Ratibide is a flowering large plant with expressive buds, thanks to which the flower is called a Mexican hat or Sombrero.
Homelands are considered open spaces from Mexico to Canada, as well acclimatized in our latitudes. Loved by butterflies and goldfinches, the ratibid will become not only a bright decoration of your garden, but also fill it with a magical scent.
Description of ratibida
Perennial with several straight stems, reaching heights of up to 120 cm. Stem strong roots can penetrate deep into the soil in search of moisture, because in the wild nature the plant lives on roadside embankments, wastelands, in prairies, where conditions are sunny and arid.
Gray-green foliage pubescent, divided into shares. Leaf plates reach 3-12 cm in length. Bright flowers unfold on the tops of the stems by mid-July and flaunt until late autumn. The flower has a pronounced protruding core in the shape of a cone or cylinder 2-3 cm long. The core is framed by soft hanging round petals 1-3 cm long. The color of the petals is yellow, burgundy or mixed.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
To grow seedlings, you need to sow the seeds in early February so that the plant can produce color that same year by the end of the summer. Seeds can be bought or collected by yourself. You need to wait until the cones are completely dry (they should turn dark brown), this will happen by the end of October, the beginning of November.
- Before sowing, spend a cold stratification of seeds - for about a month, keep them at a temperature of 5-7 ° C.
- Sow in a wet soil of neutral acidity, place the container with crops on the illuminated window sill, maintain the temperature at 20-25 ° C.
- You can cover with film or glass so that the moisture does not evaporate.
- After a couple of weeks, the seeds will sprout together.
- When 2 true leaves appear, the plants can be dived and transplanted into separate containers. After that, keep the seedlings in a cool place or a greenhouse for 10-15 days, until it is warm outside.
Seedlings ratibida ready for planting photo
By mid-May, you can plant in open ground, keeping a distance of 20-25 cm between seedlings.
Sowing seeds in the ground
For warmer regions, sowing seeds of ratibids is possible immediately into the ground. In the south, you can plant in February, a little to the north - in March. The earth must be thoroughly dug, leveled. Make small grooves up to 2 cm deep, keep a distance of about 30 cm between rows, sow the seeds and sprinkle with earth. Thick shoots will need to thin out, leaving 10-15 cm between plants. Finally seated at a distance of 30-35 cm
How to plant seedlings ratibida in the ground
Landing ratibids in the ground photo
- Hardened seedlings are planted in the ground. Two weeks teach the plants to the open air and the sun.
- Before planting, the plants are watered, allowed to stand for 2-3 hours.
- Carefully remove the pots from the earthy coma, and without disturbing its integrity, put them into prepared holes of the appropriate size.
- The root neck is allowed only slightly buried, no more than 2 cm.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
The division of the bush is used very rarely, since the root system is deep, it is difficult to do this. You can use 2-3-year-old plants. Shrub gently dug, divided with a sharp knife or pruner. Try not to upholster the ground from the roots. Planted the resulting plants with the same level of planting, watered abundantly and shading for a while until the flowers are accepted.
Propagation by cuttings is also not very popular, it is much easier to propagate the plant with seeds. But if you want, then you need to carry out the procedure in May and early June before the start of flowering.
- Cut the stalk at the root, stick it in the wet soil
- Sprinkle with a layer of sand 2-3 cm, cover with a jar.
- After a couple of weeks, roots will appear, remove the shelter.
- Further care is watering.
- Planted grown seedlings at a distance of 30-35 cm from each other.
How to care for ratibida
Ratibide sombrero growing from seed photo
Preferred alkaline or neutral soils, suitable loam, clay soil with an admixture of lime. Ensure good drainage, avoid stagnant water. Choose a sunny place, only a slight shadow is possible. The plant tolerates both frosts and droughts well - water it only in very arid hot weather. In winter, you do not need to cover the roots, and the seeds can be sown even in frozen ground.
Watering is minimal, and fertilizing is not needed at all - the plant itself extracts necessary substances from the depths of the earth. Excess fertilizer will provoke pasture greens, and flowering will decrease.
The plant grows old after 4-5 years, its stems become woody, lose their attractiveness, the bushes need to be rejuvenated by dividing and transplanting.
Pests and diseases
The plant is practically not exposed to any diseases or pests. Sometimes powdery mildew or fungal blotch can occur. They will help spraying a weak solution of soda or laundry soap. Extremely rare root rot occurs - a consequence of poor drainage. In this case, the death of the plant. The affected bushes are disposed of, and the soil is treated with a fungicide.
