HOW TO REPLACE BLUE FRENCH RABIN
Growing aronia planting material is not particularly difficult. Chokeberry is well propagated by seeds, layering and offspring, green and lignified cuttings, grafting and dividing the bush.
The most common method of reproduction - seed. Rowan seedlings retain their parental signs, and they begin fruiting in the fourth year.
In order for seeds to undergo stratification under natural conditions, they must be sown in the fall. To do this, ripe fruits, collected in early September, knead and wash the resulting slurry with water. During this procedure, viable seeds sink to the bottom and the feeble float.
Peeled and dried seeds are stored for a month. In early October, sown to a depth of 1.0-1.5 cm is sown, with non-compliance with this depth, germination is reduced. The beds are mulched, the top layer of soil is compacted so that there are no voids around the seeds.
In May, when establishing warm weather, the first shoots appear. Caring for them comes down to watering, weeding, loosening and thinning. When thickening, weak plants develop, so between two to three centimeters are left between the seedlings in the rows, removing excess, weaker specimens. With a lack of planting material they can be planted on another garden bed for growing.
Seeds of black chokeberry are grown for two years without transplantation.
For spring sowing, long stratification is needed. Experts recommend it as follows:
• Seeds are soaked in warm water for a day.
• Then kept for 10 days at a temperature of 12-14 ° C.
• Then another 10 days - at a temperature not higher than 3 ° C.
• Thus, the temperature regime is changed within one and a half to two months. The mucus that has appeared on the surface of the seeds is removed by rinsing the bags of seeds in warm water.
• The time remaining before planting is stored at 0 ° C and only three or four days before planting is transferred to a warm place.
In spring, seeds are sown in the ground. Shoots do not appear simultaneously, although the overall germination rate is about 90%.
With proper care on rich soils, the height of annual seedlings reaches 40, on poor - 10 cm. Feeding, carried out in the first half of summer, increase the growth of seedlings.
VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION OF THE BLACK FETAL CHILDREN
Green and lignified cuttings
Green cuttings harvested in late May - early June. They are planted in greenhouses and rooted at high humidity, like cuttings of other crops.
If the survival rate of green cuttings is 96-98%, then lignified - only 8-30%, so the second method of propagation of black chokeberry is used much less frequently.
Saplings obtained from cuttings, according to the observations of experts, are weaker and less fruitful than plants grown from seeds.
This method allows you to quickly get a small number of young plants. Early in the spring, strong lateral shoots on uterine bushes bend down to the ground, fix in this position, sprinkle with fertile substrate and moisturize. In the summer they are regularly watered and spud. New plants are separated from the parent bush in the same fall or left until spring.
Saplings obtained from root offsprings, begin to bear fruit the next year after planting.
We advise you to read:PRINCIPAL ROLE: LANDING, MAINTENANCE, CULTIVATIONMOUNTAIN ASH
CHERNO-FERRY RABIN, RECIPES IN WINTER AND DESSERTS
Black-chokeberry grown in standard form looks impressive. To get a compact tree, arion grafted with a cutting or kidney on the seedling of the usual red rowan, hawthorn or pear. Inoculation can be done at the level of the root collar, stem or crown.
APPLICATION IN DESIGN
The reproduction of chokeberry - the procedure is simple.
Chokeberry Aronia (rowan)
Each gardener can get enough bushes to collect a good harvest and decorate his plot. After all, chokeberry is not only a valuable fruit, but also a highly ornamental plant. It looks great in hedges, in soliternyh plantings and in groups next to other shrubs in the foreground of tall trees.
Rowan resistant to air pollution with smoke and gases. It can be successfully used for landscaping industrial enterprises.
"Site about plants" www.pro-rasteniya.ruReturn to section
If the article seemed interesting to you, vote for it, please, using your social network:
Chokeberry, which is also called - chokeberry, is a very unpretentious plant. It suits almost any soil, but it is worth noting that on poor soil the berries are reduced and the harvest falls. Therefore, in order to obtain high yields of large juicy berries, the cultivation of chokeberry should be started with the introduction of well-rotten compost into the soil before planting.
Plant arion you need in the fall. When planting a single bush somewhere in the corner of the site, the size of the landing hole for this should be 50x50 cm, but when planting a solid green fence along the fence or the border of the site, you need to dig a continuous trench. With such a landing, the distance between the bushes should be 2 - 2.5 m.
Planting black chokeberry
Before planting, place a glass of double granulated superphosphate under each bush. It is necessary to deepen saplings in the soil at landing on 5 - 6 cm.
