compost, humus, sawdust or peat, in extreme cases, you can use ordinary cardboard. The final stage of planting is pruning of young seedlings to a height of approximately 35-45 cm above the ground, while the bush should remain buds that have not yet gone to growth. Such pruning will help to ensure the most favorable survival rate of young seedlings.
How to care?
Raspberry care in early spring includes the treatment of diseases and pests, as well as garter raspberry vines. Immediately after the winter, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures against attacking the bushes of its most dangerous enemies, such as:
- stem gallate,
- raspberry weevil
- stem fly,
- raspberry beetle.
As a rule, the larvae of these pests late fall hiding in a layer of fallen leaves, where they calmly endure the harsh winter, so timely cleaning of the raspberry trees in early spring will help to solve the problem to some extent. But only one cleaning completely cope with malicious insects, unfortunately, will not succeed. Therefore, after careful cleaning, it is necessary to spray the shoots with special formulations against pests. This must be done before the first buds begin to bite on the bushes.
The most effective tool in the fight against all these pests is a fungicide solution or bordeaux fluid. The larvae of the raspberry beetle can be destroyed by treating the shoots and the soil with nitrafene, agravertine or phytoverm solutions. For their preparation take 200 ml of one of these drugs in a bucket of water. The larvae of the raspberry midge will help to destroy the solution of fufanon or actellica in proportions of 15 ml of the drug per bucket of water.
To get rid of stem flies, raspberry stalks near the ground are sprinkled with a good layer of mulching material, and in early May they shed the earth with a solution of phytodrama, agravertine or aktellika.
After treating raspberries from pests, you need to engage in garter raspberry vines. It is especially important to tie varieties with large and heavy fruits. The most common construction for garter shrubs is a trellis. How to build it correctly is shown in this figure.
Tying raspberry stalks to the trellis crossbars should not be too tight, fixing each vine in two places with the help of twine or fabric strips. As a result, each bush must take the correct vertical position. Also for the garter, you can use the usual stakes, which are driven in between the plants. In this case, half of the stems from two neighboring bushes are tied to each peg. This method of garter will facilitate the care of the bushes, the collection of ripe berries, and everything else will not obscure the sunlight.
Proper spring cleaning of raspberry thickets will guarantee a bountiful summer harvest and an increase in the period of fruiting. Handle raspberry bushes in spring need in two stages.
The first stage involves the removal of weak, sick and damaged by winter frost shoots. First of all, it is necessary to remove from the plantations all stems damaged by the larvae of the stem gall midges. On spring shoots without foliage, the habitats of this pest are clearly visible. They form characteristic bulges, mainly in the lower part of the stem.
After the removal of all damaged branches, an additional thinning of the stems must be done to increase the yield, since excessively dense thickets hinder the yield of raspberries. If thinning is done correctly, the bushes will receive all the necessary nutrients from the soil in abundance, and there will be enough sunlight for the berries to ripen.
At the second stage, the bushes should be trimmed during bud break. Tops of all stems are pruned to the first healthy and full-fledged bud, which has well endured wintering. It should be cut all the tops of bushes, without exception - it will stimulate the formation of new fruitful shoots and increase the harvest.
When growing raspberries using the ribbon method, the maximum density of planting per linear meter should not exceed 25 lianas. When cluster planting the maximum number of shoots that can be left during thinning should not exceed 12 pieces.
In addition to pruning, in the spring raspberries is extremely important to feed mineral fertilizers. It is necessary to fertilize the land in a raspberry pan according to a certain pattern:
- The first dressing is carried out in the thawed, but not loosened soil, which has just freed itself from the snow.. Nitrogen fertilizers, such as urea or ammonium nitrate in the amount of 10 grams per square meter are used for top dressing. Along the way, with nitrogen fertilizers in each vine it is desirable to pour one glass of ash. This will help to neutralize the acidification of the soil after adding ammonium nitrate to it, instead of which it is also possible to use potassium nitrate, which has nitrogen in its composition, which will also prevent soil acidification.
- После внесения удобрений необходимо рыхление и мульчирование почвы, которое осуществляется посредством внесения в грунт органики: травянистого перегноя, соломистого навоза или торфокомпоста.
- В мае рекомендуется опрыскивать кусты малины навозным раствором, который готовят в пропорции 0,5 кг навоза на 10 литров воды. На обработку одного квадратного метр потребуется около пяти литров раствора.
It should be remembered that before applying the fertilizer the soil in the raspberry field must be thoroughly moistened. The finished complex feeding can be purchased at the dacha store, or you can cook it yourself. To do this, take two parts of superphosphate and mix it with one part of potassium and one part of ammonium nitrate. After that, 100 grams of the finished mixture is diluted in ten liters of water.
Some gardeners prefer to fertilize raspberries only with organic matter, they adhere to the following proportions:
- fresh cow dung - one part per 10 liters of water,
- rabbit or goat droppings - one part per 10 liters of water,
- poultry droppings - one part per twenty liters of water,
- an infusion of nettle and comfrey - one kilogram of greens in a bucket of cold water insist one week, stirring daily. After that, one liter of the finished infusion is mixed with 10 liters of water. To fertilize one raspberry bush, you will need about two liters of the prepared solution.
How to transplant?
If raspberries grow on the same plot for more than ten years, it will be advisable to transplant it to a new place. In general, raspberry transplantation is carried out on the same principle as its primary planting. Next will be considered step by step instructions for transplanting in early spring:
- We need to find a suitable place in the garden. We remember that in order to ensure planting with sunlight, the best place to form a new raspberry is from north to south.
- Depending on the method of planting, we prepare trenches or pits at the bottom of which we place fertilizers from a mixture of manure with small sawdust.
- We dig out old raspberry bushes with rhizome, from which we separate for transplant a small part of the root system with a healthy process. These young processes are formed in the root system of adnexal buds every year.
- Before planting, all prepared seedlings should be carefully checked for damage by pests. For planting, we take only perfectly healthy specimens with a well-developed, fibrous root system of at least 15 centimeters in length.
Having decided to transplant raspberry bushes to a new place, remember that raspberry cultivation should take place on well-moistened soils.
