Walking through the oak, you can feel a surge of strength and energy, because all parts of a unique tree are a source of substances necessary for normal functioning of the body.
Such observations have become the key to the growing popularity of coffee from acorns, the benefit and harm of which can be assessed only with regular use of the product. Acorns are generally considered one of the most underrated ingredients in cooking. From them you can cook all sorts of medicinal and just delicious drinks, bread, pastries.
Rules for the collection and selection of acorns for coffee
Acorns or the composition for coffee already prepared from them is practically not found on sale, therefore, it is necessary to deal with the collection and preparation of the main ingredient independently. According to experts, acorns from any oak will be suitable for preparing an energy composition with healing properties. It is best to collect them from late September to early October. Fruits that have fallen from branches earlier are usually empty, diseased or infected. To facilitate the collection of quality items in mid-September should be collected and discarded already fallen fruit, so that they do not fall into the crop.
Not every acorn will fit the coffee. To prepare a drink, they should be selected according to the following scheme:
- We take only those elements that fell to the ground by themselves or were removed from the branches without any effort.
- It is forbidden to let green acorns on a coffee drink, they can provoke a strong poisoning. It is important to understand that acorns, collected in the immature form, will not reach the desired state, this is a useless and dangerous product.
- Plyuska - the characteristic "cap" of an acorn - must be there. This is a sign of high quality fruit.
- Nuts with wormholes, stains, cracks and any violations of the shell uniformity are not suitable for eating.
- Knowledgeable people do not advise making coffee from acorn of black oak. It is useful and does not pose a danger to the body, but the drink from it turns out very bitter.
When buying acorns should pay attention to the same moments. And of course, if the harvesting is sold ahead of harvest time, it means that they are either green or last year’s.
Chemical composition and nutritional value of the drink
The calorie content of acorns is such that it can even compare with many foods and ready-made dishes. 100 g of oak fruit more than 500 calories. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates are also present in them. All this does not indicate that the drink is prohibited for use by overweight people. The mechanism of its effects on the body is such that the listed substances only activate the metabolism, not being deposited in the tissues in the form of fat.
Interesting fact: To date, botanists have almost 500 species of oaks, each of which bears acorns. At the same time, the plant, the fruits of which have the richest chemical compositions, is growing in our country, and, moreover, everywhere. You just need to find a suitable tree and you can expect a harvest.
In the composition of acorns, it is possible to isolate binders and a large amount of starch. But the most useful component is considered to be quercetin. This active substance has an impressive list of beneficial properties. It relieves spasms and inflammation, relieves swelling, facilitates urine excretion, works as an antioxidant.
There are not so many vitamins in acorns, but there are enough of them to satisfy the basic needs of the body. Famous fruits set and the number of trace elements. Magnesium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus strengthen bones and muscles. There are elements of oak and trace elements: iron, zinc, manganese, copper. They prevent the development of anemia, improve blood composition, stimulate the functioning of organs and systems.
The benefits of coffee from acorns for the body
If you use a unique food product by all the rules, then in a short time you can notice a lot of positive changes in the state.
- Pathologically elevated blood sugar will drop to an acceptable level. In combination with drug treatment, people with diabetes are often recommended to drink coffee from acorns.
- The drink improves heart function, reducing the risk of arrhythmia. The use of the composition on a regular basis allows you to get rid of the feeling of constriction in the chest, palpable heartbeat.
- Acute coffee can be drunk and hypertensive. Unlike the usual drink, it does not provoke an increase in pressure.
- Due to the antibacterial properties of oak fruit, the destruction of microorganisms that provoke infectious diseases occurs.
- Aromatic liquid copes with the problems characteristic of diseases of the genitourinary system. It helps to fight many "female" diseases, enuresis, increases the potency in men. Women drink is shown with heavy menstruation, it helps to reduce the intensity of bleeding.
- Medical mass can alleviate the condition with indigestion, colitis.
- Coffee from acorns relieves coughing attacks. It is even recommended to constantly drink for asthma or chronic bronchitis.
The composition of acorns is healthy and healthy people. If you include his diet and drink at least a cup a day, the risk of the formation of cancerous tumors and the malignancy of existing structures will decrease.
Potential harm of a coffee drink
If you do not get too carried away with a drink and do not drink more than 5 cups a day, there will be no harm. But there are several recommendations for drinking coffee from acorns.