It is worth remembering that chokeberry is a moisture-loving and light-loving culture, so it should be watered a couple of times a month in hot and dry weather, pouring 3 to 4 buckets of water under each bush. But with a moderately dry summer, it is not necessary to water the black chokeberry, because it has a rather deep root system.
Stems need to be shortened when landing on 1/3 of their length. Further care of the plant involves cutting out only aging or broken branches. Pruning should be done before bud breaks, that is, in early spring.
Young branches are very easy to distinguish from old ones. In the case of old branches, after about 7–8 years of life, shorter side branches grow during the summer, while young branches have a length of 20–30 cm of lateral branches that grow.
If you do not exempt a bush from old branches (there are practically no berries on them anyway), then with time fruit will fall on it, since it thickens strongly. Because of the thickening, the light does not get into the middle of the bush, so the branches are empty there, all the fruiting is shifted to the periphery of the bush. This immediately suggests that the plant is very light-requiring, therefore, should grow in the sun.
It is also worth noting that chokeberry is able to endure frosts of more than 40 ° C, that is, it is extremely hardy, so the cultivation of black chokeberry can also be used to protect it from the northeast and north winds. For this you need to plant it on the northern border of the site.
Feeding black chokeberry
Caring for chokeberry consists in weeding, loosening the soil under a bush, and, of course, in top dressing. In the spring, around the perimeter of the bush crown, add 2 tablespoons of double granulated superphosphate and a bucket of organic matter.
Fertilizers need 1 time in 2 years. But even if you do not do this, then aroniya will still give you berries every year. In order for the plant to feed itself, it is enough not to take away the fallen leaves from under the bush.
Reproduction of chokeberry
Chokeberry breeds, layering, seed (but it is long), root suckers, green or lignified cuttings, as well as the division of the bush.
It is worth noting that a pear can be grafted onto the chokeberry, but at the same time keep in mind that the branches of the pear will very quickly become thicker than that of the chokeberry, that is, the stock, and therefore, can easily break off. Therefore, you need to put under them well-fortified, permanent props.
Aronia blooms late, that is, after frosts, although it is not very afraid of them. In other words, frost this plant is not terrible. In addition, Aronia has neither pests nor diseases, so the care of it is very minimal: do not allow more than 10 shoots in one bush and do not forget to cut out the old branches. And all the extra branches need to be cut to the very root.
The most favorable time for picking berries is before the first frost. It is not necessary to hurry with the harvesting, since the fruits that have turned blackened in August acquire their best taste and beneficial properties only in September-October.
Aroni berries love to feast on the birds.
Useful properties of black chokeberry
The berries contain all the vitamins, especially a lot of vitamin C, as well as pectins, beta - carotene, iodine, glucose, P - active organic substances, organic acids, fructose.
There is evidence that chokeberry juice reduces arterial pressure and cholesterol, increases blood flow velocity, normalizes excitation processes in the brain, strengthens capillaries, removes cobalt, strontium and various toxic substances from the body.
Aronia whets the appetite.
It is used for the treatment of gastritis with low acidity, as well as with an increase in vascular permeability, hypo-and avitaminosis, atherosclerosis. It is recommended as a means of improving the function of the thyroid gland.
Fruits of black insects are prescribed for various disorders in the blood coagulation system, bleeding, rheumatism, diabetes and allergic diseases.
Studies in recent years have shown that chokeberry improves liver function, and regular consumption of this berry improves immunity and positively affects the endocrine system.
However, in some diseases, the black wolf may be contraindicated. So, it is not recommended for stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, frequent constipation, hypotension, increased blood clotting and thrombophlebitis.
Did you read it? Let your friends read:
Other articles of the section "In the garden in the garden":
- Edible tree in the garden
- Caring for roses in the garden
- Sowing seeds in open ground in summer. The continuation of the sowing campaign
- Ipomoea. Cultivation and care
- Garden blackberry. Planting and care
- Vertical landing strawberries do it yourself
- Favorite lovage
- Spicy herbs in the country: oregano, marjoram, basil, rosemary, mint
- Tea rose. Useful properties and application of the queen of flowers
- Chokeberry. Growing, care, useful properties
Chokeberry, or aronia - compactly growing shrub, completely unpretentious in the care, but famous for its beneficial berries, is of interest to many gardeners and gardeners who want to grow black chokeberry in their plots. The height of the bush reaches three meters, the crown of an adult bush is spreading, in diameter two and a half - three meters.
