Nowadays, many people have their own summer cottages. However, not all owners can boast the ideal surface of the backyard territory. Very often such sites have height differences and steep slopesthat spoil the overall landscape. However, this is not the main problem in this situation.
The fact is that such a relief can lead to creep. And it already threatens buildings that are located on this territory. If the site is located on a very steep slope, it can lose a layer of good soil, which it will simply wash away with rain down.
But as they say, do not give up, the solution to this problem is to construction of a special retaining wall. In this article we will tell you what a retaining wall is and how to shake it with your own hands.
Wooden retaining wall.
Features retaining structures on the site with a slope. Its strengthening and decorative features
So, the retaining structure is most often installed in areas that have problems with the relief in the form of hills and slopes, or are located on a high river bank. The wall can be built from a variety of building materials.
When planning a future construction, the owner should take a closer look at his site and arrange the wall so that it looks harmoniously in this area. When selecting materials for construction, it is necessary to take into account the architecture of the cottage, as well as all buildings located on the site.
The supporting structure does not always have to represent a powerful structure, which immediately catches the eye. In fact, very often construct a small wall height of 50-60 cmHowever, this is quite enough for the design to perform the necessary functions.
If you still need to install a high structure on the site, then the specialists involved in landscape design advise you to break the structure with stairs or special niches. This will reduce the effect produced by the high wall, which as it hides the space.
Multi-level retaining wall with a ladder.
Of course, the external design of the retaining wall is an extremely important factor. And many land owners arrange such constructions for the decoration of the territory. However, initially this construction was invented to protect the site from sliding into the ground. Therefore, now there are two types of supporting structures. The first has purely decorative features. The second serves as a landslide insurance. Which option is best suited for a particular site decides its owner.
The design of the retaining wall largely depends on the functions that it will have to perform. In principle, both versions of buildings are similar, they differ only in proportions. Both the first and the second type of retaining structures from the back side are in close contact with the ground (slope). At the same time, the front part remains open for review. This side can be completely flat or have a certain slope.
Here is a list of the functions that the supporting structure performs in the overall landscape design:
- territory zoning
- plot decoration,
- land strengthening
- the creation of horizontal sites on the slope, which are perfect for plant breeding.
Rules for creating terraces on the slopes
If the backyard territory has uneven terrain (elevation difference, slopes and pits), a terraces arrangement will be the best solution. Of course, such a redevelopment of the plot will require the owners to invest money, as well as many hours of physical labor. However, the reward for this work will be a beautiful landscape, which will appear next to the house in just a few years.
Now terracing private property is widespread and therefore see an example of such a territory is quite simple. Before starting work on the creation of terraces, it is worth consulting with a landscape design specialist. This will allow in the process of reorganization of the territory to achieve several results at once:
- to correctly distribute the zones on the slope in order to create on the site not only a place for planting, but also a recreation area,
- provide terraces with a good drainage system and thus protect the soil from erosion,
- build quality retaining structures (walls)
- create an opportunity for the safe movement of the residents of the cottage,
- in the process of working on the terraces, it is necessary to take into account the direction of the wind, this will allow creating recreation areas protected from gusts.
Even before the start of work on the distribution of terraces, the owner must determine the slope of a particular plot. In order to do this, it is necessary to divide the height difference by the size of the base (horizontal). When this is done the distribution of future terraces is made. The width of each individual terrace mainly depends on what objects and outbuildings will be installed here.
Work begins at the top of the slope and gradually goes down. In this case, the soil, which is selected on the upper terraces, is laid down. Thus, the next stage is created. The height of the terraces can seriously fluctuate. Modern technologies allow site owners to install retaining walls up to 1.5 meters high. But of course you need to understand the higher the wall, the more expensive its construction will cost. Therefore, even before the start of work, it is necessary to carefully calculate future costs.
Retaining wall of concrete.
Now landscape design specialists offer two basic ways of planning terraces. The first allows you to arrange terraces staggered. This option gives the territory a particularly interesting look. The second option offers asymmetrical site layout. Whichever option the owner chooses, in the end, he will receive a completely new and interesting landscape of the backyard territory.