- For coffee, you can start up only those fruits that were collected in the correct time.
- The drink is digested for quite a long time, so you should not drink it if digestion is slow.
- Ingredients made from raw acorns can harm the bladder.
- Such beneficial quercetin in large quantities can be toxic. To reduce the risk of its negative effects on the body, oak fruits are necessarily soaked and roasted before brewing coffee from them.
- Despite the fact that pregnancy and child age are not contraindications to fluid intake, it is better not to give it to children under 3 years old. And pregnant and lactating women on this issue should consult with a doctor.
Coffee from acorns rarely causes allergies, but it happens that it is poorly tolerated by the body. In this case, you should not try to do with small volumes or strongly dilute the composition, you just have to abandon the product.
Making coffee from acorns
Preparing a coffee drink from the fruits of oak is a snap. To do this, you need to consistently perform several manipulations:
- Acorns immersed in a large container and pour cold water. The floating elements are removed, and the rest are kept in the water for another 20-30 minutes. Then drain the liquid and recline the mass in a colander.
- Fruits are laid out on a baking sheet in a single layer and sent to the oven preheated to 100ºС for 5-10 minutes. Items should turn dark brown and easy to peel off the shell.
- The kernels of acorns must be minced. The resulting mass should be dried in a warm oven or electric dryer until ready. The finished raw materials are laid out in glass jars.
- Before you brew coffee, grind the workpiece in a coffee grinder and fry in a dry frying pan. The duration of treatment affects the taste of the drink, so it must be selected on the basis of individual preferences.
- For a cup of water you need to take a teaspoon of ground coffee. Preparing a drink in the same way as its traditional counterpart. Milk, honey and sugar can be used as flavor enhancers.
The taste of coffee from acorns can be different every time. It is similar to ordinary coffee, it is more like the taste and smell of cocoa. It depends on the volume of the mass used, the duration of its roasting, the presence of additional ingredients.
Such coffee is a wonderful energetic, has a taste and a pleasant aroma, reminiscent of coffee, sometimes with the smell of cocoa. With proper preparation, it does not differ much from the ground coffee we are used to. Some gourmets claim that it is somewhat similar to barley coffee.
A special difference from other similar drinks is a bit of bitterness and a slightly astringent taste. Serve this drink can be as a standalone drink, but it will be tastier if you add milk, sweeteners and other ingredients.
When and where to collect acorns
Oak fruits are harvested after ripening, in September-October, when they are generously scattered under the oaks in parks or oak forests. Acceptable acorns are usually brownish or yellowish, not wormy, with a cap that should be easily separated.
How to select high-quality fruit
A simple way to check the quality of oak fruit is soaking it in water. Some time after soaking, acorns that have emerged need to be thrown away, and those that have sunk to the bottom will be suitable for harvesting raw materials.
If the fruits were not collected personally, and purchased on the market, then you need to take into account one factor: at what time of year they are sold. If earlier than the usual time of collecting raw materials, the fruit or not ripe, or harvested in the past year. It is clear that such acorns are not suitable for the preparation of drinking.
Step by step recipe for making coffee drink
The process of making a drink from dried oak fruit is the same as preparing it from coffee beans.
For one portion of the invigorating drink you will need:
- 1 or 2 teaspoons of dried fruit powder,
- 100-150 milliliters of boiling water,
- 1 or 2 teaspoons of sugar or its substitute (to taste),
- Cream, milk, spices - by preference.
Preparation of acorns
The next step after soaking and selecting suitable fruits is drying them. They need a little dry in a natural way and clean from the shell. Crush the extracted hearts into small pieces with a sharp knife, spread them out on a baking sheet in one thin layer and allow to dry for 40 minutes in a preheated oven to 200 degrees.
Properly dried raw material turns brown. Also pay attention to the fact that the stage of roasting acorns directly affects the taste of the final product. If the fruit is burnt, the coffee gets a bitter and unpleasant taste. Acorns must undergo heat treatment, otherwise you can seriously poisoned.
How to make coffee from acorns
Preparing coffee in this way:
- Dry raw materials need to fall asleep in a coffee maker or a Turk based on the number of servings.
- Add sugar or its substitute, if necessary.
- Powder pour boiling water or cold water.