Since the roots of the shrub do not go deep, in the upper layer of soil should be enough moisture for their nutrition. It is also necessary to fertilize the soil in time to ensure sufficient mineralization of the roots and pruning to increase the period of fruiting throughout the season.
How to multiply?
With good care, raspberries multiply very easily and quickly, tolerates transplanting to a new place. There are several ways to reproduce shrubs:
- The easiest way to reproduce this berry bush - lignified offspringwhich are formed in the root system of the shrub from adventitious buds. For reproduction choose the most healthy and productive bushes. One-year-old stiffened offsprings, located about 30 centimeters from the uterine bush, are dug out in early autumn, trying to save the maximum number of long roots. All offspring damaged by pests, as well as specimens with a poorly developed root system should be discarded.
- In the spring, raspberries are easier to propagate with green root suckers. With this method, the raspberry bush is dug out of the ground very carefully, so as not to damage the root system, and young offsprings with a height of 10-20 centimeters are separated from it, which must be seated on a separate bed for growing. By planting in raspberry plant seedlings will be ready only in the fall. For reproduction, you can not take plants with a sluggish tip - this indicates the defeat of the bush with a raspberry fly.
General rules for the care of remontnaya raspberry spring
The main difference between remontant raspberries and ordinary garden is the ability to form two harvests per season. On the two-year branches of the remontant bush, the berries ripen in the summer at the same time as the summer varieties. After that, the annual shoots begin to bloom and form fruits that will bear fruit until late autumn.
The first spring care activities are the removal of the winter shelter and the feeding of the bushes, taking into account that the raspberries will have to bear fruit twice. Also at the very beginning of the season it is necessary to carry out a formative and sanitary pruning, tie up the branches to the trellis wires.
When to take cover and tie to the trellis?
Winter shelter with raspberries removed immediately after the sun begins to warm. Do not delay with this event. Shrubs can begin to sweep, will begin the intensive development of fungal diseases and the multiplication of insects on waking up buds.
Experienced gardeners are waiting for the temperature to stay at zero at night and rise to + 2-5 during the day. The branches do not unbend yet, they bare only the soil. Shelter is left next to the bushes to be able to re-cover the stems during night frosts. The main thing is to start warming up the soil as early as possible, creating conditions for nourishing the roots.
If the remontant raspberry was cut in the fall completely, then most often it is protected from frost only by mulch. In this case, the shelter should not be removed. Mulch will protect the soil from drying out, and rotting will become a source of nutrients.
During this period, you can practice small-scale spraying to better tolerate the spring frost plants. When reaching positive night temperatures, the shelter is finally removed, the shoots are straightened and tied up to the trellis.
Most raspberries need moisture in the period of flowering, setting and ripening fruits. If the plant at this time suffers from a lack of water, the harvest will decrease several times.
In early spring, the remontant raspberry has enough moisture that has entered the soil during the melting of snow. Raspberries need to be watered only by the end of spring and then subject to the establishment of dry hot weather. Watering is performed at the root, in the evening or morning hours. The most optimal is the drip irrigation system. The soil will always be wet enough, but not to the extent that diseases develop.
If during planting fertilizers were made in the wells, the first feeding will be needed only in the second or third year of the bush life. In early spring, the plant must be fed with nitrogen. If it is lacking, the growth will slow down, the leaves will turn yellow. Nitrogen fertilizers allow shrubs to grow green mass faster. Powerful bushes will form more fruit sprigs, both crops of remontant raspberries will be higher. 0
Feed raspberries with nutrients and improve organic soil structure. Prior to the beginning of bud break, a diluted mullein (1:10) or chicken droppings (1:20) are introduced. Per 1 sq.m. enough 5 l. solution. The procedure is repeated before flowering.
In early spring, the following should be brought under the shrub: nitroammofosk (60 g per m2), urea (30 g per m2), ammonium nitrate (40 g per m2).
In the second half of May, in order to improve the quality of the fruits (aging and sugar content), phosphorus-potassium fertilizing is done. Kristalon will be suitable as an extra root top dressing (5 g per 5 l).
Disease and pest treatment
The repair raspberry has a good immunity to diseases, it is almost not attacked by pests. But a prolonged wet cold spring can trigger the development of fungus on the root system.
Towards the middle of spring, when the ambient temperature rises to +15 raspberries are treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquids. Before flowering, the bush is sprayed with a solution of Topaz (1 ml. Per 5 liters of water).
In the case of a raspberry moth, lime milk (0.5 kg. Of lime per 5 liters of water) will help.
For aphids, the bush should be sprayed before flowering with Fitoverm or Nitrafen.
Pruning raspberry spring for beginners
Technology pruning depends on what you want to get: one full harvest by the end of summer, or two harvests: summer and autumn.
It is recommended to start pruning raspberries in the spring, after removing the cover. In regions with mild winters, pruning raspberries in the fall provokes the germination of underground buds. And this is undesirable in the winter. Spring pruning has no such problems.
Raspberry shoots not removed in the fall will help to insulate the roots of the plant, therefore, in cold regions, early spring pruning is preferable.
Pruning raspberry cropping in the spring when the method of obtaining two harvests is as follows:
- Sanitary pruning is carried out immediately after the shelter is removed. Removed all unnecessary, sick, weak branches. The top is trimmed no more than 10-15 cm.
- In May, young shoots will begin to grow intensively. If there are a lot of them, thinning is carried out. The remaining annual shoots at a height of 1 meter are pinned down so that they give more lateral fruit branches.
- At the end of July, after the two-year-old branches spawn out, they are cut at ground level.
If the remontant raspberry is grown in regions where the second crop does not ripen, or the gardener wants to get not a stretched fruit bearing, but one, but a good harvest of raspberries from annual shoots, the pruning scheme is selected as follows:
- in early spring, all last year's shoots are cut out at the root (if this is not done in the fall),
- in May, the young branches are thinned, leaving 25-30 cm between shoots,
- when reaching escape in height of 1 meter it is pinned
The thickening of the raspberry provokes the development of fungal diseases, the quality of the crop decreases. Therefore, the thinning raspberry can not be ignored.
