A highly contagious, rapidly spreading and acutely occurring viral disease of domestic and wild uncleaned animals, characterized by short-term fever, aphthous lesions of the oral mucosa, skin of the udder, corolla, and hoof graft.
Etiology. The causative agent is one of the seven serotypes of the RNA-containing virus belonging to the genus of rhinovirus of the family Picornaviridae (O, A, CAT-1, CAT-2, CAT-3, Asia-1). The size of the virion is 20-25 nm. Each type has several options (more than 65). Types and variants differ immunologically. FMD virus is resistant to environmental factors. Alkalis and acids neutralize FMD virus. According to resistance to disinfectants, it is referred to the 2nd group of infectious disease (resistant) pathogens.
Symptoms The incubation period is 2-7 days (sometimes 36 hours), very rarely - up to 21 days. Most characteristic signs of the disease are expressed in adult cattle. At the beginning of the disease, the appetite decreases, the milk yield decreases in cows, then the body temperature rises (up to 40-41 ° C), fever and dry mucous membranes are observed. At the site of virus introduction, 2-3 primary aphthas are formed, more often they appear on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, on the udder, on the corolla skin. Aphthae rapidly increase to distinctly visible sizes and after 12-48 hours they break, revealing painful erosion with a reddish bottom and torn edges. By this time, the temperature drops to normal. There is abundant drooling, lameness, animals lie more. Erosions heal after 7-10 days. With and after the disease, abortions, the birth of dead calves, the loss of economic value by 20-30% are possible. In some cases, possible death. With a benign course in 2-3 weeks, the animals recover. With a complication of a secondary infection often develop mastitis, Pododermatitis. In case of malignant course in adult animals, after the appearance of characteristic symptoms of FMD, the condition worsens dramatically (shortness of breath, shortness of breath, wheezing, cessation of milk secretion, convulsions, disturbed activity of the digestive organs) and after 7-14 days the animal dies. In calves, piglets and lambs foot and mouth disease occurs without the development of aft with symptoms of gastroenteritis and intoxication. With the defeat of the heart comes sudden death, mortality of more than 60%. In pigs, foot-and-mouth disease proceeds with the formation of aft on the patch, tongue (with detachment of the epithelium), corolla of the hooves, udder, with lameness. Suckling piglets are sick seriously (without the formation of aft) and most often die in the first 2-3 days. In sheep, lameness is a characteristic symptom; limbs are more often affected, and the oral cavity is more rare.
Diagnosis. Based on the analysis of clinical and epizootological data and laboratory results. Aphthous material is selected according to the "Guidelines for the collection, conservation and shipment of materials for laboratory diagnosis of FMD and other vesicular diseases." Laboratory studies are carried out in the Institute of Animal Welfare (Address: 600900, Vladimir, p / o Yureven,) to determine the type of foot and mouth disease in the primary foci. When making a diagnosis exclude smallpox, necrobacteriosis, viral vesicular stomatitis, malignant fever, fever, viral diarrhea, cattle plague, vesicular exanthema of pigs, ecthyma of sheep and goats.
Treatment. Sick animals are transferred from the herd to an isolated room and treated with immunolactone, lactoglobulin, serum of convalescents. Animals are given soft nutritious food and clean water. The oral cavity is washed with astringent and antiseptic preparations. The affected areas of the limbs and the udder are surgically treated, then various medicinal ointments, antibiotics, and anesthetics are applied. If necessary, use heart drugs and intravenous solutions of glucose, calcium chloride and sodium chloride.
Prevention and control measures. In the CIS, a scientifically based system of measures against FMD is in place: strict quarantine, isolation of FMD center, prohibition of animal movement and export of products and raw materials of animal origin out of the unfavorable point, milk in an intact form, isolation of patients and their treatment, establishment of a threatened area, vaccination of susceptible animals mono and polyvalent sorbed vaccines according to the instructions, disinfection of premises, items of care, workwear, transport, biothermal disinfection of manure, destruction of t rups of fallen animals. Quarantine is removed 21 days after the recovery of the last sick animal and the final disinfection with the control of its quality. After the removal of quarantine for 12 months, observe the restrictions on the import and export of animals, the use of pastures and livestock plots
The content of the article
- Foot and mouth disease in animals: symptoms of the disease, prevention and treatment
- Myxomatosis in rabbits: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention
- Rhinotracheitis in cats: symptoms, treatment and prevention
Foot and mouth disease is a dangerous viral disease that damages both small agricultural land and farms. The causative agent of the disease is Dermaphilus. Despite its small size, it has a high ability to infect. More often, the disease begins with damaged skin and mucous membranes, spread through raw milk, meat.