- Put on the fire, and, stirring, bring to a boil, but do not digest.
- Leave to infuse for a couple of minutes.
- Pour into coffee cups.
Still such coffee can be steamed with boiling water right in the cup, although this procedure is not considered a full brew. Any method of cooking - an amateur.
What is the combination of drink
The fact that you can add milk and cream to the acorn product has already been mentioned above. These additives make the taste of the tart drink softer. Gourmets also love to complement this coffee with the taste of various aromatic spices.
These ingredients are added after brewing, so that high temperatures do not destroy the essential oils that make up their composition. The most favorite spices for many connoisseurs of such coffee are clove blossoms, cinnamon, nutmeg and cardamom.
The taste of acorn coffee may differ each time due to several factors: the amount of raw materials put into the Turk, the degree of its roasting, and also due to various additional seasonings.
For those who prefer a drink with a special peppercorn, you can add black pepper peas. In this case, it is better to put the spice during the cooking itself, since this is the best way to extract its best properties. Another original additive to coffee from acorns is table salt.
This version of coffee is prepared in this way:
- In Turk, you need to pour 1 teaspoon of powder and add a pinch of salt to it.
- Pour cold water and put on fire. Do not boil, but only bring to a boil. With this brewing, a thick froth appears at the drink.
- At first, gently put the foam removed with a spoon into the coffee cup, and then carefully pour the drink itself.
- Sugar can not add.
What is the use?
Acorn coffee is very useful and has many healing properties, so it can be used at different ages without harm to health.
Now a small list of healing qualities inherent in this drink:
- It tones and refreshes due to the presence of useful substances and minerals in fruits.
- Because of its astringent qualities, it is indispensable for toothache and gum disease.
Possible harm and contraindications
Coffee drink from acorns, as well as the use of natural coffee, should not be too abused. It can drink no more than 5 cups per day.
It has already been emphasized that the prepared product from raw fruits is toxic, since quercetin contained in large doses in green acorns is very harmful. Therefore, before use, it is desirable to soak the acorns and fry them.
Although there are no contraindications for the use of acorn drink in childhood, it is not recommended to give it to children under the age of three. Pregnant and lactating women need to consult a doctor before drinking acorns. Summing up the above, we can conclude that this useful drink is best consumed in small doses, taking it carefully and watching the reaction of your body.
The best time to harvest oak fruit
For making coffee from oak acorns, it is best to use already ripened fruits. The best time to harvest is, of course, autumn. Rather, its beginning. The fruit must be ripe, otherwise the drink may not work. It is better to collect them in the forest, where there are no cars, factories, garbage dumps and everything that pollutes the environment.
The fruits of ordinary oak have a characteristic bitter taste, so before preparing coffee from acorns, they must be soaked.
How to collect fruit
There are several rules to follow while collecting acorns.
You need to collect only those fruits that fell to the ground with a little effort or independently.
Coffee from acorns that have not yet had time to mature, can turn out not only tasteless, but also dangerous to health. Remember that green acorns can cause serious poisoning. It is also important to understand that the immature fetus will no longer reach home. This is not a tomato. As a result, an uncropped acorn, plucked from a branch, is a useless product. Another important sign of a quality fruit is its cap. If it is missing, then the acorn may be empty or rotten inside. Also, when harvesting, make sure that the nut is not damaged or stained. Oak fruit should be smooth, without any visible cracks or scratches.
Fans of this coffee drink do not recommend collecting fruits for its preparation from black oak. The drink from its fruit turns out though useful, but very bitter.
If you do not have the opportunity to collect raw materials for such coffee on your own, and you go to the store to buy it, look at the same nuances that were described above. Pay attention to the time when the acorns are sold. If the period of their collection has not yet arrived, it is most likely last year's or green acorns.
The nutritional value of oak drink and its chemical composition
Acorns - this is a fairly high-calorie product. They can fully replace any other ready-made dish. 100 g of the product contains 500 kcal. There are proteins, fats and carbohydrates in coffee from acorns. Useful properties with high enough. Despite the fact that the fruits contain a large amount of carbohydrates, this drink can be used by people who are obese. The advantage of acorns over other nuts is that the substances they contain only accelerate the metabolism and are not deposited in the tissues in the form of fat. This is noted in the reviews of overweight people.