The benefits of spring planting
In springtime, laying a raspberry leaf gives the following benefits:
- there is no danger that the autumn frosts will not allow the seedlings to settle down,
- the whole season plant will gain strength for the subsequent wintering,
- the opportunity to get the first harvest in the current season.
Particularly relevant spring planting for horticultural sites in temperate latitudes.
Selection and preparation of the site
When choosing a place for remontant raspberry varieties, it should be remembered that long-term fruiting requires an improved soil composition, irrigation possibilities, and good illumination of the plot.
Boggy areas prone to drafts are not suitable. In the south, raspberries need partial shade. Sour soil is improved with lime, ash, dolomite flour. Ideally, if a year before laying a raspberry jam, mustard, rape or oats were planted on the plot.
Requirements for seedlings
Strong seedlings have a shoot at the base with a diameter of 5-8 mm. The root in length should be 15-20 cm., It is possible and less, the main thing is that there are many elastic fibrous roots.
The day before planting, the roots of the seedlings are soaked in any root stimulator, for example, in the root. Before disembarking, a “beard” is dipped into the talker, which consists of mullein and clay in an equal ratio.
For better illumination, planting with clumps of 2-3 bushes at a distance of 0.5 m from each other justifies itself. When an ordinary landing between bushes leave 60-80 cm, between rows 2-2.5 m.
On 1 square. m raspberry makes 3 buckets of humus, a bucket of peat and 0.5 buckets of ash.
The depth of planting is maintained at the level at which the plant grew in the same place. After planting under each bush is required to pour at least a bucket of water.
Reproduction by cuttings
The easiest way of breeding remontant raspberries - cuttings. Cultivated second-year shoots are cut in the fall and divided into cuttings with 1-2 buds, 12-20 cm long. They are planted in the ground, compacted and covered with a can (film). For the winter cover with agrofibre. In the spring, the cuttings take root, give leaves. If they are planted thickly, seedlings are seated.
Practice has shown that it is much easier to grow remontant raspberries, getting the harvest only from annual shoots. But with any method of cultivation, the plant requires fertile soil, a sunny plot and watering during the dry season.
Raspberry care in the spring
Raspberries are known to all as a beautiful and useful shrub, from which, with the appropriate desire and skill, you can get berries throughout the season. But in order to achieve a consistently high yield, it is necessary to provide the bushes with a normal diet, proper care, timely and properly trim the bushes, feed them and protect them from pests. Below we look at how to care for raspberries in spring, ensuring the normal growth and fruiting of raspberries.
What is included in the spring care for raspberry bushes?
Spring work on the care of raspberry bushes is recommended to begin immediately after the snow melts, when the average daytime temperature will reach 5 degrees. Usually these deadlines occur in March or early April.
The list of spring works includes such events:
- Examination of the bushes for the detection of freezing and some flaws that were not eliminated in the fall.
- Cut out the sprouting shoots, if this was not done in the fall. It is known that shoots live only two years. In the first year, their active growth is observed, and in the second year they bear fruit, and then die off. It is two-year-old seedlings in the spring cut out at the very base.
- Pruning bushes.
- Top dressing raspberries.
- Measures are being taken to control pests and raspberry diseases.
- The tapestry is repaired, the wire is stretched, the cropped shoots are trimmed. If the bushes need to be opened after wintering, the shelter material is rolled up and removed for storage. After that, the raspberry is tied to the trellis. This prevents damage to it in strong winds, from the weight of its own fruits, and also facilitates the care of bushes.
Pruning raspberry bushes in spring
In early spring it is necessary to trim the bushes. If this is not done, the growth of the shoots weakens, a lot of thin shoots appear, which take up the power of the bush. They do not bear fruit and do not allow the bush to grow.
In addition to the otter-bearing ones, damaged, frozen out or rotted shoots are also cut out. Also removed weak shoots that contribute to the thickening of the landing.
Thus, the bushes are exempt from unnecessary ballast. If the raspberry is planted in the bush mode, then it is enough to leave 4-6 strongest shoots per bush. With a trench arrangement of rows, no more than 13-16 shoots are allowed for 1 running meter.
Frozen tops of the shoots are cut to the living tissue.
Strong and healthy shoots after winter need to be technically properly cut. This helps to get larger berries. Each shoot is cut to a height not exceeding 160 cm. If the shoots do not reach that height, they are cut in any case.
Usually, the length of the trimmed area does not exceed 25 cm. You can shorten raspberries and more, but this will lead to a decrease in its yield. There are also other pruning methods developed by professional gardeners. To apply them or not, each person decides for himself.
Crop to different lengths
This method of pruning is used to obtain a crop throughout the season.
All shoots are conventionally divided into 4 groups, which are shortened to different lengths:
- Part of the shoots are traditionally shortened by about 15 cm.
- The second part is 30 cm.
- The third part is half its length.
- The last part is cut near the base. Only a stump about 3 cm high is left.
The first crop give shoots, traditionally pruned. Then the next group comes into fruiting, shortened by 30 cm. At the very least, shoots that have been cut almost completely bear fruit. Thus, the fruits will ripen until the end of summer.
Double cropping according to the method of Sobolev
It is noticed that double pruning is superior in performance to normal. If you do this operation correctly, you can increase the yield by 2-3 times.
It is executed in this order:
- The first pruning is done at the end of May. From young shoots that have reached a height of 80-100 cm, tops 10-15 cm long are cut off. The growth of the shoot upward stops, but the lateral offspring is actively forming. Until August, up to 4-6 shoots can be formed on one shoot. In this state, raspberries and will winter. Important! If you tighten the timing of the first pruning, the processes will not have time to reach the desired length by the autumn and to mature properly. Consequently, the risk of their freezing in winter will increase.
- The second pruning is done next spring.after blooming leaves. All side shoots that were formed in the previous year are cut off by 10-15 cm. This will lead to activation of dormant buds located on the trunk. From them new branches will begin to develop. These bushes bear fruit in September inclusive and are characterized by high yields.
Spring feeding raspberries
When spring comes, raspberries are recommended to be fertilized. This issue is particularly relevant in those cases if the bushes are planted on poor soils. Or if the raspberry has never been fertilized before, for example, it remains from the previous owners.