Almost all year round the bush looks very decorative:
- spring is enchanted by fragrant, bright white flowers collected in inflorescences,
- in the summer, the branches bending under the weight of ripening berries are decorated with clusters of purple - black fruit with a bluish bloom,
- and in the fall, simply do not take your eyes off the bush - its foliage plays with all the colors of autumn.
It is not surprising that the plant is so widespread not only throughout Russia, it can often be found in neighboring countries.
Planting mountain ash by the rules
Before planting a young tree, you should decide on the choice of a place where it could grow for twenty years. The place for the future bush (or a number of bushes, as the owner wants), you must choose a well-lit, the soil is most suitable rich sandy or sandy. If planting is done in the shade or in saline land, yields will be low and berries will not be juicy.
The best time to plant is mid-autumn. If planting is planned for spring, it is necessary to do this as early as possible, before bud break, and the seat should be prepared in autumn.
Landing rules are quite simple:
- A hole is dug about 40 centimeters deep, 40 to 50 centimeters in diameter.
- A bucket of humus, 100 grams of superphosphate, 50 grams of potash fertilizer is added to the top layer of the excavated fertile land, mixed.
- The prepared soil is poured to the bottom of the hole, it is poured abundantly with water, left for 5-7 days.
- Planting is done in the usual way, during which some root of the neck is some two to three centimeters deep, this will help the lateral shoots that appear at the base of the bush to grow more actively.
- The tree planted is well watered; after the water is absorbed, the stalk zone is covered with mulch, the aerial part of the plant is cut twenty centimeters from the ground.
Care is watering. The tree planted in autumn will need to be protected from freezing of the root system.
Rowan black planting care in the open field breeding
Top dressing is most needed at the time of flowering and fruit filling.
It would be most correct if the gardener observes the condition of the bush and determines whether he needs additional fertilizing, otherwise leaves will not grow when the fertilizer is abundant.
Hot dry summer, when clusters are formed, the ground under the bush should be wet to a depth of 50 centimeters.
How to choose a grade
Since black chokeberry is always in demand among gardeners, agronomists derive many varieties of this shrub. Varieties have a difference in taste of the berries, the time of their ripening, the time of entry into fruiting. The most popular are:
- Finnish selection Viking, Karhumäki,
- Polish breeding Dabrovice, Kutno, Egerte,
- Danish selection Aaron.
It is best to purchase seedlings for planting in nurseries and stop the selection on varieties that are adapted to local climatic conditions.
Features of cultivation of chokeberry
A prerequisite is the removal of root shoots, which grows quickly and makes it difficult to care for the bush. Overgrowing mountain ash will also affect its productivity. Young shoots annually need to dig.
If several plants are planted on the site, the minimum distance between them should be two meters, otherwise the bushes will simply interfere with each other and shade.
After the end of the flowering period, the bush can be cut, thus forming its crown.
Branches and shoots, thickening the bush, subject to pruning.
In the seven-year old rowan trees, the old branches are completely removed, leaving the young shoots of replacement, thus, the bush is rejuvenated.
Ten-year mountain ash can, without fear, cut to the ground. The bush will rejuvenate and start producing good yields again.
The reproduction of the berry
There are no difficulties during reproduction, just young shoots, emerging from the roots of the mother bush, are dug up and transplanted into a place prepared in advance.
It is possible, of course, to propagate mountain ash with black seeds, but this process is lengthy and rather painstaking.
Indeed, the care of the shrubs is simple, giving the opportunity to grow a medicinal plant in your household plot.
Read about other useful plants in our materials:
Information and description of agricultural culture
Chokeberry was obtained as a result of an experiment in which scientists crossed the rowan and chokeberry and black chokeberry. Aronia grows on sandy plains, in swampy areas, and also on the mountain slopes of the United States. The tree-shrub is short and unsightly, it differs from the black-fruited mountain ash that is grown in our time.
In Russia, the bush was cultivated by the famous Russian breeder I. V. Michurin. Since the variety is resistant to various diseases and winter hardy, it took one of the leading positions in a vast territory, including north-west Russia, Siberia and the Urals. This plant is grown in almost any climatic conditions.
Note! In order to reap a good harvest, land must be well lit. Shadow reduces the yield and not the best way affects the presentation of the fruit.