Due to the content of a substance such as quercetin, acorns have a good effect on the body as an antioxidant. Also relieve swelling, relieve inflammation and cramps.
In a drink such as coffee from acorns, the benefits and harms are almost commensurate with each other. В их составе присутствует большое количество таких полезных веществ, как кальций и магний. Это является несомненным плюсом любого продукта. Но при этом желуди содержат минимальное количество витаминов. Итак, о пользе и вреде продукта далее поговорим подробнее.
Вред желудевого кофе
Such a drink can be harmful only if you drink more than five cups a day.
It is contraindicated to drink coffee from acorns to people with slow digestion, as it is digested for a very long time. It is very important that the drink was prepared from the correct raw materials, otherwise you risk harming your genitourinary system. Acorns should be ripe and collected on time.
Also, do not forget to soak and dry acorns before making a drink from them, otherwise quercetin so beneficial can harm the body.
In general, the drink has no contraindications for pregnant women, however, before using it, it is best to consult a doctor. It is also undesirable to give the drink to children under three years of age.
Acorns, like any other product, can cause allergies. In this case, there is no point in consuming the drink. It is best to be from its use at all.
Having understood how harmful and useful a drink can be, consider the question of how to make coffee from oak acorns correctly.
Preparation for making coffee
If you have already gathered the fruits, observing all the rules, before making a coffee drink from them, it is necessary to carry out several manipulations.
In the first stage, immerse acorns in water, which should be at room temperature. Those nuts that float to the surface, you must immediately get out and throw out. The rest is left in the water for about thirty minutes.
After the fruits are soaked, it is necessary to drain the water and drain them in a colander.
Heat the oven to 100 °. On a baking sheet lay out parchment paper and spread acorns on it. Dry them until they turn brown. Most often, the drying procedure takes about ten minutes. According to the results of the fruit should be well cleaned from the shell.
In the next stage, the kernel must be minced or grind in a coffee grinder. The finished raw material must be completely dry. If the ground mass is damp, then it is necessary to bring it to the readiness in the dryer or oven. Now the raw materials are laid out on the banks. It is desirable that the container in which you plan to store the powder from acorns, was glass.
Before you prepare to make coffee, billet in the required amount must be ignited in a hot frying pan. Fans of this drink say in their reviews that the duration of roasting the powder affects the taste and depends on the individual preferences of each.
Coffee from acorns. Recipe
The classic acorn drink is made using the same technology as coffee beans.
You can steam it with boiling water in a mug, or you can boil it in a Turk. Of course, coffee drinkers can say that steaming is not a complete way to make coffee. But there are those who will appreciate this method of preparation.
So, for one Turk of 200 g we need one teaspoon of acorn powder. Fill it with water and set it on fire. Bring to a boil and remove from heat. As a sweetener, you can use sugar or honey. For people with diabetes, add a sugar substitute.
There are a lot of cooking recipes. One of them is the preparation of coffee with the addition of various spices. Most often, cinnamon or cloves are used, which are added to the coffee after the drink is ready. Black pepper is added while coffee is brewed. Some in the reviews say that they like coffee with peppercorn.
Today, botanists around the world have more than half a thousand species of oaks. Each of the species bears acorns. In this case, the most useful fruits can be collected from trees that grow in our country. The main thing is to find a suitable tree.
Another interesting fact is noted in the reviews: the taste of coffee from acorns each time may be different. It all depends on a few moments. First, as mentioned above, the taste of the drink is influenced by the cooking of the mixture. Secondly, it all depends on the amount that you put in the Turk. An acorn drink can taste like cocoa once, and the other can be like coffee, which we make from coffee beans.
This article has reviewed several recipes for how to make coffee from acorns. But do not limit them. If you wish, you can mix other ingredients.
Traditional Acorn Coffee
Preparing such a treat is about the same as coffee from Arabica beans.
First of all, the preparation of the acorns should be grinded, then sent to a dry frying pan and fry. From the degree of roasting the fruit depend on all the taste of the future coffee.