There are several options for dressings, any of which can be used on raspberry pancakes:
- When the snow has melted, nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the raspberries. Each square of soil consumes 10-15 g of urea or ammonium nitrate. Nitrogen fertilizers acidify the soil, therefore it is recommended to add 1 cup of sifted ash under each bush. It neutralizes the acidity of the soil. Fertilizers are scattered in raspberries and buried in the soil by the method of loosening.
- You can also prepare a complex fertilizer. To do this, mix 2 parts of superphosphate with 1 part of ammonium nitrate and 1 part of potassium nitrate. 100 g of this mixture is diluted in 10 liters of water and used for irrigation.
- Также можно применить органическое удобрение. Для этого 1 часть свежего коровяка разводят в 10 частях воды, после чего поливают растения. Такая подкормка обеспечит рост слабых побегов. Удобрение свежим коровяком проводят только весной. Если использовать коровяк в течение всего сезона, то побеги будут бурно расти и не успеют вызреть к зиме.
- Another option is organic feeding. Poultry litter is diluted 1:20 in water. You can use the litter of goats or rabbits, diluting it with water in a ratio of 1:10. This composition is watered raspberry.
- A good organic fertilizer can be obtained even if you do not have any living creatures. To do this, fill the empty barrel with freshly cut grass, then fill it with water. Within 10-14 days the grass is fermented and turns into highly effective fertilizer. For irrigation, 1 liter of infusion is diluted in 10 liters of water. At 1 raspberry bush enough 2 liters of diluted.
Raspberry responds very well to the introduction of mulch, as which you can use rotted manure, rotted sawdust, straw, dry leaves of trees, rotted grass, compost.
Mulching solves the following problems:
- The soil under the bushes remains wet. Raspberry reacts negatively to the lack of moisture, which greatly affects its yield. If the soil under the bushes is dry, the berries will be small, and the shoots - weak.
- Mulch is an additional feeding, as nutrients pass from it to the soil.
- Prevents weed growth.
Before mulching, it is advisable to loosen the soil and water it abundantly. You can add fertilizer to irrigation water. This will achieve a double effect.
The restriction of the growth of bushes
Raspberries grow very quickly on all sides.
To keep it in place, use the following methods:
- Along the perimeter of the raspberry pan, galvanized iron or slate sheets are instilled. They prevent the "sprawling" of bushes throughout the site. The depth of the sheets is enough to make about 30 cm.
- Sometimes you need to separate the shoots from the main bush. For example, so that it is not depleted or to transplant processes to another place. To do this, the soil is cut by a shovel along the perimeter of the main bush at a distance of 25 cm from it. All the roots going to the processes will be cut. After this, the shoots can be transplanted or simply removed.
Pest and disease control
Raspberry bushes often get sick and are attacked by pests. In order to minimize the number of pests, as well as to save the raspberries from diseases, a number of protective measures should be taken immediately after the winter.
There are several specific requirements, under which the probability of damage to raspberry bushes by diseases and pests is significantly reduced:
- All fallen leaves under bushes must be collected and burned. On it remain spores of diseases, and hibernating pests hide under foliage. This foliage is not put into the compost pile.
- All dry branches, diseased and twisted shoots must be cut and burned. They are also wintering sites for pests. For example, it can be seen on the stalks of raspberry bulges (galls), in which there is a very dangerous pest - gallitsa. These shoots are cut to healthy tissue. Sick branches burned.
The main pests of raspberries are considered to be a fly-fly, a raspberry weevil, a gall midge, a raspberry beetle, a spider mite, a glass bowl, a raspberry aphid. Integrated treatment of bushes can significantly get rid of pests.
Raspberries are affected by the following diseases: powdery mildew, anthracnose, rust, gray mold, white spot. Usually, treatment against diseases is combined with treatment against pests.
To do this, spraying raspberries at the stage when the buds have not yet dissolved:
- 200 ml of nitrafen, diluted in 10 liters of water, will get rid of the raspberry beetle, and also eliminate most fungal diseases.
- Bordeaux liquid has a detrimental effect on pathogens of fungal diseases, and also destroys the majority of wintering pests. Apply 1% solution.
To combat gall midges, insecticides of systemic action are used. These are Hom, Fufanon, Karbofos, Ridomil.
Carbofos emulsion (0.1-0.2%) helps to get rid of the raspberry fly, raspberry beetle, weevil, aphids. When copper oxychloride is added to the emulsion at a concentration of 0.3%, the composition treats spotting.
To counter weevils, aphids, mites and other sucking pests will allow the drug Actellic. 2 ml of the drug is diluted in 2 liters of water, after which they are sprayed with shoots and tree trunks. Note that Actellic cannot be combined with Bordeaux mixture.
Biological products are able to completely replace insecticides and fungicides. For raspberries use the following biopreparations: Guapsin, Trichodermin, Fitosporin-M, Prestop, Polyversum WP. Their value is that they are absolutely safe. However, they can not be combined with chemicals.
Recommendations for growing raspberries
To keep the raspberry crops regular and the bushes to have sufficient growth power, it is recommended to adhere to the following tips:
- Grow raspberries in one place preferably not more than 5 years. During this time, not only is the soil depleted in raspberries, but it also accumulates a huge number of pathogens.
- We can not allow the stagnation of water near the bushes. Raspberries can not stand it. If the water is worth a few days, the bushes just might die.
- It is better to plant raspberries after currants, gooseberries and legumes. Do not plant raspberries after peppers, tomatoes, strawberries, potatoes, eggplant.
Properly organized care for raspberries, you can annually get excellent harvest of these tasty and healthy berries.
How to prune raspberries in spring?
Spring pruning is carried out in two stages. The first step is to remove the shoots affected by the raspberry stem gallfly. Traces of the vital activity of this pest can be detected with the naked eye, especially while there are no leaves on the bushes. In the lower part of the shoots and stems visible swellings. If they are cut, the larvae of gall midges are found.
Also remove damaged, strongly frozen and weak shoots. Regardless of the form of planting raspberries (bush or ribbon), thinning is carried out, since the thickening of the landings has a bad effect on the harvest. When the tape form of cultivation is left up to 25 stems per linear meter, when the bush - 8-12.