Various types of retaining walls
Retaining structures can be divided into several types based on such criteria as the size of the structure, appearance, location on the territory, method of construction. The table below shows the main options for supporting structures.
Defining characteristics of various types of retaining walls:
2. Medium. Height from 1 to 2m
3. High. Height from 2m
2. Shallow. In such a construction, the bookmark begins with a depth that is comparable to the width of the wall (used only on strong grounds, or as a decorative fragment of the landscape).
2.Semi-massive designs. In such a structure stands a powerful (wide) base. Reinforced concrete is most often used as materials. The design is stable due to the large weight and pressure that the foundation exerts on the ground.
3.Thin-element facilities. The construction has a wide foundation, reinforced concrete is used as a wall. The structure is resistant to external influences due to the strong pressure on the ground.
4.Thin constructions. Have a deep bookmark and are mainly assembled from metal. And the stability of such a wall depends on the depth of the bookmark.
2.Precast monolithic structures. It is assembled from purchased blocks created using concrete and an angle profile.
3. Collapsible. It is laid with the help of building materials with individual elements (brick, cinder block, foam concrete, stone, etc.).
4.Armored ground structures. It is created from soil that is packed using a geo-stencil or geotextile.
2.Integrated designs. On the contrary, these structures are associated with certain elements of the landscape (stairs, benches, etc.).
Retaining wall: How to make it on the site?
In country and urban areas, where the difficult terrain with hilly or ravine places creates a lot of problems relating to the garden and planning a beautiful courtyard, I want to restore order. Usually in this case, the territory of the site is conveniently divided into terraces, which are located at different levels. The retaining wall in such cases plays a key role.
Terracing a site is the process of artificially forming a fortified horizontal plane - a terrace or a ledge.
The retaining wall is built on the boundaries between such planes, which allows you to prevent the occurrence of landslides and landslides, as well as the leaching of fertile layers of the earth.
Unfortunately, it is true that not all land owners can say that they have even relief. So the conclusion is that the retaining wall is an indispensable part of the site. It will not only decorate your garden, but this structure will also divide it into special zones.
To make a retaining wall is not difficult at all. During the process itself, a wide variety of landscape design plans are implemented. Next we will consider the main features of the construction of retaining walls with their own hands.
Retaining wall: device and functions
There are different designs of the retaining wall. It all depends on the function that this building should perform. The retaining wall can be both decorative and fortification. For each of the two species must be a certain degree of impact. But the “backbone” always consists of the following main components:
- from the basement (underground part). It accounts for all the pressure of the soil,
- from the body (ground part). The wall on the inside "contacts" with the ground and leads around an elevation on the site. From the outer (front) side the wall is open, it can be even and slanting,
- from drainage and drainage (protective communications). When you are designing a structure, you should figure out in advance how to remove excess moisture and water, which constantly accumulate behind the internal surfaces of buildings.
Retaining walls have such functions:
- they are well zoned area,
- can perfectly transform the landscape, are its decorative and artistic elements,
- protective and strengthening ability
- they will make the plot even.
What affects the stability of retaining walls
Maximum stability, resistance to high pressure are very important qualities that should have a well-made retaining wall. Otherwise, the structure can easily collapse, and the ground slide. Because you need to take into account every factor that affects the strength of the retaining walls.
So, it is necessary to figure out what still acts on the retaining walls? The influence of the own weight of the building, the forces of adhesion and friction with the soil, the pressure of the soil, the additional weight of the components that may be on it - all this is of tremendous importance.
What can affect the construction of the building:
- soil swelling in winter
- wind strength (if the retaining wall is higher than 2 m),
- vibration level (for example, if the railway is close by)
- any seismic phenomenon (each region has its own characteristics),
- washing away by rainwater.
An additional factor affecting the level of stability of the building is the wall thickness. It is determined by the type of soil and the height of the structure itself. If the ground is soft and the support is high, then it is natural that the width of the protective “shield” should be greater. This is logical.