Chokeberry will feel great in the lowlands, where groundwater lies at a level of 2 m. This is due to the fact that the root system of the crop does not sink deeply until planting - up to 1 m. . Different types of soil are suitable for the cultivation of chokeberry, namely:
- gray forest,
- drained peatlands.
It is not recommended to grow mountain ash on waterlogged, saline and rocky land. The plant is planted by gardeners as a combined hedge, as well as decorations of spacious areas. The shrub strengthens the ravines or the perimeter of personal plots, which are located near water bodies or cliffs.
How to propagate black chokeberry
This variety of mountain ash can reproduce both by vegetative and seed methods, any one ensures the preservation of varietal characteristics and signs of maternal culture. Experienced gardeners recommend breeding mountain ash using the seed method or green cuttings.
Чтобы размножить черноплодную аронию посредством зеленых отводков, нужно предварительно ознакомиться с правилами деления черенков и созданием условий для скорого укоренения.
Attention! Размножение рябины черенками предполагает наличие холодного парника и подготовку специального грунта, для которого понадобится древесная зола и огородная земля.
The length of the cuttings cut from a young tree should be no more than 15 cm. All foliage must be removed from the bottom. Make 2 cuts on the surface of the bark, as well as 1 cut in the upper part, under the kidneys.
Before planting chokeberry, it must be treated with a stimulant in order to form roots: lower the lower part of the cuttings into the solution and hold for at least 8 hours. After that, the plant can be planted in greenhouses, maintaining a distance of 4 cm between seedlings. The final stage will be abundant watering of the soil and covering the greenhouse with a film, which will need to be opened after 3 months.
For seed propagation of black chokeberry, it is necessary to obtain plant seeds. The fruits of mountain ash should be rubbed through a sieve and rinsed in water, separating the pulp. To ensure high germination rates, Aronia seeds need stratification. The reproduction of plants by this method takes place in several stages:
- Sand needs to be ignited and mixed with seeds, then put on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for 90 days. Sand must be moistened throughout this time.
- In the second half of April, you can plant seeds in open ground. It is necessary to choose a suitable site and make holes on it with a depth of 8 cm, then sow the planting material and cover it with earth. Mulch plantation using humus.
Seedlings will grow up a little and next autumn they can be transplanted and planted, and before that they can provide care, including systematic watering, loosening and fertilizing, which is usually used slurry.
Attention! When the seedlings appear first leaves, they need to thin out and leave only those that seem strong. The distance between the leaves should be 3 cm.
After the next 5 sheets appear, they must be re-thinned, keeping a distance of 6 cm between the seedlings. With the onset of the next spring, seedlings need to be thinned with a distance of 15 cm, otherwise they will not bloom.
How to choose seedlings of chokeberry
To date, breeders have bred various varieties and hybrids of chokeberry chokeberry, the most popular are Viking, Rubin, Hakkiya, Kutno and Chernookaya. According to external signs, they are very similar, and differ only in terms of fruiting and taste. The main criterion for the choice of planting material are the climatic conditions of the proposed growing region.
Saplings of black chokeberry
Note! To purchase seedlings, only local nurseries should be considered, and as a parent plant, use only the one that grows in the adjacent plot.
For efficient cultivation of chokeberry, you need to buy seedlings, whose age is 1-2 years, and you should not neglect the following quality indicators:
- the height of seedlings should be no more than 1.5 m,
- healthy bark, the absence of any signs of damage on it,
- the norm of the length of the root system is not less than 25 cm, including overgrown roots.
On a note! The period of productivity of chokeberry chokeberry in the middle lane lasts for 30 years, characterized by high and stable yields. In order to provide the tasty and healthy fruits of their households, you can plant 2 bushes of mountain ash, which will begin to bear fruit after 3 years.
How to plant seedlings
Preparation of the substrate and the landing pit should be made in advance, optimally - in 2 months. During this period, the soil mixture will absorb the nutrients necessary for the subsequent development of culture. The dimensions of the landing pit are 60 * 60 * 50.
The top layer of the ground from the pit should be mixed with 120 g of superphosphate, 60 g of potassium sulfate and 2 buckets of compost or humus. Sprinkle the bottom of the hole with a drainage layer (broken brick or rubble). Before planting trees, they need to be examined. If damaged roots were found, they must be cut off. If the roots are dry, the tree should be placed for 10 hours in a container with water.
Important! To ensure the mountain ash a good survival rate and growth, it must be planted to a greater depth than the one in which it grew in the nursery. Radical shoots growing on the root neck should be well buried.
