Poor growth of garden crops and trees, constant dirt on garden paths and seasonal flooding of cellars and basements indicate a high level of groundwater at the dacha. To put up with these inconveniences is not worth it, otherwise the increased humidity can turn into more significant problems - heaving of blind areas and paths, shrinking of walls, and even the destruction of the foundation. Nevertheless, to rush to get rid of country property is no reason. Drain the territory is not difficult - just build an effectively working drainage system. Drainage construction does not require any special skills, so it can be easily done by hand. As for knowledge, we will try to tell about the secrets of construction and give important recommendations on the course of work.
Which indicates the need for drainage
The question of whether a drainage system is needed at a country site, as a rule, does not require a long study of the situation and analysis of natural factors. Most often, the inconvenience arising from the overmoistening of the soil appears after snowmelt or heavy rain. Garden beds are overgrown with sedge, paths and lawns occupy puddles for a long time, and cellars and cellars suffer from dampness - these are factors that indicate the need for drainage facilities. Nevertheless, before investing time and money in the arrangement of the drainage system, you should make sure that it is expedient. A few conditions will help to do this, indicating the need to drain the soil.
- If the level of occurrence of groundwater in a dry period is at a depth of less than 2.5 m, then in the rainy season the area may turn into a swamp. A small hole 50–80 cm deep will help you to verify your own assumptions. If it gets filled with water after a day in dry weather, you can stop further research and proceed to the construction of drainage without hesitation.
- The site is located in a valley and is subject to seasonal flooding, or the territory has significant differences in elevation.
- Water is not absorbed into the ground for a long time due to clay and loamy soils with waterproofing properties. The presence of chernozem at the site does not mean anything - clay deposits may well be under a thin fertile layer of soil.
- A region in which a large amount of precipitation falls is not at all ideal for growing cultivated plants. Excessive moisture prevents soil from being saturated with oxygen, which affects their health. To create the ideal conditions for gardening or gardening, excess moisture must be removed.
If at least one of these factors is confirmed at your dacha, then the need for drainage can not be discussed. A high-quality drainage system will give a second life to cultivated plants, make the territory cleaner, save paths from deformation, and the foundation from destruction.
Surface (open) drain to collect precipitation
Surface drainage is a system of rainwater inlets designed to collect and remove rain and melt water outside the site, not allowing it to be absorbed into the ground. Such a drainage system works perfectly on clay soils and can complement traditional storm sewers. Water is diverted to filtration wells or off-site. In addition, the lion's share of precipitation simply evaporates.
Depending on the design of the drainage, surface drainage is divided into two types:
When arranging point drainage, wastewater collection is carried out with the help of storm valves, drainage outlets, storm water inlets and ladders. The places of their installation are door pits, drain points for roofing inlets, areas under water taps and other areas that need local water collection. The point water collectors are connected to underground pipes, through which the drains enter the storm sewer.
Linear drainage can be near-wall or remote from structures. It is a system of barred collection trays that did not fall into point inlets. This method of drainage is rational to use in such cases:
- if there is a danger of washing away the top fertile soil layer. Most often, such a nuisance occurs in areas whose slope relative to the horizon is more than 3 degrees,
- at the location of the site in the valley. Because of this, the water flowing down during rain and snowmelt creates a threat to buildings and green spaces,
- to remove sediment from pavements and walkways. In this case, the pedestrian zones are settled on a small elevation, with a bias towards the drainage channel.
The linear drainage also includes road drainage, which is carried out in the form of a ditch parallel to the road for car traffic.
The arrangement of the deep drainage system is necessary where groundwater approaches the surface of the site closer than 2.5 meters. When it is built, a large amount of earthworks is required, therefore, it is best to construct such drainage simultaneously with digging the foundation pits for the foundation of the house and farm buildings.
Prefabricated drainage pipes and types of soils on which they are recommended to be used
For the construction of deep drainage use perforated pipes (drains), which are placed in a layer of soil at an angle. The presence of holes allows drains to collect excess moisture and transport it to a collection collector, filtration well or drainage tunnel.
The slope of the drainage pipes should be at least 1%. For example, for a 20 m long highway, the height difference between the upper and lower points will be 20 cm.
Another common type of deep drainage is a reservoir or backfill system. It is performed in the form of an underground channel, half filled with a filtering pad made of crushed stone or crushed brick. To prevent the accumulated moisture from being absorbed, the bottom of the formation drains is sealed with a layer of clay, over which roll waterproofing is placed.