Ratibide in garden design
If you want to attract beautiful butterflies to the garden, plant a bright ratibida. Good in combination with other flowering plants. It can be used in massive beds, at registration of a fence, decoration of unattractive constructions. Sunny flowers, painted on long stems, suitable for bouquets and drying. Cut flowers can stand from a week to 10 days, while maintaining freshness.
Ratibide colonic Ratibida columnifera
Ratibide Colonoid Mexican hat growing from seed photo
It is notable for a large flower with a diameter of up to 8 cm. The core in the form of a column is surrounded by many hard petals falling in the process of flowering and ripening of seeds. Petals are colored burgundy, yellow, orange, may have a yellow border. Most often begin to bloom from the second year of life. Stems are straight, stiff, grow a small bush from one root.
Ratibida Cirrus Ratibida pinnata
Ratibida Cirrus Ratibida pinnata photo
It has a special structure of leaf blades. They are pinnate or belt-like, strongly drawn out. Yellow petals are pointed, reed. The core is rounded, less elongated. Another feature: if you rub the foliage, you will hear a pleasant anise flavor.
Ratibide peduncularis Ratibida peduncularis
Ratibide peduncularis Ratibida peduncularis photo
A short, squat plant with beautiful broad leaves, carved with rare veins. At the bottom of the sheet and along the veins the leaves are colored burgundy. Flowers on short pedicels, with long cylindrical centers.
Varieties and types
Ratibide colonic This plant is easily recognizable by a large yellow flower with a long prominent core. Shoots of this species grow to a meter.
There is a subspecies Lovely, which is distinguished by dark red petals with a yellow stripe on the edges.
- Popular varieties are Yellow cheyennewhich has pronounced yellow petals,
- Red midnight with dark red flowers.
Ratibide cirrus the species is so named because of the elongated foliage. The core of the flowers of these plants is not elongated, as in the previous species, and in general they resemble rudbeckia. Shoots grow up to one and a half meters.
Ratibide landing and care
It is very easy to care for ratibida plants. The most important procedures are pruning flabby inflorescences, loosening the soil and removing weeds. It is better to plant the plants in warm, well-lit places, light shade is permissible.
Ratibide will develop well on loams with a neutral or weakly alkaline reaction, but in general, due to unpretentiousness, any soil will be suitable, if only it is not too wet and soured. It is impossible that the groundwater was located close to the site or nearby there were reservoirs.
The tenant is also a representative of the Astrov family; it has been grown in our area for planting and caring in open ground for quite some time. All recommendations for growing and care can be found in this article.
Fertilizers for ratibida
Subject to the nutritional value of the soil fertilizer can and not to make. If the soil is not particularly fertile, then before the start of budding you can make a mineral complex, but it is better not to resort to organic fertilizers.
Ratibide colonic Mexican hat growing from seed
You can multiply a Mexican hat in both generative and vegetative ways.
In areas with a cold spring, seeds are often sown on seedlings. Material is sown at the end of winter, but before that it is necessary to stratify it for 20-30 days at a temperature close to 5 ° С.
After that, the seeds are pressed to a slightly damp soil made from peat, sod land and sand in a ratio of 1 to 1. We recommend sowing in separate cups, since the young seedlings are quite tender and may not withstand an extra dive.
It is necessary to keep the sown under glass in good light and at a temperature above + 20 ° C. From time to time, air crops and slightly moisten the soil when it dries.
After 10-15 days, seedlings will begin to climb, which, after the end of spring frosts, can be planted in the garden. Land for planting in the fall is digged with ash and compost (a glass and a bucket per square meter, respectively).
If you need to change the reaction add lime and sand. It is advisable to make a drainage, which can be lowered only if you are sure that water will not stagnate at the landing site.
Transplanting from pots to a flower bed is performed together with an earthy clod, placing the specimens 30 cm apart.
In the first year after planting, until the bushes grow stronger, flowering is unlikely to come, and you can wait until the end of summer, and if the season is cool, it will be only in the second year.
In open soil, sowing is carried out either in spring, after the snow melts, or in the fall with the onset of stable frosts. The plot is prepared, as well as for planting seedlings.
If sowing is carried out in the fall, the seeds are placed in shallow furrows and poured sand on them, and then covered with spruce leaves.
When spring sowing, when the snow leaves, the seeds are scattered right on the ground, which is still slightly frozen and put a small ball of earth or sand on them. It is necessary to water the sowing only if there is little snow or it has practically melted.