It is advisable to cut the raspberries so that it grows more or less free, otherwise it will receive a little sun and nutrition.
Gardeners recommend keeping a distance of 10-15 cm between the remaining stems
The second time the raspberry is cut when it starts growing. The tops of the shoots are shortened to the first well-wintered bud. This kidney is easy to identify: it should be of normal size and color and look as ripe as the rest.
If you properly cut the raspberries in spring, the crop will be more abundant, and the time of fruiting will increase.
How to fertilize raspberries in the spring?
Raspberries need additional feedings, especially if growing on scanty soils. The most important fertilizers for raspberries are nitrogen, potash and phosphate, but she also loves organic.
Nitrogen supplements are usually introduced in spring and summer, because they reduce frost resistance and are not suitable for use in the fall.
Lack of nitrogen leads to slower growth of shoots, grinding leaves and a sharp decrease in yield. The lack of phosphorus is manifested by the weakening of the shoots, and the lack of potassium not only badly affects the yield, but also greatly reduces the resistance to cold.
Feed the raspberries in the spring is best as follows.
1. Immediately after the snow has melted, even before loosening the soil, nitrogen fertilizers are applied (10-15 g of ammonium nitrate or 10 g of urea per 1 square meter).
It should be borne in mind that nitrogen fertilizers acidify the soil, and raspberry does not tolerate high acidity. Therefore, experienced gardeners advise together with nitrogen fertilizers to make a glass of ash under each bush. Ammonium nitrate can be replaced by potassium: it also contains nitrogen, but does not acidify the soil.
Before fertilizing plants need to be watered well. Some gardeners use a complex top dressing of their own preparation: ammonium nitrate, potassium and superphosphate in the ratio 1: 1: 2. Dosage - 100 g per 10 liters of water.
2. After loosening the soil, organic fertilizers are applied as mulch. It can be humus, peat compost, straw manure, etc.
3. In May, raspberries are fed with a mullein, diluted at the rate of 500 ml per bucket of water. Fertilizer consumption is about 5 liters per 1 square meter of planting.
Supporters of exclusively natural supplements succeed in replacing mineral fertilizers with organic matter.
Raspberry fertilizer without "chemistry":
- fresh manure diluted with water 1:10
- rabbit, goat (1:10) or bird (1:20) droppings,
- tincture of weeds (nettle and comfrey). To prepare, pour 1 kg of a mixture of fresh weeds with 10 liters of water, infuse for 7-10 days with daily stirring. The resulting product is diluted with water (1:10) and fertilized raspberries at the rate of 2 liters per bush.
Tips on how to fertilize raspberries with organic matter:
- Dry soil before dressing should be properly moistened so as not to burn the roots of raspberry,
- Fertilizer is applied in cloudy, cool weather: the sun and high air temperatures lead to undesirable chemical reactions,
- Work should be done very carefully, avoiding contact with solutions on raspberry leaves and stalks,
- Organic infusions when cooking should not be tightly closed, they require access of air.
- Spring raspberry treatment for pests and diseases
- The main pests of the raspberry are the strawberry-raspberry weevil, the raspberry beetle, the stem fly and the escaped gall midge. Spring is the time to prevent these pests from attacking.
Do not neglect the simplest agrotechnical measures: pruning, cleaning residues, timely digging the soil. Weevils, gall midges, larvae of beetles hibernate in damaged or dead parts of the bush and in the soil. Clearing raspberries from fallen foliage and dry branches has not only an aesthetic, but also an obvious practical meaning.
Be careful: all damaged shoots that were removed during pruning should be burned! It is unacceptable to use infected plant parts for compost or other purposes: raspberry parasites will spread throughout the site.
Raspberry Beetle Remedies
These insects appear in large quantities during flowering and destroy buds, flowers and leaves, their larvae feed on berries and are capable of destroying a significant part of the crop. Raspberries are processed from the beetle immediately after the snow has melted and the shoots are tied up, sprinkling plentifully on the bushes and the ground with Nitrafen solution (200 g per 10 liters of water).
Before flowering spend processing mixture infusions of marigold and wormwood. To prepare the infusion of marigolds, 200 g of dry, crushed raw materials are taken for 10 liters of water and infused for 48 hours. Infusion of wormwood is made in the same proportion, but not aged for more than 2 hours. Then both infusions are mixed and filtered.
Good results are shown also by two-time processing of the raspberry pan with biological preparations Fitoverm and Agravertin. Spraying carried out in early May - early June.
Raspberry Glitz Remedies
The insect larvae are dangerous. They damage young shoots, cause them to die off or freeze in winter, can contribute to the penetration of the fungus, as a result the harvest of the next year is threatened. Symptoms of gall midge larvae are characteristic and easily distinguishable growths (“galls”) on the stems, destruction of shoots.
To combat gall midges, it is necessary to inspect the raspberries after wintering as thoroughly as possible, and, when detecting growths, cut and burn the affected shoots. In early spring, it is recommended to plow the earth to a depth of 5-10 cm and spray it with Fufanon (15-20 ml per 10 l of water).
At the stage of appearance of raspberry buds sprayed with Fufanon (10 ml per 10 l of water, consumption - 0.2 l per bush) or Aktellik (15 ml per 10 l, the flow rate is the same).
Stem Flour Remedies
This is one of the specific pests of raspberries, which affects this particular culture. Fly larvae gnaw tops of shoots, which leads to decay and infection.
Prevention is spring mulching pristvolnyh circles. This makes it difficult for insects to leave the wintering grounds. In early May, before flowering, you can handle raspberries Aktellik, Fitoverm or Agravertin.
We protect raspberries from diseases
Of raspberry diseases, anthracnose and gray rot are considered the most dangerous.
To prevent anthracnose, raspberries can be treated in early spring with Nitrafen solution (200 g per 10 liters of water). At the beginning of bud break, it is recommended to apply Bordeaux liquid (200 g of copper sulphate and 200 g of lime per 10 liters of water).