The virus tolerates temperature drops, freezing, and maintains its viability in manure, products derived from sick animals. On wool, they can last up to 27 days. In contact with clothing, the strain will retain its properties for 3.5 months.
Mostly foot and mouth disease sick artiodone. The cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and deer are the most susceptible to the disease. Camels are less sensitive. Infection can occur at any age, but the young are most seriously ill.
In animals living in natural conditions, the disease is acute. In adults, an abortive course sometimes occurs. It is accompanied by a short-term fever, a fast recovery. In adults, foot and mouth disease is more often benign.
The incubation period is an average of 3 days. The first signs include:
- decrease in appetite
- lethargy gum,
- increased salivation.
As the disease progresses, the temperature rises to the level of 40-41 degrees. The pulse becomes speeded up, the general condition is broken. By 2-3 days, aphas appear on the inner surface of the upper and lower lips, as well as on the tongue and cheeks. In some cases, wounds appear on the udder.
After a few days, aphthae form ulcers that take about a week to heal. Foam appears in the corners of the mouth.
The diagnosis is established with consideration of the situation in the region, the pathoanatomical picture and the results of the laboratory analysis. It is important to accurately identify the virus in order to make the right choice of vaccine. This is due to the fact that there are many serotypes of FMD. Recovered animals become infected again when infected with another species.
Almost all activities are aimed at eliminating the symptoms. Therapeutic manipulation can bring quick results, if you ensure proper maintenance and feeding, drug treatment.
Animals are isolated from healthy individuals for two weeks. At this time, limited motor activity. This action helps to prevent myocardial damage. Prescribed medications that:
- Eliminate stomatitis. These include antiseptic solutions and ointments for the mouth.
- Skin lesions are treated. Good effects can be achieved with sprays.
- Avoid complications. Apply antibiotics, antiphlogistants. Myocardial work is supported by the introduction of special heart drugs.
If FMD is diagnosed, quarantine is imposed on the farm. Checkpoints are organized, shoes and clothes undergo mandatory disinfection. Sick animals are slaughtered at a slaughter site. Meat is prohibited to export to the meat. Quarantine is removed 21 days after the last case of recovery.
The procedure for preventive immunization is determined by the order of the head of the veterinary service. Vaccines are used for the species that is a threat in a particular case. A sufficient level of antibodies is provided if young animals are vaccinated every three months, and adults every six months.
In conclusion, we note: the main causes of the spread of FMD is the importation of a virus from disadvantaged countries. This is mainly due to the illegal importation of animals, animal products and feed. Sometimes outbreaks of epidemics occur against the backdrop of natural disasters.
Etiology and pathogenesis
The most susceptible to FMD is ruminant cattle. Sick animals before the onset of clinical signs become the source of infection. The viral carrier after re-staging lasts 13 months. The hidden period lasts 2–20 days. Infected cows secrete viruses with saliva, milk, excreta. The disease tends to develop in the form of epizootic. Contagy is transported through manure, feed, water, meat and skins of slaughtered animals.
The microparticle is stable, it can remain viable in the soil or feed for 5 months. The virus begins to multiply where it has penetrated. The initial afta is formed, the microparticle is spread by the lymph current through the body. On poorly obvolosnennyh areas there are secondary aft. If the virus penetrated the myocardium and began to multiply, the heart activity is disturbed. 72 hours after the appearance of secondary sores, the immune system begins to form antibodies that stop inflammatory processes for a decade or less.
In cattle, small ruminants and pigs, the signs of foot and mouth disease are not the same.
Foot and mouth disease in cattle
The disease occurs in normal or malignant form. In most cases, foot and mouth disease in cattle at different stages of the disease is manifested by the following symptoms:
- Abundant salivation.
- Eating and chewing are difficult
- Falling yield.
- Ulcers on the skin of the udder. With foot and mouth disease, severe pain occurs in cattle, which makes milking impossible, which causes mastitis.
- Hoof inflammation. A secondary infection is involved, this leads to a corolla phlegmon and horn shoe falling away.
- When the limbs are affected, it hurts to walk, the cows lie all the time.
Malignant course of foot and mouth disease is characteristic of young and weak adult animals. Bronchopneumonia develops, necrotic processes begin in the lungs. The walls of the book die away, as well as the scar, the heart is broken. In most cases, death occurs within 2-6 days after the onset of aft.