If the soil is light, the seedlings need to be buried 7 cm, and if heavy - 3-4 cm. After the soil has settled down, the root neck should be at a level of 3 cm below the ground. Based on the recommended criteria, a mound should be formed at the bottom of the well using the prepared substrate. Then evenly distribute the roots of seedlings, avoiding unnatural bends of the roots, otherwise they may turn yellow and die.
Pristvolny circle must be compacted, and seedlings poured abundantly with water. You can use wood chips, mowed grass, sawdust, or peat for mulching. The final stage will be pruning the aerial part of the seedlings after planting, during which you need to leave no more than 25 cm of branch length.
Subsequent care for the culture
Requirements for the care and cultivation of chokeberry are minimal. Seedlings planted in the fall, you need to carefully prepare for the winter. To do this, they are covered with spruce leaves, and if the winter has little snow, you can spud snow.
Preparing for the winter
Chokeberry rapidly forms shoots, so its crown is strongly thickening. Radical shoots of young shrubs need to be removed and only those with the correct growth direction and healthy appearance should be opened. In the process of preventive pruning, it is recommended to remove rotten, bare and old branches.
Note! The shrub has a peculiarity of planting fruit buds on annual shoots, so they do not need shortening.
Rowan is a moisture-loving crop, so it should be watered throughout the growing season, as well as in the process of fruit formation. If the weather is hot, the plant will need watering every 7 days. Twice throughout the entire season, it is necessary to loosen the soil around the tree circle, remove weeds.
Where is the plant used
Useful fruits of chokeberry can be used both fresh and make juice from them, which is able to stop the bleeding, fight hypertension and anacid gastritis. Also from the berries you can make a wine that is distinguished by its useful qualities, and jam, which can be enjoyed in the winter. If you combine the juice and fresh fruits of chokeberry with wild rose, black currant and honey, you can effectively deal with burns on the body and reduce pressure.
It is worth noting that diseases such as varicose veins, gastritis with an increased level of acidity, and gastric ulcers are contraindications to the use of black chokeberry fruits.
Thanks to its decorative properties, the shrub can make a garden decoration or a hedge on a private plot. During its flowering, the plant will certainly attract the eyes to its white inflorescences, and with the onset of autumn the color of the foliage will turn purple.
There are a lot of ways of reproduction of rowan chokeberry. The choice should be made based on the conditions that can be provided to plants for their good development. And also it is worth considering how much seedlings need to be obtained.
To achieve their high quality, it is necessary to strictly follow the rules of care that correspond to each method. Then the result will be pleased with efficiency.
Description chokeberry Aronia
The perennial deciduous shrub from the North American continent, having moved to Europe and to the territory of Russia, turned out to be very tenacious, picky and quickly spread as a decorative or wild-growing culture.
Thanks to the selection work of I.V. Michurin and his associates, who received large-fruited varieties of chokeberry, she attracted the attention of domestic gardeners.
Planting and care for chokeberry Aronia require minimal knowledge and application of forces. Unpretentious shrub:
- tolerates winter damage,
- begins to bear fruit after 3 years after planting, and the yields are stable and annual,
- easy to form crown.
According to the description, chokeberry in nature has a height of 2 to 3 meters. At first, the crown of the shrub is quite compact, but as it grows, it becomes more branchy, spreading, wide. The diameter of an adult bush reaches two meters, so gardeners practice annual pruning and plant formation. It is easy to distinguish perennial shoots from new growth by the color of the bark.
The older the branch, the more gray its surface becomes. The bark of one- or two-year-old wood has a reddish or brownish-brown hue.
Although the culture is often called chokeberry, the plants are not closely related. This is clearly visible if you look at the foliage of chokeberry Aronia. Unlike dissected rowan leaves, here leafy plates 5–8 cm long are oval or obovate, simple. They have smooth facial and pubescent back surfaces and a jagged edge. The scape is short, dense.
When the leaves of a shrub change color from dark green to yellow and purple in autumn, the plant's appearance changes. Against such a bright background, purple with a bluish tint of a hand of ripe fruits look incredibly beautiful.
Aronia chokeberry begins to bloom in the second half of May and lasts until the first days of summer, then green ovaries appear in the place of white or light pink flowers gathered in the corymbose inflorescences. Almost black fruits ripen at the beginning of autumn and can remain on the branches up to the middle of October without any loss of quality. Uncollected crops are readily sewn by birds.