Gray rot is a fungal disease that thrives in warm and humid weather. It affects the leaves and berries. They prevent the appearance of gray rot by spraying raspberries with Bordeaux liquids: 3% solution is used in early spring, 1% before blooming. Spraying also helps Fitosporino, which can be carried out at any time, if the plants show signs of disease.
Of the folk remedies used dusting ground with crushed charcoal or ash.
Care for the raspberries correctly - and a generous harvest of delicious berries will not take long!
How to care for raspberries in spring
Care for raspberries in the spring begins immediately after the snow cover disappears. Having waited for the moment when the air temperature begins to consistently exceed 5 degrees Celsius (in central Russia this happens in the first decade of April), they proceed to a thorough revision of the landings.
The purpose of the audit is to identify the effects of wintering and all the shortcomings of the autumn pruning. If the shoots that gave the harvest were not cut off in the autumn due to the onset of early frosts or premature snowfall, this should be done right now. Cultivating the vines cut at the root, leaving no hemp. After this, young shoots are examined, cutting frostbite areas on them.
In plants that did not bind to the ground in the fall and did not bend down to the ground, the tops themselves most often freeze over, so only dead areas are removed (before the first living kidney). The rest of the raspberry vine, gaining strength, will be ready for fruiting.
Having finished the revision and eliminating all the old and damaged shoots, immediately proceed to cleaning the raspberries from old grass and last year’s leaves with their obligatory burning. This is done for two reasons:
- Old foliage can be affected by fungal, bacterial or viral diseases, so it is not suitable for laying in a compost pit.
- In the litter of last year's grass and leaves, the main pests of raspberry wintering, creeping out from the shelter with the onset of the very first warm days, so the gardener's main task is not to miss the favorable moment for their destruction.
Vines that are tied to the ground in the fall should be immediately released, otherwise sudden frosts can destroy the swelling buds (when they are on the ground, they awaken to life a little earlier than those on the runaway).
Performing the very first spring work in raspberries, it is very important not to trample the soil in it. Experienced gardeners avoid this with light planks.
Trimming and Garter
Spring pruning of raspberries consists of two stages.
- During the first stage, the removal of weakened, severely damaged and frost-covered shoots, as well as the thinning of the landings (too thick thickets reduce the yield of raspberries). If raspberries are grown in a tape way, the optimum planting density is 25 lian per linear meter, with bush growing leaving no more than 12 shoots. In thinned plantings, shoots receive a sufficient amount of sunlight and nutrients. Vines whose stems are damaged by the raspberry stem gall midges are the first to be removed. On bare shoots that have not yet acquired foliage, the habitats of these pests can be found without the slightest difficulty: they look like swellings located in the lower part of the stems.
- The second stage of pruning comes at the time of bud break. The tops of all vines are pruned to the first kidney, well tolerated wintering: this is indicated by its normal color and size, no different from the rest of the kidneys. All tops, even not frostbitten, are subject to pruning: this stimulates the formation and fruiting of additional shoots.
No less important point is the correct garter raspberry vines. This is especially true for varieties that bend under the weight of their own fruits. The most popular type of support are the trellis. The posts for the supports are hammered along the edges and in the middle of each row, and the wire is tensioned between them (the height of the upper crossbar is 100-120 cm, the height of the lower crossbar is 60-80 cm). Each vine is not too tightly tied to the crossbars in two places, using hemp twine or strips of soft cloth. A properly tied bush should take an upright position and not collapse.
If stakes are used as supports, then having driven them between plants, they are tied to them by half of the shoots from two neighboring bushes (the garter of each stem is made separately). This method of garter, not shading the plants, at the same time facilitates the collection of fruits.
Fertilizer, dressing in spring
Caring for raspberries in the spring involves the mandatory introduction of additional fertilizing. This is especially true for plants planted in depleted soil. Experienced gardeners produce spring dressing of raspberries according to the following scheme:
- Первую подкормку – азотные удобрения – вносят в только что оттаявшую и еще не разрыхленную почву, едва освободившуюся от снега (на каждый кв. метр – 15 г аммиачной селитры или 10 г мочевины). Чтобы нейтрализовать подкисляющее действие аммиачной селитры (малина не любит кислых почв), попутно с ее внесением рекомендуется под каждую лозу высыпать стакан древесной золы. Instead of ammonium nitrate, you can make potash: having nitrogen in its composition, it does not contribute to soil acidification. Fertilization should anticipate abundant watering. Complex feeding can be prepared independently by mixing one part of potassium and ammonium nitrate with two parts of superphosphate. To prepare the working solution, 100 g of the prepared mixture is dissolved in 10 l of water.
- After completing the loosening of the substrate, it is mulched with organic fertilizers: straw manure, humus or peat compost.
- In May, you can feed the raspberry with a solution of a mullein (500 g of manure per 10 liters of water). For processing 1 square. soil meter requires 5 liters of solution.
Gardeners who prefer to feed raspberries exclusively with organic matter instead of mineral fertilizers use:
- Fresh mullein, diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
- Litter of rabbits and goats (solution formula 1:10) or domestic birds (one part per 20 parts of water).
- Infusion of comfrey and nettle. 1 kg of freshly picked greens of these herbs are poured with a bucket of cold water and insist, stirring daily, for a week. 1 liter of the finished infusion is diluted in 10 liters of water and fed raspberries (for feeding one bush, 2 liters of product are needed).
Spring tillage methods
Caring for raspberries after winter, gardeners should avoid digging up the soil even between rows, for fear of damaging the roots, the depth of which does not exceed thirty centimeters. Digging between rows is permissible only in autumn.
In the spring, the soil in raspberries is mulch, that is, it is covered with a thick (up to 15 cm) layer of mulch. As a mulching material, you can use the remnants of cereals, humus, rotting straw or compost. The process of mulching should precede the procedure of deep (up to ten centimeters) loosening and abundant watering.
Mulching prevents the depletion of the substrate, contributes to the long-term preservation of moisture under the bushes and the supply of the root system with a rich complex of nutrients. The method of mulching is contraindicated only in relation to very wet soils: they need only be loosened and fertilized.