Sometimes, 8–12 days after the onset of clinical signs, a short-term improvement occurs, followed by a sudden deterioration of the condition. The cow loses its appetite, stops chewing gum, develops symptoms of cardiac failure, paralysis of the hind legs. The disease ends with the death of the animal.
Foot and mouth disease in calves
In calves up to two months of age, the scar does not function, so the disease is distinguished by certain features:
- Aft are not formed.
- The disease occurs with signs of acute gastroenteritis or bronchopneumonia.
In the absence of proper treatment, FMD ends with the death of calves.
Foot and mouth disease in small ruminants
The latent period in sheep lasts 2–3 days. Small aphthae are formed, which heal quickly if complications do not occur. A characteristic sign of foot and mouth disease in sheep is lameness. At epizootics mass ulcerative lesions of the lips, gums, tongue occur. Hyperthermia and cessation of gum are observed. In lambs, the disease is characterized by septicemia with great waste.
At goats, they observe closing of the mouth, gnashing of teeth, and limping. When udder inflammation occurs, mastitis occurs.
Recovery occurs in two weeks or a little earlier.
Foot and mouth disease in small ruminants occurs with fewer complications than in large ones.
Foot and mouth disease in pigs
In omnivores, the incubation period is 1–2 days. Predominantly affected limbs, which manifests as lameness. With phlegmon hoofs, a horn capsule may collapse. Aphthae observed on the patch and udder. There is a depressed fever. The duration of the disease, depending on the complications, is 1-4 weeks. In suckling piglets, the disease occurs in a septic form and is characterized by high mortality.
The diagnosis is established taking into account the following features:
- Regional epizootic situation.
- A very high incidence of herds.
- Pathological picture.
- Laboratory analysis results.
It is important to determine the type of virus in order to make the choice of a suitable vaccine, because there are many serotypes of FMD. The recovered animal becomes infected again when infected with another species. It is important to exclude the following pathologies with similar symptoms:
- In cattle - vesicular stomatitis, viral diarrhea. Some clinical symptoms of fever, smallpox, necrobacteriosis, plague resemble foot-and-mouth disease.
- In small ruminants, it is required to exclude necrobacillosis, pustular stomatitis.
- In swine, vesicular disease.
There are no special preventive drugs. The treatment is predominantly symptomatic. Therapeutic manipulations will be successful if the animals are provided with the following conditions:
- Proper maintenance and feeding.
- Drug treatment.
The concept of treatment develops in the following areas:
- Elimination of stomatitis. Use antiseptic solutions and ointments for the rehabilitation of the oral cavity. Apply soft feed consistency, the concentrates are fed in semi-liquid form.
- Treatment of skin diseases. Apply antiseptic sprays when processing aft.
- Elimination of the inflammatory process on the hoofs. Limbs are cleaned daily, treated with ointments or powdered antiseptic. Necrotic sites are removed, impose a protective bandage.
- Treatment of complications. In adult animals with aphthous lesion of the udder, mastitis develops, cocci are activated, which are permanent inhabitants of the skin and dairy tanks. In advanced situations, the infection spreads through the body through the lymphatic ducts, endometritis, bronchopneumonia, or nephritis occurs. Apply external and intracisternal means containing antibiotics, as well as anti-blogging agents. The functioning of the myocardium is supported by the introduction of cardiac drugs.
If FMD is diagnosed, quarantine is imposed on the farm. Organize checkpoints for transport. Cars, shoes, outerwear are disinfected when leaving the unfavorable terrain.
Sick animals are slaughtered on a temporary slaughter site. Meat and offal are allowed for cooking boiled sausages inside the farm. Export to meat processing plants is prohibited. The place of slaughter is disinfected. Clinically healthy vaccinated. The export of raw animal products - meat, milk, hides outside the farm is prohibited. The corpses are destroyed by burning.
Quarantine is removed after 3 weeks after death or recovery, subject to the implementation of all prescribed activities. After the abolition of quarantine, it is forbidden to take out or vaccinated livestock from the farm for a year.
What is foot and mouth disease?
Foot and mouth disease - This is an acute infectious disease, the causative agent of which is a virus. Mostly at risk are cows, pigs, sheep and goats less susceptible. It is very painful and long. It is characterized by the appearance of ulcers, bubbles with fluid and other lesions on the mucous membranes. It spreads to the nasopharynx, oral cavity, limbs, mammary glands.
Painful rash accompanied by acute intoxication and high mortality, especially in young. The carriers of the virus are non-domesticated artiodactyls and livestock on the farm. The disease is easily transmitted to a person while caring for an infected farm inhabitant or by eating contaminated products.
Foot and mouth disease can affect individual animals or a whole herd.