Planting chokeberry Aronia
As with all fruit shrubs, there are two planting periods for chokeberry. In the fall, the seedlings are transferred to the ground from mid-September until November. In the spring, shrubs are most often planted in April, when vegetation begins, but leaf buds have not yet awakened.
When planting chokeberry Aronia must take into account the climatic features of the region. It is important that the sapling has time to acclimatize before the onset of autumn cold weather, and in the spring it does not fall under the frost, which is detrimental to the awakening crown.
Culture is unpretentious and can grow on different types of soil, including poor in nutrient sandy soil. The root system is located at a depth of no more than 60 cm, so chokeberry trees are not afraid of close-lying groundwater and spring flooding because of the rapidly melting snow. At such a depth, the soil does not remain excessively moist for long, and the roots do not have time to rot.
Best of all, the plant is settled on loose fertile soils that easily receive and give up moisture. At the same time, the landing area should be located in the sun on the side protected from the cold wind. This will help the seedling to take root and quickly grow.
Planting pits prepared in advance so that it comfortably accommodates the root system of the seedling. On average, the depth and width of the future habitat of a plant is a wound of 50–60 cm. If several bushes are to be planted at once, take into account their growth and adhere to an interval of 3 meters for full development and crown lighting.
Removed from the pit soil mixed:
- from 8–10 kg of selective humus,
- two glasses of sifted wood ash,
- 150 grams of superphosphate.
The landing pit is filled with soil by a third, well shed by settled water and waiting for the moisture to completely go deep. Now comes the time of planting chokeberry Aronia. The seedling is immersed in a hole so that the root neck is a couple of centimeters above the ground level, covered with the prepared substrate, compacted and then watered, so that the shrub is well settled on the ground. Pristvolny circle, in order to avoid rapid drying of the earth and the formation of a crust, richly mulch.
In order to make chokeberry root more quickly, experienced gardeners advise, before planting chokeberry, to shorten shoots available on the seedling, leaving no more than 5-6 viable buds.
Care for chokeberry after planting
It is very easy to care for frost and drought-resistant shrubs. Aronia needs regular pruning of the crown, three times feeding, removal of weeds, preventive treatment from pests and infrequent, but abundant watering.
Pruning is carried out:
- in the autumn, after harvesting and the end of the growing season,
- in early spring, before the beginning of the awakening process of the shrub.
In addition to carefully cutting dry, damaged and weak branches, remove shoots that interfere with the penetration of the crown of light and insect pollinators. Aronia rowan painlessly transfers forming pruning, so it can be grown as a miniature tree. To do this, at the soil level, remove all shoots except the strongest, and then gradually form a stem from it. For this, for several years only a few apical buds are left on the aronia bush, and when the plant reaches the desired height, the growth point is removed and the creation of a compact crown at the top of the stem is started.
Spring begins with the treatment of shrubs from pests and feeding with a predominance of nitrogen fertilizers. Re-fertilization should be carried out after flowering, when the ovary starts to fill, another fertilizer should prepare the plant for winter. It is carried out at the end of the summer without the use of nitrogen.
Although aronia can survive for a long time in drought conditions, it needs water to produce an excellent harvest and beauty. Watering is important:
- at the beginning of the growing season
- in the summer, during the pouring and ripening of fruits,
- in the fall before the shrub leaves for the winter.
Each bush should receive at least 20-40 liters of water once. For the greatest efficiency of the surface root system, watering is carried out at a distance of 30–40 cm from the center of the shrub into shallow furrows.
The pristvolny circles are kept clean, for which the soil is regularly loosened or sprinkled with mulch.
Pruning chokeberry Aronia and its reproduction cuttings
Pruning chokeberry begin with the first year of life. The beginnings form a crown of 10–12 Yilus branches, then, as they age, they gradually substitute new shoots. Rejuvenation begins at the age of 8 years.
If the bush is running and loses its strength, no need to rush it up. It is enough to cut the entire crown under the root in autumn to wait for a strong young growth in the spring. From it in the fall form the backbone of an already new shrub.
Strong healthy branches that are to be shortened or cut can be used to obtain excellent planting material and propagation of chokeberry.
For green cuttings, non-lignified tops or middle parts with 5–6 live buds are taken. All the leaves, the roof of the upper pair, cut off, and the remaining shortened. Rooting is carried out in a greenhouse, in a light sandy substrate, pre-treated cuttings with growth stimulant. A year later, a full-sized black chokeberry sapling for planting is formed from a small segment of a branch.