The root system of raspberries is in the habit of growing, capturing large areas. To prevent this process, it is necessary to make raspberry railing. To do this, it is enough to dig a strip of galvanized iron or tin along its entire perimeter (the width of the strip must be at least twenty centimeters). Thanks to this barrier, the raspberry jam will remain in the space provided to it.
Early spring is the most favorable time for the prevention of the attack of the main pests of the raspberry: the raspberry beetle, shoots gall midge, the raspberry weevil and the stem fly. The timely removal of dry branches from the raspberry tree and the layer of fallen leaves (with their obligatory burning), in which these pests overwhelm, partially solves this problem.
The second item on raspberry pest control is spraying the shoots before the buds begin to open.
- Spraying fungicide - Bordeaux liquid has a detrimental effect on all pests.
- To get rid of the raspberry beetle at the time of early spring (shortly after the snow melted), the raspberry shoots and the soil beneath it are generously sprayed with a solution of nitrafen (200 ml of the preparation on a bucket of water). Excellent results are obtained by double treatment of bushes with solutions of agravertine and phytoverm.
- A solution of fufanon (15 ml per bucket of water) or actellica (in the same dosage) will help to cope with the larvae of the raspberry midge.
- To make it difficult for hibernating stemflies to leave the shelters during the early spring, the trunk trunks are covered with a thick layer of mulching material. In the first decade of May, raspberry shoots are treated with solutions of agravertine, aktellika or phytoderma.
Features of summer care
Care for planting raspberries in the summer is to:
- regular watering,
- weeding of weeds:
- loosening the inter-row spacing (in case the near-stem circles are covered with mulch) or the whole raspberry cake (in the absence of mulching material),
- observing the state of the foliage (all yellowed and drying leaves should be immediately removed and burned),
- timely removal of all shoots that appear during the summer months (only the necessary number of young plants that appeared at the very end of the summer season are left for seedlings).
In the summer, raspberry jam should be treated twice with fungicide solutions. One spraying should precede the process of flowering bushes, and the other is done immediately after its completion.
How to water
Proper organization and methods of irrigation can affect the yield of raspberry vines. The irrigation schedule depends on the air temperature, as well as on the intensity and frequency of precipitation. Most of all raspberries need water during the period when mass flowering occurs, the setting and ripening of berries. In dry years, the harvest of raspberries, experiencing a lack of moisture, can be reduced three times.
In the last month of summer and in the beginning of autumn, raspberry is enough to get moisture from natural precipitation. If summer and autumn were dry, gardeners are obliged to carry out water recharge underwinter.
The best option for watering raspberries (in terms of safety from the point of view of soil erosion and in terms of water saving) in the summer is the drip irrigation technique. Late autumn (water recharge) irrigation is carried out by sprinkling and irrigation furrows. Both that, and other method of water-recharge irrigation should be used extremely carefully.
Sprinkling, able to protect plants from frost, at the same time can lead to the development of diseases, especially dangerous for ripening berries. Increased humidity not only worsens the condition of the root system, but also extremely negatively affects the quality of the fruit, reduces immunity to diseases, prevents hardening of plants in the prewinter period, provokes the process of secondary growth.
The specifics of autumn care
In the autumn, after the last harvest was removed, another one is produced - the final one - the treatment of raspberry trees from pests preparing for wintering. Autumn raspberry care is not a complicated, time-consuming procedure.
The beginning of leaf fall is a signal that it is time to start pruning weakened shoots and otter-bearing bushes. The rejected stems are cut at the root, at the same time far-grown young shoots are dug out.
After removing the mulching material, it is either dug up or replaced with fresh, and the rows between rows are dug up to a depth not exceeding fifteen centimeters. Digging procedure is preceded by the introduction of potash and phosphate fertilizers (at the rate of 8 g per 1 sq. Meter). It is very useful to produce alternation of mineral and organic fertilizers: in the fall of one year, fertilize with organic matter, and the next year - with mineral fertilizers. If the gardener decided to use both at the same time, they should be added in half.
Special attention is required preparation raspberry for winter. Raspberries are not afraid of spring frosts: later flowering saves the next harvest from death, but winter frosts can cause some shoots to freeze over. To avoid this, it is necessary to properly prepare the plants for the winter. At the end of September or at the beginning of October, when the crimson vines still retain their flexibility, they are bent to the ground so that after the snow cover is established, they are completely covered with snow, which can save them from freezing.
This is done by one of two methods: either bending together and connecting adjacent shoots, or laying all the vines in one direction, tying the top of one bush to the base of the other. Similarly, all the plants in each row are bent.
About the features of care for raspberries of different varieties
Thanks to the breeders in the world there are dozens of different varieties of raspberry, with differences in the ripening terms, yield, size and color of fruits. There are varieties, continuously fruiting throughout the growing season.
All these differences affect the specificity of care for different raspberry varieties.
- Cumberland Black Raspberry, characterized by the power of tall bushes with thick shoots, gives large (weighing 2 g) shiny and sweet berries, the taste of which resembles blackberries. With high humidity, this variety is prone to disease anthracnose, so when watering should be extremely careful (if possible, in the raspberry plant, it is desirable to organize drip irrigation). It is possible to grow raspberries of this variety in the same place allotted to it for eight years. For reproduction using cuttings, seeds and horizontal layers.
- Standard (tree) raspberry variety Tarusa, often called a crimson tree and reaching two meters in height, can be grown without supports. Berries of this variety, having a bright red color, great taste and intoxicating aroma, can reach 7 cm in length and weight at 15 g. To get a “tree” with a branched crown, a young seedling is pinned to the top. Culture loves light, abundant and frequent irrigation, loose soils with a large number of trace elements and minerals, fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers, regular weeding. Saplings of the first year of vegetation before wintering need to be warmed, covering the soil under it with a thick layer of mulch. Removing otplodonosivshih branches carried out in late July. Bushes are formed at the end of September: the top of the plant is cut off and all weakened shoots are removed, leaving no more than 6 strong stems. Raspberry tree often suffers from pests and diseases, so it is necessary to constantly prevent them from occurring.