Causes of the emergence and spread of the virus
Animals contract FMD through food or water, and the virus can also be transmitted through the air. On the territory of the farm to bring the infection in the following ways:
- buying feed or water with a pathogen,
- putting the virus on clothes, shoes, hands of serving staff - veterinarians, milkmaids,
- Bringing sick cattle to a farm
- purchase of infected care products from an unreliable manufacturer,
- delivery of a pathogen on wheels of a car arriving from the territory of an infected farm.
After the infection has penetrated the territory of the farm, the process of infection occurs as follows:
Table 1. The process of infection of the animal (for example, cattle) FMD virus.
If the cow’s immune system is weak, cardiac and skeletal muscles can also be infected.
The symptoms of FMD in different animals
Инкубационный период в среднем длится от 2 до 4 дней, но может и затянуться. Так, у свиней он протекает около недели, у коров — 2-3 недели. The virus spreads quickly, but does not manifest itself during the incubation period.
The first alarming symptoms that signal FMD infection are:
- general animal weakness and depression,
- reluctance to eat, prolonged diarrhea,
- a sharp rise in temperature for a short time,
- lameness, the animal begins to crawl on its front legs (true for cattle representatives),
- copious saliva, but flabby chewing gum,
- the animal cannot open its mouth (occurs in rare cases).
Usually the virus takes an acute form. In adults, it flows into a benign disease. Cases of malignant infections also occur, but much less frequently. In the future, symptoms of FMD may be different for different representatives of livestock, given their characteristics.
In cattle, the latent phase can last 3 days, but sometimes it takes up to 15-20 days. The disease proceeds according to the following algorithm:
- Immediately after the end of the incubation phase, the animal refuses to eat. The gum stops, the heart beats more often, the salivation is active.
- 2-3 days after the onset of the active phase, the inner side of the cheeks, the tissues on the lips and tongue are covered aphthae - bubbles with liquid. If the case is complex, the udder and the gaps between the hooves are also covered with such ulcers.
- With a severe disease in the animal, the limbs are affected. Most often it is limping on the front legs.
- A day or two after the appearance of bubbles burst. Body temperature returns to normal, but saliva is still intense. Foam appears in the corners of the mouth.
- Within 7-8 days after rupture, the sores completely heal. In complicated cases, rehabilitation may take 16-20 days. Aphthae also show up on the limbs, which burst and heal in a week. If the lesion grows too much, wound suppuration may occur after rupture. In severe form, layers of the epithelium may begin to exfoliate.
- Dairy cows infected with FMD inflame the nipple canals. Udder lobes begin to function with violations. Because of this, the structure and taste of milk changes: it becomes bitter and slimy. Milk yield is reduced by 65-70%.
An animal with affected limbs cannot walk for a long time, most often it just lies. Malignant course of the disease is characteristic of young individuals and adult animals with impaired immunity. They develop pneumonia, necrotic changes occur in the lungs. Gradually, some areas die off, the heart is intermittent. In such situations, the animal dies 2-5 days after aft.
Cow Hood Affected by Complicated Foot and Mouth Disease
For calves, foot and mouth disease is a particularly dangerous disease. As a rule, they do not have aphthas, but the virus provokes a severe upset of the gastrointestinal tract. With late treatment, calves begin to die.
Animals with uncomplicated infection are cured after 7-12 days. If any additional diseases have occurred on the background, the foot-and-mouth disease may last for up to a month. As complications are diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Atypical (acute) form is characterized by the following features:
- After 6-7 days after the start of the open phase, the animal recovers for a short time, after which the condition worsens dramatically.
- Calf completely refuses to eat. There is paralysis of the hind limbs.
- Sharp changes in the state of the body strongly affect the heart. Death in most cases occurs as a result of its stop.
Calves infected with foot and mouth disease die in 20-40% of cases.
Calves at risk
Goats and sheep
In small ruminants, the disease is somewhat easier than in cattle. The incubation period lasts from 2 to 5 days. After its completion, you can notice the following symptoms:
- loss of appetite,
- fever and slight limp,
- temperature increase to 41 degrees
- gnashing of teeth, it is difficult for an animal to open its mouth,
- the lower jaw, hooves, and udders become covered with bubbles, from which a sticky liquid flows out at break.
Small ruminants have more pronounced immunity to foot and mouth disease, the disease rarely resolves with complications. A goat or sheep can fully recover in 2 weeks.
Sheep are not as susceptible to foot and mouth disease as other animals
However, the young still suffer more: the lamb may die due to septicemia - a background disease in the course of foot and mouth disease. This attack affects the tissues and circulatory system of the animal.