Reproduction ratibida cuttings
Reproduction of ratibida cuttings is also a simple way, but rarely resorted to it, because seed propagation is very simple and it maintains varietal characteristics, in contrast to that of many other plants.
To begin the procedure of grafting should flowering. To do this, cut the side stems next to the root and plant them in moist soil, pouring a couple of centimeters of sand on top of it. Top stalk cover with a jar or a large bottle with a cut neck. After 15 days rooting will end and you can remove the bank.
Growing ratibid as a perennial plant, it is necessary to divide the rhizome with it every couple of years. This procedure is extremely difficult, due to the large length of the root and the tenderness of the root system, and there are no guarantees that it will succeed and the plant will survive.
If all of you decide to carry out this procedure, then do it at the beginning of spring and be very careful when dividing the rhizome, and also remember that rooting delenok is still quite a rare phenomenon.
Diseases and pests
Growing ratibida you can almost not worry that it will hit the disease or pests. Very rarely with excess moisture bushes rot affectsin which plants are better destroyed and the soil is sanitized with fungicides.
If it appeared powdery mildew, it is possible to carry out treatment with a light soda solution or also resort to fungicides.
As for pests, they appear extremely rarely.
Method of cutting
This method is used very rarely, because the seeds sprout beautifully. For such a procedure, a lateral shoot is cut near the root itself and stuck it in the prepared soil. Top cover. Shelter is removed when, after some time, the root has its own root system.
The stalk is deepened to a distance of no more than 3 cm. The soil is well moistened before planting.
The method of grafting is carried out before the flowering process - at the end of spring or in the first half of June.
Watering and feeding ratibida
Water the plant should be as needed. It will be appropriate after loosening the soil. The main thing is not to allow drying and excessive waterlogging of the soil.
Feed ratibida no more than several times a year. Be sure to fertilize after planting seedlings into open soil. And you can support the plant during the formation of buds. Use better mineral fertilizers.
Getting ready for winter
After flowering, in the fall, dried cores are cut and ground, separating the seeds. Moreover, the core must darken, which means the process of pollination was successful.
The plant tolerates cold winters. The bush is completely cut to the ground level or left a few centimeters above ground level.
Sowing in open ground
Sowing seeds must begin early. For cold areas: in spring, in late March - early April, and in warm areas you can start from the end of February. Prepare the ground thoroughly in the flower bed - loosen deeply and crush the lumps with a rake.
Make a bed at a distance of 30 cm to a depth of 20 mm and scatter the seeds. Smooth. It is necessary to splash water only if winter and spring were dry, without abundant melting of snow or rain.
A few notes on growing
The plant is often grown as an annual, it is actually a hardy perennial and can last in good condition for 3 years.
To rejuvenate the plants and keep them strong, divide them every two to three years in the spring, as soon as growth begins, before they become too ligneous.
The birthplace of a flower is the entire territory from Canada to Mexico, and therefore it survives well in our climatic zones. However, it must be carefully covered for the winter, despite its frost resistance.
Ratibide colonic - unpretentious beautiful plant and is great for diversifying the flower bed. The original flower will surprise your neighbors a lot. And the cultivation of ratibids from seeds and the subsequent care does not take much time. So decide.
Ratibide - landing and care
To date, the most popular is the Kolonovidnaya Ratibida, which gives a very abundant bloom on woody peduncles. On one bush can grow up to hundreds of flowers that remain on the plant for a long time. Leaves with light pubescence colored blue-green.
The flowering period lasts from the last days of spring to mid-summer. With regular watering, the flowering period can be extended until the beginning of autumn. Flowers Ratibides can be in a fresh state for a long time after cutting, that is why they are often used in the compilation of live compositions.
The method of growing from seed
It should be understood that perennials grown from seed, will bloom only next year. If planting is carried out in cold latitudes, then it is better to do this through a period of seedlings. In this case, you can get the first flowers by the end of the summer. Seeding is done on seedlings in February, and from the first warm days it can be planted in open ground.
When landing immediately in open ground, you need to choose the spring period. You should first prepare the soil, loosening it and removing clods. The beds must be made at a distance of thirty centimeters and a depth of no more than two centimeters.
Planting rules Ratibity for seedlings
As mentioned earlier in the seedlings the seeds need to be sown in the winter. In the prepared soil, the seeds are scattered over the surface and covered with a thin layer of compost. The container should be placed in a bright place and the temperature should be from twenty to thirty degrees. It is necessary to maintain constant humidity, then in two weeks the first shoots will appear.
Picks are necessary after the appearance of two leaves, continuing to grow seedlings in the room before the onset of heat.