- Remarkable raspberry varieties Heracles, which gives two harvests during the season, is distinguished by a huge (weighing up to 15 g) size of ruby-red berries with a pleasant sour-sweet taste. Grow it in sunny areas. Powerful bushes that require good lighting and ventilation, planted with an interval of 80 cm and with a 1.5-meter gap between the rows. The variety requires regular watering and fertilizing, mulching the soil. After collecting the last berries, the aerial part of the shoots is cut at the root: this is the guarantor of obtaining an excellent harvest for the next season.
What is spring care
The early spring came on the calendar, which means it’s time to start working in the raspberries. During this period, comprehensive care for berry bushes is performed. Let us take a closer look at which events should be taken.
Timely fertilization will help saturate the raspberries with the missing nutrients that directly affect the quality of the future crop. Starting from April, you can use fertilizers containing nitrogen.
After the winter, the bushes must have left dried or damaged branches. They must be removed. Also weak shoots are to be removed. With the timely removal of such branches stimulates the growth of new, stronger shoots.
What and how to fertilize: folk remedies and mineral supplements
Deciding to fertilize raspberries, you definitely improve the quality of the crop. If you are an adherent of folk remedies and organic fertilizers, then chicken litter does an excellent job of feeding.
It is used in liquid form, water is added to the litter, the proportion is as follows: 1:20, respectively. Feeding raspberries in spring with chicken droppings will enrich the soil with nitrogen, magnesium, phosphoric acid, and it also contains useful trace elements - boron, cobalt, zinc and sulfur.
The effect of this method of feeding is fast and long-term - after 2 weeks, and a good level of yield will continue for several years. Similar effects - and after use as fertilizer compost and rotted manure. Well proven ash. It is used both in dry form and in the form of solutions. Also feeding raspberry spring involves the use of various tinctures to feed the bushes. Consider the most popular folk remedies:
- Tincture on a banana peel. Having eaten a banana, do not rush to get rid of the peel. Observe the proportion - 1 banana per 1 liter of water, let it brew for 7 days. Finished tincture need to fertilize the roots of raspberry. Fertilizer on a banana peel saturates the soil with potassium, which, in addition to additional feeding, will help shrubs to more easily transfer winter frosts.
- Tincture on the husk of onions. With the bow is the same story. Change only the proportions - 50 g per 10 l of water, leave to infuse for 7 days. Next polyweather plant. This solution also helps fight pests.
- Tincture with nettle and comfrey. The proportions for fertilizer are as follows: 500 g of comfrey, 500 g of nettle, 10 liters of water. Leave the sun for 2 weeks, occasionally stirring the future tincture. Apply in diluted form 1:10.
Among the mineral supplements, use superphosphate, potassium salt and fertilizers with a nitrogen content (nitrate, urea).
Before loosening the soil
The first spring feeding immediately after the winter should be carried out before loosening the soil. Saltpeter or urea is used. The proportions are taken as follows: nitrate 10 g per 1 square. m, urea 15 g per 1 square. m
Before fertilizing the soil must be watered. Simultaneously with mineral fertilizers, it will not be superfluous to pour in wood ash. This will enhance the effect.
Top dressing with organic fertilizers is brought after loosening of the soil. Humus, peat or compost is used. Organic fertilizers also mulch the soil, which adds a positive effect.
In fact, there are plenty of options than to feed the raspberries in the spring - you just have to choose the one that suits you and your garden.
Caring for raspberries in the spring necessarily includes pest control. Among insects, the raspberry beetle and the raspberry fly are lovers to eat raspberries.
In order not to share the crop with insects, it is necessary to take measures to destroy them in time. The raspberry beetle likes to lay the larvae in the flower bud, which further prevents the formation of berries on the branch.
The easiest way to prevent this is to carefully inspect the raspberry bushes and, upon seeing the beetle, shake it out. You can not let him fall to the ground - all your efforts to remove the beetle will be down the drain. Shake out raspberry beetles (as well as weevils) should be on the litter, so that later it was possible to destroy them.
To combat raspberry fly used insecticides broad. For example, karbofos - they are sprayed with a bush in late April or early May.
Also one of the options for dealing with a fly - cutting off raspberry sprouts. If the tops began to wilt - this means that the raspberry fly settled in them. Removing raspberry sprouts, it is necessary to burn it.
A lot of trouble brings raspberry gallitsa. This insect lays the larvae directly into the raspberry stalks. It is easy to find: if the gall midge is located inside a branch, then a growth is formed on this place. Having found a raspberry gall midge, it is necessary without regret to cut off the affected branches and burn them.
The most common disease in raspberries is gray rot. She especially rampant after protracted showers. If there is a group of plants in the garden, this will help the rapid spread of rot to other shrubs.
From the defeat of gray rot will help protect the drug "Fitosporin" or Bordeaux mixture. These solutions can process branches even during the growing season of the plant. At defeat purple spot on raspberries, in particular, at the bases of leaflets, dark spots are formed. The bark begins to crack, and the shoots die off. To combat this fungal disease, the drug "Zircon" is used.
This drug can be re-spray shoots and young stems before the beginning of the winter period. This will help next year to prevent spores of fungal diseases from starting reproduction. There are diseases that can only be stopped by the complete destruction of crimson bushes. it raspberry curl - leaves begin to cringe rapidly and acquire a brick tint, raspberry mosaic - leaves are painted in a yellow-green shade in the form of a mosaic, witch's broom - manifested in the rapid growth of root shoots, which does not develop further. If you notice these signs of disease in a raspberry pan, you must urgently dig up the diseased shrubs and burn them immediately. These diseases spread quickly in the garden, which can negate all your efforts to care for raspberries.
Double pruning raspberries in spring
Proper trimming of bushes is carried out in 2 stages. The first time the raspberries are cut right after the snow melted and the positive air temperature started steadily. Nobody will call exact dates, it all depends on the climate and temperature regimes in your region.
In the first stage, cut off the damaged, weak branches. If traces of insect pests are found, the shoot is cut and destroyed. Shrubs preferably thin out.
Experienced gardeners recommend keeping no more than 25 stems per 1 m, while the distance between the planted stems should be at least 15 cm. Next, tie the shoots. The second stage of pruning begin in the period of active growth of raspberries. At this time, the tops of the shoots are pruned so that the bush does not grow and give all its strength to the young buds.
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