Pigs suffer from foot and mouth disease very hard, especially for young individuals. The incubation period lasts no longer than two days, after which the disease develops according to the following scenario:
- The limbs are affected, the pig limps. The cornea of claws can flake off.
- Fever begins, the temperature sharply jumps. The state of the pig is depressed; it refuses to eat.
- Piglet and udder covered with bubbles.
- In severe cases, bloody diarrhea is added with mucus.
- In rare cases, hemorrhage occurs in the kidneys or lungs.
Adult pigs can be sick for up to 25 days. Most of the pigs die (mortality from FMD is 60%). The first two days of the active phase of the disease are especially dangerous for them.
In pigs, foot and mouth disease is very difficult
How to treat animals for foot and mouth disease
Since FMD virus is manifested in each individual differently and with different consequences, there are no universal drugs for this disease. Therefore, treatment consists of alleviating the condition of the sick animal and eliminating the symptoms of FMD.
The first step is to separate sick animals from the rest of the herd. They are provided with proper conditions of maintenance, they are fed with easily digestible food and are given plenty of drink. In the summer they feed them with fresh grass, in the cold season soft hay will do. It is recommended to limit also the motor activity of the animal, because the disease affects the heart muscle.
Sick animals are treated in stages, and healthy ones are vaccinated to prevent the spread of the disease.
Further treatment is based on several steps, which are presented in the table below.
Table 2. Principles of treatment of animals for foot and mouth disease.
Etiology of the disease
The causative agent of this disease is one of the smallest viruses in size - Dermaphilus, containing RNA. Despite its small size, it has great virulence (ability to infection). Dermatotropy is pronounced - most often the disease begins with infection of skin areas or damaged mucous membranes in animals. It is distributed through raw milk, meat and excretion products.
In addition to eating milk or uncooked meat for food, the contact route of infection is dangerous for a person - veterinarians know that by touching an infected area, there is a risk to “catch” such a disease. This also applies to mucus particles. Fortunately, man is not particularly susceptible to his action, which cannot be said about animals (especially artiodactyls).
Important!Foot and mouth disease can also spread to domestic animals: cats and dogs. But for birds such a disease- a great rarity. The difficulty is that the virus tolerates drying and freezing quite well and is well preserved in manure and products that are obtained from sick animals. So, on wool it can last 25–27 days, and in milk at + 4 ° С - from 10 to 12 days. If such a strain got on clothes, then this period will be even longer - up to 3.5 months. The FMDV virus rather quickly (4–5 minutes) dies during boiling, does not tolerate sunlight. Alkaline and formalin solutions also help in the fight against it.
There are 8 strains of this virus. In our conditions, the main types are A and O, other pathogens rarely occur. Did you know?The last major outbreak at the moment was recorded in the UK. In 2001, there were about a thousand foci of disease- caused the epizooty strain O, which caused damage to the economy of $ 20 billion
The incubation period of a virus is usually 2–4 days, but often it lingers. For example, in pigs it can last 7–8 days, and in cows up to 2–3 weeks. There is no apparent cause for concern during this period, although the disease progresses rapidly.
- general animal weakness and loss of appetite,
- short term temperature rise
- prolonged diarrhea,
- animals begin to creep on their forelimbs, limp (this is typical if foot and mouth disease has affected cattle),
- lethargy gum,
- increased salivation,
- in some cases, the animal is unable to open its mouth.
These are the most typical manifestations of the disease. If you find them in your pets, call the vet immediately and begin treatment.
Course of the disease
The disease is acute. In adult animals, it usually takes a benign form, whereas a malignant one (it is an atypical course) is extremely rare. In different animals, the effect of the infection takes into account the characteristics of the species and breed.
Let's start with cattle. After the expiration of the latent period (1-3 days, but sometimes from 7 to 20 days), the animal refuses to feed at all, the pulse quickens, the chewing gum stops. On days 2–3 of the active phase, aphas (syphae) appear on the mucous membrane of the cheeks, tongue and jaw edges.
In difficult cases, such formations are visible on the udder and between the hoofs. The defeat of all limbs is rare, more often it is a limp on one pair of legs. Important!After the sick animal is taken out of the room, the inventory and the building itself must be treated with decontamination solution.- 1% chloramine is strong enough. After 12-24 hours after the occurrence, the aphthae burst, forming erosion. At the same time, the temperature returns to normal, although salivation remains abundant, and foam is visible in the corners of the mouth. The ulcers heal within a week, but with complications this process can take 13–20 days. On the limbs you can see the same aphthae and swelling. They also burst and heal in 4–8 days. If the lesion is large in size, then there is a risk of purulent diseases, perhaps even corneal detachment.