How to reduce moisture without drainage
Many factors affect bogging, so in some cases the dacha can be drained without drainage. If the soil contributes to increased soil moisture, then it is quite simple to make the water run off the site. To do this, in some places, the soil is removed, and in others they are sprinkled, creating a small slope. If the selected soil is insufficient, then it is imported from outside the garden area. It is better to pour the earth in the country with chernozem or peat, and in order to make the soil lighter, from 1/3 to 1/5 of the sand is added to it.
If the water in the area accumulates due to closely spaced layers of clay, and the territory itself has a slight slope, then a small body of water can be dug out at the lowest point. It can be used as a natural reservoir for irrigation of cultivated plants, turned into a pond for breeding fish or used as a decorative element of landscape design. As a rule, due to the high level of groundwater, the need for additional waterproofing is eliminated, but in some cases a special PVC film for swimming pools will help to make the reservoir airtight. So that the surface of the artificial lake does not bloom, water plants are planted on its banks.
Planting moisture-loving plants is a great way to normalize soil moisture. For example, ordinary birch is a real pomp that literally pumps water out of the ground. Not bad cope with the drainage of the territory of spirea, irga, hawthorn, dog rose, and, of course, willow and willow. Planted in problem areas, as well as along the tracks, they will not only remove excess moisture, but also make the landscape original and attractive.
How to make drainage around the country house or outbuildings
To protect the basement or basement from the melt and rainwater around the suburban buildings construct wall drainage. This drainage system is most effective in the offseason when the groundwater level reaches its maximum. The construction of a "reclamation" system is best carried out at the stage of building the foundation, however, if the decision to build it was made because of the appearance of water in the basement, it's okay - it's better late than never.
The construction of drainage lead in stages.
- At the perimeter of the building they are digging a sloping trench, which should be 0.5 m deeper than the lowest point of the foundation. Measure elevation differences and place landmarks at control points. To organize an effective drainage system, make a slope of at least 2 cm per 1 running meter.
- Prepare the foundation. To do this, the concrete surface is cleaned from the ground, treated with a bitumen-kerosene primer and put waterproofing rubber-bitumen mastic. While the resin is not frozen, the reinforced mesh for plastering (cell 2x2 mm) is pressed into its surface. After the bitumen has dried, another layer of sealant is applied on top.
If it is not possible to purchase special perforated pipes, then they can be made from ordinary polymeric PVC sewer pipes. To do this, drill holes in their walls, the diameter of which should be slightly smaller than the size of individual grains of gravel or granotsev.
With the help of crosses and tees, the drains are interconnected and connected to the drainage pipe leading to the waste collector. To control the slope use a water level or building cord, stretched along the highway. Each turn of the drainage system is supplied with a manhole or a section of a vertically installed pipe, the upper part of which is covered with a lid. These elements of the system will be needed to clean the pipeline from blockages.
With the arrangement of the blind area around the house should not be in a hurry - it is necessary to withstand time for the soil to shrink in the trench. By pouring concrete and laying paving slabs start only after the soil is completely compacted.
Drainage of the dacha: the easiest method
To avoid unnecessary financial costs and build drainage facilities on a large summer cottage allows surface drainage system. Its main purpose is the removal of excess moisture during heavy rains or during the melting of snow.
When arranging open drainage, excavation work is carried out in accordance with the instructions below.
- Having carefully studied the terrain, determine the number and trajectory of channels for collecting and draining water. In parallel with this, they are looking for a spillway. You can build a sump well at the lowest point of the site, or else completely drain the drainage channel beyond its limits. The excavation sites are marked with a cord and pegs.
Experienced builders determine the point of laying of storm drains and the collector, observing the flow of rain or melt water, planning the location of the channels in such a way as to optimally combine the individual streams into a common stream.
In these places, trenches are dug 40-50 cm wide and no more than 0.5 m deep. To avoid shedding of the walls, they are not made steep, but inclined — the bevel should be 25-30 degrees.
Then they do, in fact, drainage. Depending on the degree of aesthetics, the requirements of landscape design or personal preferences, it can be a lot or filling. In the first case, the channel arrangement looks like this:
- the bottom of the ditch to a height of 10 cm is covered with sand and compresses it well with the help of a manual tamper,
- plastic trays are installed in the trench,
- mount sand traps
- decorative trays are attached to the trays. Their function is to protect the canals from leaves and debris, as well as to enhance the aesthetics of the structure.
In the second case, construction is carried out according to the following scheme:
- the bottom and walls of the trenches are covered with geotextiles,
- ditches are covered with a layer of crushed stone with a thickness of up to 20 cm. It is best if there is a small bottle or crushed stone of a large fraction below, and a smaller one above,
- crushed stone is covered with edges of a geotextile cloth, then it is covered with sand.