According to the familiar scheme of preparing a classic delicacy, this treat is also prepared. In 200 ml of water in the Turk should be placed 1-2 teaspoons of acorn powder. Bring mixture to a boil, remove from heat, pour into cups and add sugar to taste. For the classic recipe from acorns, you can use special additives:
Acorn coffee for sweet tooths
It is no secret that acorns are a very useful product. But who said that it can be used only for recovery? It turns out a modern variation of delicacies with acorns, if you make coffee from acorns according to the recipe of the popular barista. For this you need:
- Hot coffee from acorns - 200 ml,
- Sugar - 2 tsp,
- Milk - 50 ml,
- "Balloon" cream - 20 ml,
- Nut syrup - 5 ml.
Even coffee gourmets will not feel the difference if you invite them to drink a light frappe of acorns. Taste and technical qualities of the drink are very similar to arabica. For cooking you will need:
- Cold coffee from acorns - 200 ml,
- Whipped cream (30%) - 50 ml,
- Crushed ice - 4 pieces,
- Cane sugar - 3 tsp,
- "Balloon" cream - 30 ml,
- Orange zest / coconut chips - as needed.
The home cooking method differs from the professional only by the materials at hand, they are identical in taste:
- Cooled and filtered decoction of acorns placed in a blender with ice, heavy cream and sugar. Beat until a thick foam top.
- Pour the mixture into high transparent glasses.
- Decorate with "balloon" cream, orange peel / coconut shavings (choose one, otherwise it will be overkill) and offer guests with a straw.
In the summer heat, your loved ones will appreciate the care in preparing a seemingly complex drink. But, as can be seen from the recipe, it is not so intricate, cooking does not take even 30 minutes of your time.
Coffee from oak and chicory
If you are in the countryside, you want coffee, but there are no options at hand. You can go into the field and collect yourself "brew" for coffee:
- Powder of acorns - 40 g,
- Barley - 30 g,
- Rye / oat - 15 g,
- Dandelion Root - 15 g,
- Wheat - 25 g,
- Chicory - 20 g.
Grind all the ingredients, prepare as usual coffee in the Turk. You can serve treats with honey, then the drink will turn out not only useful, fragrant, but also quite tasty.
The benefit of such a delicacy is increased many times due to the useful compounds given by nature itself. All ingredients have the most important compounds for the human body with which you can get rid of any disease.
The harmful and beneficial properties of coffee from acorns.
To find out who can drink a drink, and who can not, you need to find out the characteristics of the oak fruit.
Good acorns do not have impregnations, look clean, flat head. Besides the fact that this is the favorite food of forest rodents (squirrels, mice) and wild boars, the fruits are very high-calorie in raw form, have many substances and compounds necessary for the human body.
What is hidden in the composition of the oak fruit?
- Important vitamins: B, thiamine, phosphorus, pyridoxine, iron, magnesium, potassium copper, manganese,
- Acids: nicotinic, glutamic and pantothenic,
- Amino acids and protein,
The main properties of an acorn used to be widely used by healers and healers. People felt the importance of the oak, its strength. No wonder, since ancient times, oak was considered the sacred tree of the god Perun. When Christianity came to Russia, the properties of the oak tree were not forgotten and partially survived to our days.
Now support the body can be provided if you have problems with:
- By the kidneys (all diseases can be alleviated)
- Lack of iron in the blood,
- Gastrointestinal / intestinal disorders,
- Diabetes mellitus.
Using a drink from acorns can help with a weakening of the immune system, a depressed state, vein thrombosis, and a worse appetite.
In some cases, such as pregnancy, instead of pill folic acid, you can use a decoction of the fetus oak. This compound is contained in excess. Acceptance of folic acid is a guarantee of the health of the unborn child, because its lack can lead to inhibition of the healthy development of the fetus. Taking into account the fact that Arabica coffee for pregnant women is often forbidden due to the risk of increased pressure, this is an excellent way to replace a favorite delicacy without harming yourself and the child.
Oak fruit contains antioxidant - quercetinresponsible for:
- maintaining the body in good shape,
- getting rid of allergic rashes,
- maintaining skin health and youth
- other useful properties.
Antioxidant gives the fetus a bitter shade, it is not recommended to be eaten raw.
Acorn does not have any contraindications. But if after a coffee from acorns a rash or irritation appeared on the body, it is worth refusing such a delicacy. The only contraindication is individual intolerance to the elements in the acorn.
The consequences of improper cooking can be attributed to poisoning with improper processing. Be careful, strictly follow the recipe.