Aphthae in dairy cows inflame the nipple canals, sick quarters work with impairments. This is manifested in a change in the composition of milk: it becomes slimy and bitter. If the nipple canal is blocked by scabs, then mastitis begins. At the same time, productivity decreases to 60–75%, and it takes months to restore it.
Especially dangerous is the disease like foot and mouth disease for calves. They do not suffer from aphtha, but the disease is accompanied by severe disruption of the gastric pathways. If help is late, a case may begin.
The “pure” type of virus stops its activity after 7–10 days. With background complications, the disease lasts much longer, up to a month. These are mainly problems associated with gastric and lactic highways. With an atypical form, it is even more difficult: the recovering animal abruptly “rents”, refuses to eat, its hind limbs are paralyzed. Such a drop can occur 6–10 days after the onset of the disease. It strikes the heart, and mortality, reaching up to 20–40%, in such cases is associated with stopping it. Did you know?Foot and mouth disease has long plagued animal breeders: the first clinical description for animals in 1546 was given by doctor D. Frakastro. A similar picture for people was described much later by the Germans Frosch and Leffler, who in 1897 proved the viral nature of the disease. In pigs, the epidemic of foot and mouth disease is even more acute, not sparing the young. After 1-2 days of incubation, fever appears, appetite drops. The limbs are affected, pigs often limp (they may even subside on their claws). It will also be useful for you to familiarize yourself with African swine fever. Aphthae are visible on the mammary glands, patches, and are rarely observed in the oral cavity. Severe disease is accompanied by bloody diarrhea and mucus, hemorrhages in the kidneys and lungs.
Adults are ill for a long time: from a week to 20-25 days. For piglets, foot and mouth disease is deadly at all (loss is at least 60%), the first two days of virus activity are considered the most dangerous. Goats are a little easier. After 2–7 days of the latent period, the appetite disappears, the animal is in a fever, it starts limping. At the same time it is difficult for him to open his mouth, you can hear the gnashing of teeth.
Aphthae appear on hoofs, lower jaw, lips and udder.
From them sticky liquid flows. Goats are more resistant to foot and mouth disease, and complications are rare.
Full recovery occurs in two weeks.
The sheep after 2-3 days of the latent period limp, sometimes stop chewing gum and move a little. The temperature can reach 41–41.5 ° С.
In the case of them, the aphthae are small, burst quickly and heal early. The lesion area is the same: ungulates and a rim, gums, tongue and lips, upper jaw to the teeth.
Sheep recover after 10–12 days. Lambs often die because of complications such as septicemia (damage to the tissues and circulatory system).
Important!Patients before eating give 0.1 g of anesthesin, which slightly smoothes the discomfort that occurs when eating. But there is one caveat: in large flocks, the virus acts slowly and weakly, so its effect is not visible. Such a slow motion is very dangerous and can last for 3-4 months or until the transition to the acute form.
Treatment of sick animals
Due to the variety of manifestations of the virus, the industry does not produce universal drugs (with the exception of immunolactone, and that is not always suitable). Therefore, treatment is reduced to the elimination of symptoms. For drugs that also fight against viral infectious diseases in animals include "Fosprenil", "Tromeksin." The sick animal is immediately isolated, sprinkled with a clean litter and given plenty of drink - enough clean water. In this case, the air in the room should be fresh, not clogged. Animals provide peace, try not to overtake without special needs (this gives an extra burden on a weak organism, especially on the heart).
Food - easily digestible: in summer it is grass, in winter they give soft hay or high-quality silage.
If the foot-and-mouth disease in animals takes place in the usual form, therapeutic measures are reduced to such actions:
- Oral cavity rinse with weak solutions of potassium permanganate (0.1%) or furatsilina (0.5%). Acetic acid at a concentration of 2% is also suitable.
- For severe lesions of the oral mucosa, ointments based on copper sulfate, anesthesin or novocaine are taken. Fish oil is also useful.
Did you know?Vaccination in its current form- largely due to Louis Pasteur. His legacy and industriousness is impressive: having manufactured anti-Siberian drugs in 1881, after four years he was able to “neutralize” rabies with the help of a vaccine.
- Clean the limbs daily. The hooves and beaters are treated with a mixture of tar and fish oil in equal proportions. To consolidate the result, the animal is carried out through sawdust, which are saturated with tar. For large farms, formalin baths (5% solution) are made for the same purpose.