For the arrangement of drainage, you can use the old, "grandfather's" method - the construction of fashin. To do this, harvest the branches of alder, willow or birch, which are tied in armfuls 15 cm thick, so that the thin twigs are on the one hand, and thick - on the other. Bunches of branches are placed not on the ground, but on the pegs previously installed along the entire length of the trenches, connected like anti-tank “hedgehogs”. The brushwood is placed with thick branches up and compacted at the edges with moss. If everything is done correctly, then you can count on a 20-year work of the ameliorative system.
To protect the walls of the channels from collapse, use rubble stone or turf. Trenches are decorated by constructing ridges along their edges with perennial moisture-loving plants, such as irises.
Drainage of the dacha: the traditional way
No matter how simple and cheap the open drainage system is, it has one major drawback - low aesthetics. Agree that to engage in landscape design on a site with a whole network of channels is not an easy task. In this case, it is better not to save and build a durable and efficient system of drainage of the deep type.
The best scheme of laying drainage pipes is a “herringbone”. In it, the side highways converge to one central pipe, which is led out into the sewer well or off-site.
If the drainage system is needed not to protect the foundation, but in order to reduce soil moisture, then the trench depth should be selected based on the recommended values:
- for soils with a high percentage of minerals - up to 1.5 m,
- when installed under the flower beds - from 0.5 to 0.8 m,
- in the areas of planting fruit trees - up to 1.5 m,
- for peaty soil - from 1 to 1.6 m,
- under ornamental shrubs and trees - up to 0.9 m.
For drainage use special polymer pipes with holes with a diameter of 1.5 to 5 mm. In the ideal case, their type and quantity are determined by a calculation that takes into account the soil moisture, its type, amount of precipitation, etc. However, if you do drainage with your own hands, it is cheaper to buy plumbing PVC pipes with a diameter of 100 mm and make holes in them with step 40–60 mm independently.
After ditches have been dug out, they proceed to the main part of the work.
- Depending on the type of soil, it is decided to install geotextiles. On clay soils, it can be not used - it is enough to fill the bottom with gravel up to 20 cm in height. You can wrap pipes with any filter cloth on loams, while sandy and sandy soils require laying the pipes in a layer of gravel with obligatory wrapping with geotextile materials.
- At the bottom of the trench equip sand cushion cushion thickness of 10 cm.
- The bottom and walls of the trench are covered with geotextile fabric, after which they are covered with a layer of small crushed stone 10–15 cm thick. It is possible to fix geotextiles on trench walls using fragments of bricks or pegs hammered into walls.
Observing the slopes, drainage pipes are laid and connected into a single network.
It is not recommended to use limestone crushed stone for drainage arrangement. Firstly, at the depth it will be compressed and will not pass moisture, and secondly, its interaction with the soil can provoke the appearance of a salt marsh.
Maintenance and cleaning of drainage in the country
Although a well-constructed deep or surface drainage system does not need frequent preventive measures, some work still cannot be avoided. The contents of the manholes should be periodically checked, cleaning the soil particles using a pump for dirty water and high-pressure pump. When pumping dirt from a drainage well, a long pole is used, which is used to agitate bottom sediments. Full flushing is required for heavy silting of the pipes, as well as every 10–15 years of operation of the drainage system.
In order to free the main line from sand sediments, the pipeline must be accessible from both sides. Washing is carried out with a strong stream of water, which is alternately directed either from one or the other side of the pipe.
If you have to deal with stable deposits of dirt and clay, then you can use the traditional sanitary technique - cleaning pipes with a long cable and brush-ruff made of hard bristles. By combining the mechanical effect with flushing, you can completely remove the perennial deposits on the drainage pipes.
In the case of silting of the channels of the surface systems, you can resort to cleaning them with nitrate. To do this, the turf and top filling are removed from the trenches, after which saltpeter is scattered evenly on a layer of rubble. Then the “pie” is poured abundantly with water and the upper layers are returned to the place. This method allows you to extend the performance of the system is not for one year, only to use it only as a last resort - nitrate is a source of nitrates, and its excess negatively affects the quality of the soil.
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Перенасыщение почвы влагой и застои воды на участке являются большой проблемой, которая влияет не только на рост плодоносящих культур, но и снижает срок службы жилого строения. But it is worth remembering that with a surplus of water can be managed with the help of the drainage system. Much worse, if fresh water and moisture pick up, and the arrangement of the well is impossible due to certain circumstances.