What is coffee from acorns and its compositionAnyone can make a drink from a natural substitute for coffee - the fruit of oak. To taste, it resembles natural coffee beans, and nutritionally exceeds them many times. Acorn coffee includes:
- Quercetin. As a powerful antioxidant, it neutralizes the action of free radicals and slows the aging of the body,
- Tannins. Neutralize the harmful effects of pathogens, ie, in fact, are antiseptic,
- Carbohydrates. The main source of energy for people
- Minerals, in particular potassium, magnesium and calcium, which are responsible for the proper functioning of the heart, the state of the nervous system and bone density.
As part of the wonder drink, which is called acorn coffee, there is a lot of protein and fat. For nutritional value, one cup of such coffee corresponds to a full meal per meal. 100 g of acorns contain 500 calories.
Useful and harmful properties of acorn coffee
Like any other product, a drink from acorns brings its own benefit and harm. Here are some of them:
- Due to its antibacterial properties, it is a natural antiseptic and copes well with urinary and genital tract infections. It also has a positive effect on the prostate,
- Slow carbohydrates stabilize the state of glucose in the blood, so this coffee can be useful for patients with type II diabetes,
- Potassium in large quantities stabilizes the state of the heart and blood vessels, prevents the breakdown of the correct rhythm. Coffee from acorns is indicated for the use of hypertensive patients,
- Due to the high content of coarse fiber, stabilizes the condition of the intestinal tract, eliminates acute and chronic colitis, relieves indigestion,
- Useful for children with rickets, scrofula, hardening of the mesenteric glands,
- Reduces the severity of diseases such as asthma, whooping cough, bronchitis, due to the antispasmodic effect of quercetin.
Potential harm to the body is eating a drink from non-fried grains. All the same quercetin in high concentration has a toxic effect and can lead to a general poisoning of the body.
To reduce the risk of intoxication, it is not recommended to exceed the daily intake rate of 5 cups. Oak seeds before use must be rinsed, dried and roasted.
How to prepare acorns for a drink
Unfortunately, the sale of acorn coffee is not found. Collect the fruit and harvest raw materials for making coffee have to yourself. The most suitable time for procurement is the end of September - mid-November. Fallen fruits in August are likely to be empty or damaged.
For the preparation of the extract is best suited fruits, selected according to the following features:
- Fallen on the ground or collected from branches without the use of force. A fruit that is difficult to separate is green and unmet, and therefore extremely toxic.
- With the presence of the top cap of the fetus "pluses", as a characteristic feature of high quality,
- Without visible external damage - mold, worm holes, cracks, chips.
Cooking Acorn Coffee
Coffee drink from the collected acorns turns out saturated and fragrant. In taste, it resembles the traditional, but requires compliance with the technology of collecting and preparing fruits.
Ripe high-quality acorns must be washed under running water, slightly dried and cleaned from the shell and hats. This is the most time-consuming process, since the skin is removed for a long time and problematic.
Tip! You can dry in the oven unpeeled fruit until such time as the skin does not burst. Fruits must be cleaned immediately warm.
The core is crushed with a knife for 5-7 parts. In no case can not use the blender. Thus, most of the aromatic substances will evaporate.
In the oven at a temperature of 100 degrees Celsius put a baking sheet with the fruit. Baking time is 5-7 minutes, until a golden brown crust is formed. At the same time, good quality cores emit a light mushroom smell during heating. After 2-3 minutes, it passes.
After cooling, chopped acorn nuts are put in a jar and stored under the lid closed. Crushed immediately before use in a shredder.
No need to look for special recipes, how to make coffee from acorns. Below are the most common.
Traditional recipeTo prepare 1 serving of coffee from acorns according to the traditional recipe, you need:
- 2 tbsp. spoons of ground acorns,
- Water 180 ml,
- Sugar to taste.
At the bottom of the Turks put powder, pour water, put on fire. When the mixture begins to rise, remove from heat, pour into cups. To taste add sugar.
Sweet tooth recipe
Lovers of very sweet drinks can try a delicious treat from acorns. The following ingredients will be needed:
- Ready acorn coffee 200 ml,
- 2 tsp sugar,
- Cream in a balloon,
- Milk 60 ml,
- Nut syrup 5 ml.
In Turk make coffee from acorns according to the traditional recipe. Insist for 5 minutes, cool, strain, pour into high glasses. Add milk, syrup and sugar. Top with whipped cream.