With severe forms diseases do the following manipulations:
- Strongly affected areas of the limbs are smeared with iodine. After clearing the claw, the dead tissue is removed and the wound is burned with powder (½ of permanganate and streptocide), and then it is bandaged.
- Aphthae on the udder are treated with Novocaine-Tripoflavin ointment on the basis of petroleum jelly. Propolis also interferes with it (15% of the volume). Syntomycin ointment also helps.
- If the complication is manifested in sepsis, a weak novocainic solution of 0.5% is administered intravenously. Take 0.5 ml of the mixture per 1 kg of weight.
- They also use a flour talker, which is poured through a probe daily, at 15–20 l.
- To strengthen the heart muscle, a mixture is prepared: in 400 ml of distilled water, add 6 g of bromokalium, 10 ml of valerian tincture and 15 ml of lily of the valley. This is a single dose.
Is foot and mouth disease dangerous for humans?
As we remember, such a virus is reluctant to be thrown on people, although its danger should not be minimized. The risk group includes people who work directly with animals: veterinarians, milkmaids, shepherds, slaughterhouse workers and meat processing plants. But even in the courtyard, one can become infected through contact or eating meat and milk from a sick "beast."
Did you know?At the foot of the Pasteur monument you can see not only figures of people, but also animal sculptures- cows and sheep. So the French noted the contribution of his countryman in medicine and veterinary medicine. In humans, the disease may have a skin, mucous or combined form.
Incubation period Lasts 2–4 days (there are cases when it comes to two weeks). In the transition to the acute form, such the symptoms:
- temperature increase (up to 39 ° С),
- chills or fever,
- weakness and pronounced muscle pain
- loss of appetite,
- after 2–3 days, vomiting begins, eyes turn red, there is a burning sensation in the mouth, and sometimes urination causes cramps.
After a day or two, they begin to burst, erosion begins. The patient is hard to swallow, chew and talk, salivation increases. The temperature returns to normal, but there is pain in the lymph nodes.
After 3–6 days, the ruptures heal, leaving no scars. Recovery takes up to 2 weeks. For this period, the victim is placed in the hospital.
Treatment comes down to enhanced skin care. It happens that food is introduced through a tube. Antibiotics do not apply - against such viruses they simply do not exist.
Important!A sick person will definitely need help, even at the initial stage: up to 3–4 liters of saliva can be released per day, which must be removed. At this time, take liquid food.
Кожу протирают разными мазями, лучше всего помогают флореналевые, интерфероновые и оксолановые составы. Гигиена рта подразумевает частые ополаскивания настоями шалфея или ромашки. Годится также слабый новокаиновый раствор (0,25 %) или марганцовка (1 %). You have to wash your eyes: 2% boric acid in the form of a solution to help. Sodium sulfacyl 30% - it drops, relieves pain and unpleasant itching. If necessary, use anesthetics, antihistamine drugs or drugs to strengthen the cardiovascular group.
Overall prevention implies the control of animals, and medical - this is the heat treatment of meat, boiling milk (5 minutes) and the periodic change of working clothes. Remember that products from infected animals are dangerous, regardless of the stage of the disease.
We have learned how dangerous foot and mouth disease is and how to prevent it. We hope that this information will be useful for owners of small farmsteads. Let your pets be healthy and enjoy high productivity!
Foot and mouth disease (aphtae epizooticae)
Foot and mouth disease (aphtae epizooticae) is an acute viral, highly contagious disease of domestic and wild pedigree animals, characterized by fever, aphthous affection of the oral mucosa, skin, udder, and interstitial crevice of the extremities, in young animals - myocardial and skeletal muscle lesions. Sometimes people have foot and mouth disease, especially children.
Foot and mouth disease is registered in many countries of the world, in the Republic of Belarus this disease was registered in 1983.
Economic damage is made up of 100% animal morbidity, loss of fatness, milk from cows, and also from lower product quality. The epizootics of FMD hamper the normal economic activity of entire districts, regions and even states.
The causative agent of the disease is an RNA-containing virus, which belongs to the family Picornaviridae. Installed 7 serological types and more than 80 variants of FMD virus. Types and variants of the virus differ immunologically: each of them can cause a disease of the animal, immune to other types and variants of the virus. The FMDV virus is stable in the environment: on the coat of animals the virus persists for up to 50 days, on clothing for up to 100 days, in feed and soil for up to 150 days.
Boiling inactivates the virus immediately, from disinfectants the best are 2-3% sodium hydroxide solution and 1% formaldehyde solution.