Lignified cuttings are pieces of ripe one-year-old shoots with several healthy buds. They are cut in the fall and rooted in shkolka so that when planting above the soil surface there are only two buds.
If there is a black chokeberry bush on the site of an adult bush, it can be propagated:
- separating and otsadiv radical growth with its own root system,
- Specially rooted annual shoots, bending down and securing them on the ground.
Young plants quickly take root, only in the first years of life they need shelter for the winter and after a couple of years they are ready to please the gardener with ripe bluish-purple or almost black baskets.
For reproduction of chokeberry chokeberry with woody cuttings last year's shoots are taken from an adult bush. Shoots are cut in the second decade of September, so that the plant can take root before the frost.
The cut in the upper part is made at an angle, and in the lower straight. Cutting size - up to 20 cm, each should have up to six buds. Cuttings are planted in the ground at an angle, leaving only a couple of buds on the surface. The distance between plantings is up to 12 cm. Around the planted cutting after irrigation the soil is mulched.
Seed reproduction chokeberry Aronia
To obtain seeds, rub the rowan berries through a sieve, dip it in water to separate the pulp, and rinse.Calcify the sand and mix the seeds with it, put them in the fridge on the bottom shelf for three months. The sand must be wet all the time.
In late April, you can conduct sowing. In the selected area make grooves up to 8 cm deep, sow the seeds, cover with soil. Mulch the bed with humus.
The grown seedlings of chokeberry Aronia from seeds can be transplanted next autumn. Up to this point, provide them with regular watering, manure dressing and loosening.
When sprouts have two or three leaves, thin them, leaving strong ones, the distance between them should be up to 3 cm. After the appearance of five leaves, thin out again, leaving 6 cm between seedlings. Thaw up to 10 cm between sprouts next spring.
Grafting of chokeberry
The vaccination procedure is carried out in the spring. При размножении черноплодной рябины прививкой как подвой используют саженец рябины обыкновенной.
Побег подвоя обрезают на расстоянии 12 см от поверхности почвы, в месте среза делают глубокий надрез, расщепляя для привоя. Побег привоя срезают клинообразно под расщеп. After the graft has coincided with the stock, the vaccination site needs to be treated with garden pitch and wrapped with film.
For chokeberry when growing graft need a greenhouse effect: use a plastic bag, securing it under the site of vaccination. After thirty days, remove the package.
Breeding rowan black choke
Rowan root system is superficial and expands rapidly, occupying the area under the crown. In the spring, while there is no active development, the plant is dug out and divided into parts, removing old shoots. Each delenka should have young strong roots and several young branches. Cut the cut areas with charcoal.
How to plant and grow mountain ash by dividing the bush? At the bottom of the landing hole, add humus and superphosphate. Dip a seedling in a hole, sprinkle with soil, lightly tamp and pour. Leave a distance of two meters between the seedlings. Take care of a young seedling as an adult bush.
Reproduction of black chokeberry with layering
Aronia reproduction by horizontal layers is carried out in the spring. Under the selected bush they dig up the ground to the depth of half a spade of shovels. Last year's strong shoots with young growths are laid in a dug groove.
To prevent the branch from rising, it is fastened with staples, the top of the branch is clamped. For layering care, as for the adult bush: watered and weed away from weeds. This is the easiest way to grow rowan from a branch.
After the young shoots 12 cm long grow from the buds, they are covered with humus. After some time, when the shoot will grow another 12 cm, one more time sprinkled. Replant to a permanent place, separated from the plant donor, it is better next spring.
Breeding rowan black chokeberry suckers
Another method of reproduction - overgrown root shoots of mountain ash. The root system of chokeberry annually produces new root processes.
When grown in nutrient soil and timely feeding, their number increases. Root scions cut from the bush-parent shovel edge, cut, leaving a few buds, and transplanted to a prepared place.
Chokeberry is healthy and tasty. Jam and jams, marmalade and marshmallow, fragrant drinks are made from it. Rowan helps in the treatment of many unpleasant diseases. If you set out to grow black chokeberry on your site and do not know how to propagate and grow it, use the tips of this article.
How does black chokeberry breed
The best time to propagate aronia is autumn. But there are many ways to plant shrubs in spring. In different regions, the dates will differ, you need to look at the weather and the calendar of garden works.
In autumn, planting chokeberry is planned for September - October. Further care for the shrubs is simple. Spring reproduction must be completed before the end of April.