Cattle are the most susceptible to FMD disease, then pigs, sheep, goats. All kinds of cloven-hoofed animals suffer from foot and mouth disease.
The source of the pathogen is sick animals that release the virus into the external environment already during the incubation period, the infected animals are infected for more than 400 days. In the external environment, the virus is secreted with saliva, milk, feces, urine, etc. Saliva is especially rich in viruses. Of the transmission factors, the transfer of the pathogen with people's clothing, means of transport, fodder, building materials, etc. is of the greatest importance. from foci of disease. Infection of animals occurs mainly through the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, the damaged skin of the udder and limbs and aerogenic.
Foot and mouth disease, as a rule, manifests itself in the form of epizootic, sometimes panzootic. Mortality of 0.2-0.5%.
Reproduction of the virus at the site of penetration leads to the formation of primary aft. From places of primary localization through the lymphatic vessels, the virus enters the blood and lymphoid organs. Clinically, this is manifested by fever and the formation of secondary aft on uncovered areas of skin. The virus is also fixed in the fibers of the heart and skeletal muscles, causing functional impairment of the heart and tissue defects. From the fourth day of the process generalization, the production of antibodies occurs and the transition to the stage of recovery.
Course and symptoms of the disease
The incubation period is 2-7 days, and sometimes up to 14-21 days. In cattle, body temperature rises to 40.5-41.5 ° C. Animals are depressed, the yield drops sharply. For 2-3 days of illness in the mouth, on the tongue and the wings of the nose, and sometimes on the nose mirror, there are aphthas, which after 1-3 days break. Aphthae are also formed on the skin of the intergame crack and corolla, as well as on the udder. On the site of burst aft erosions are formed.
In newborn calves, aphthae, as a rule, are not formed, the disease occurs in the form of gastroenteritis and is usually fatal.
Similar symptoms in FMD are noted in sheep and goats, however, the course of the disease in this species of animals is more benign.
In the case of foot and mouth disease, the pigs affect the limbs and the snout, and in the suckling sows, the udder. The defeat of the extremities is accompanied by limp and often falling hoofs. The mortality of suckling piglets reaches 60-80%.
Autopsy reveals animals: aphthae and erosions on mucous membranes and skin, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, catarrhal mastitis, myocarditis and myositis, hemorrhages on the epi- and endocardium, peritoneum, mucous membrane of the abomasum and small intestine.
Diagnostics It is based on taking into account the epizootic features of the disease (almost 100% of animal morbidity, rapid spread, etc.), the clinical signs and results of laboratory studies that are very characteristic of this disease. When conducting laboratory tests, it is imperative to determine the type and variant of the FMDV virus that caused the disease. This is important for the selection of vaccines.
When making a diagnosis of FMD in cattle, it is necessary to exclude: viral diarrhea, viral vesicular stomatitis, malignant catarrhal fever, plague, smallpox, necrobacteriosis, in sheep from necrobacteriosis, in pigs - vesicular disease, etc.
Means of specific treatment by the bioindustry are not available because of the multiplicity of types and variants of the foot and mouth disease virus. Treatment is predominantly symptomatic.
For the immune protection of animals, there are a number of mono and associated (against several types and variants of FMD virus) vaccines. Specific prophylaxis (vaccination) has several significant drawbacks. First, immunization should be done with a vaccine containing the appropriate type and version of the FMDV virus isolated in a particular farm. Secondly, vaccination does not stop the virus in animals.
Sick animals are slaughtered, meat and internal organs are processed into boiled sausages.
Prevention and control measures
Prevention measures are based on preventing the foot-and-mouth disease virus from entering the well-being of the disease or the state. The main causes of the spread of FMD at the present stage are: the introduction of the virus from neighboring unsuccessful countries for this disease, primarily due to the illegal importation of animals, animal products and feed, migration of people (tourism, pilgrimage, natural disasters, military conflicts, etc. .), wild animals and birds, increased movement of vehicles, including trucks, etc.
When a disease appears on the farm, quarantine is introduced, police and veterinary posts are set up to ensure quarantine measures.
When the primary outbreaks of FMD occur, sick animals are destroyed and then disposed of on the territory of the outbreak. The rest (clinically healthy) animals of this farm are killed at the meat factory. In the absence of opportunities for slaughter at a meat processing plant of such animals, all livestock is to be killed and disposed of directly on the territory of the hearth. In case of mass spread of the disease, clinically healthy animals are vaccinated against FMD.
Quarantine is removed 21 days after the last case of recovery, death or forced slaughter of animals and the final disinfection. Sick animals are slaughtered, meat and internal organs are processed into boiled sausages.