You can propagate the black cat in the following ways:
- method of withdrawal
- dividing the bush
- root suckers
Of these, the most effective, which give almost 100% result - the first 4 methods of reproduction. Only an experienced gardener can vaccinate at home, and seed reproduction can be a long and inefficient process.
Propagation of mountain ash-blackfruit by cutting can be carried out in spring and autumn. If you use green shoots, then work is planned for the end of May - the beginning of June. Throughout the season, young blackberry bushes are grown in a greenhouse, where they hibernate. To a permanent place transplant done in a year.
It is possible to propagate black chokeberry with ripe cuttings in autumn. Use one-year shoots that take root better. They plant the black at once on a permanent place.
The division of the bush of chokeberry is suitable for old plants that need to be planted. Reproduction is better to plan in the spring. Further care of the chernoplodka reduced to abundant watering, loosening the soil.
It is better to plan the breeding of chokeberry in the spring. Choose one-year or two-year shoots. In the autumn of this year or next summer, young black wilderness bushes are transplanted to a permanent place. The survival rate of cuttings with this method of reproduction is 75–80%.
Root shoots or scions can be propagated during the whole season, but it is better to finish the work before the beginning of summer. By the fall of the bushes adapt to the new place.
Seed propagation of chokeberry is a long process, planting material needs to be stratified. Germination is low. Shrub develops for a long time.
Multiply medicinal shrubs can be inoculated, which is done in early spring. To get a positive result, you need to create the necessary conditions for the wolfberry. The vaccination rate is average.
How to propagate black rowan root offspring
Planting root offspring is an equally popular method to propagate black chokeberry. Bushes annually give a lot of shoots, so there is no shortage of planting material.
Young blackberries from the mother plant are separated by a shovel. Each bush must have its own roots. Shoots before planting are shortened by several buds, and then placed on the selected location.
For planting blackfloats take a sunny plot. There are no special requirements for the soil, but the shrub does not develop well on acidified soil. Aronia is so unpretentious that calmly transfers the neighborhood with groundwater. It is often used as a hedge.
Reproduction of black rowan seeds
If there is a desire, then it is possible to propagate the black carp with seeds. To do this, pick ripe berries, leave them at room temperature, so that the fermentation process begins. After that, they are rubbed through a sieve, the pulp is separated and washed. It is this method that prepares blackfruit seeds for germination.
To seedlings appear together, the seeds are mixed with wet sand and removed in a cold place for 3 months. This may be the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. Some gardeners recommend prikopat capacity with seeds in the snow. And in the spring to be engaged in reproduction.
In the second half of April, prepare a bed for planting seeds 5–8 cm deep. Spread the seeds evenly and cover with soil. Top grumble humus. To propagate the aronia seeds by seed will take more than a month. Young bushes are transplanted to a permanent place next fall.
Seedlings grow slowly, when the first pair of leaves appear, they are thinned. Only strong and healthy plants are left, the rest are rejected. The distance between the sprouts is up to 5 cm. The second time is thinned by planting, when the second pair of leaves appear, the interval between them is increased to 7–8 cm. In the spring, the third thinning is done, and at least 10 cm is left between seedlings.
Throughout the season, shoots of chokeberry are fully maintained. The soil is recommended to constantly maintain a wet state, regularly loosen. Crops are fed several times during the growing season. Use slurry or other liquid organics.
Grafting as a breeding method
Effectively propagate the black can be grafted, but you need to know all the details of the process. As a stock harvested rowan sapling. It is prepared in advance, carefully wiped from dust, shortened to a height of 12 cm. After that, a sharp instrument is made through a deep cleft through the middle of the stock. Reproduction is done only with sterile tools, so as not to carry bacteria and pests.
As a graft, a woody stalk of aronia is used. Well take root shoots 15 cm long with two - three buds. They give an annual increase of up to 50 cm with ten leaves. The bottom edge of the cutting point is wedge-shaped, so that it closely enters the cleft.
The sequence of the procedure for propagation by grafting:
- Tightly insert the prepared graft into the stock.
- Wrap the vaccination site with a wiping film.
- Carefully lubricate the graft with garden pitch.
To get a positive result, you need to constantly maintain high humidity over the seedling. To do this, create a greenhouse effect with a transparent package. It is put on the seedling, the edge is fixed below the site of vaccination.
To judge the success of the breeding of chokeberry can be a month later. The package is removed, by that time young leaves should appear from the kidney grafts. It is possible to multiply the black chop by grafting before the start of sap flow.
As a rule, closely related trees and shrubs with good winter hardiness are chosen for breeding.