How to organize a retaining wall. Highlights
The retaining wall is a rather complex engineering structure, therefore, before it is built, it is necessary to take into account certain factors affecting the level of strength, reliability and the service life of the wall. Of course, when real specialists are involved in this business, everything is done strictly according to the rules. And this is very good. But having certain specific skills and taking into account the circumstances under which you can build a support, you can build such a structure yourself without any problems.
- Retaining walls can be built solely on stable soil (on rubble, clay, sandy loam, gravel, etc.).
- Successful arrangement is possible only if the freezing of the soil is not more than 1.5 meters from the soil surface.
- The groundwater level should not be higher than one meter, the best option is 1.5 m from the surface of the earth.
- If you are building yourself, remember that the above-ground part of the wall cannot be made higher than 1.4 m. The masters should build a higher supporting structure, because the special calculations that take into account the pressure of the soil and its mobility cannot be done here.
How to make the underground part. What foundation to choose
Retaining walls with a height of more than 30 cm must necessarily be with a solid foundation. The main principle, which should not be forgotten when laying the foundation: if the soil is soft and unstable, then the depth of the foundation must be done more.
If you want to level your site, read our article and you will learn how to do it.
The depth of the foundation and the height of the support, taking into account the soil looseness
- If the soil is rather dense, then the depth of the foundation and the height of the upper part of the support (above the ground) should be related as 1: 4.
- In the presence of soil with medium friability, the depth of the foundation should be 1/3 of the height of the support.
- In case the soil is loose, soft, the depth of the foundation should be 1/2 of its height.
- Concrete, crushed stone, gravel, compacted with heavy clay or cement, should form the foundation.
The use of drainage, drainage and waterproofing for the construction of retaining walls
For support equipment, you need not only to lay a high-quality foundation and build a support wall on it. The design needs protection on the other hand from moisture, which adversely affects it.
Organization of drainage, drainage and, if necessary, waterproofing the inner side of the wall - all these are necessary measures, regardless of what material is used and what size and shape the retaining wall has. The most important thing is that it prevents the accumulation of moisture and water, which for obvious reasons, affect the structure destructively.
Organization of drainage
Drainage of retaining walls is transverse, longitudinal, and also combined.
In case of lateral organization of drainage, special openings are installed in each of the second or third rows of the masonry (their diameter should not exceed 10 cm) or tubes inclined. Then the water will immediately go beyond the territory of the site, which we achieved.
For longitudinal (underground) drainage along corrugated walls (underground at the foundation level), corrugated, ceramic or asbestos-cement pipes (their diameter is about 10-15 cm), shrouded in geotextile materials that absorb water, are put in, because relegated to the territory of the site.
Also, special visors or eaves blocks with a slope are made so that atmospheric water does not get into the masonry, because at low temperatures this will lead to the destruction of the retaining walls. And this can not be allowed.
Drainage layers between the wall and the ground
When the wall is assembled and stood for a couple of days, the space between it and the slope must be filled. For this task, coarse-grained soil is suitable (for example, with gravel, coarse sand and pebbles). We'll have to stock up on small pieces of bricks and the rest of the waste material. Without taking into account that the gravel puts pressure on the support, this is an additional drainage layer.
Each layer of draining mixtures and soil is poured separately in order to ram these layers. Here it is preferable to deal with coarse-grained soil and sands of sandy loam.
The use of vegetable soil is needed for the top ball laying materials. When the last layer of the retaining wall is finished with tamping, the wall is left in this state for a couple of weeks without additional load. Such a measure will lead to the fact that the reinforcing materials will acquire all the necessary properties. It is also necessary to remove the soil layer with a sufficient amount of humus in advance and put it on top. Having done all these manipulations, you can proceed with the peace of mind to the equipment of the site.
Use of waterproofing
To increase the life of the retaining brick, wood, metal or concrete wall, it is necessary to conduct its waterproofing from the ground. For this important event use roofing felt or roofing roofing felt, applied in two layers. If the primer is dry, bitumen or mastic can be used for application to the inner surface.
What material are retaining walls made by hand
First you need to decide on the purpose of the retaining wall, and then select the material for it. It has already been said that retaining walls can be fortifications and decorative.
To build a stiff inclination reinforcing element, you must use natural stone or concrete. There are areas located near the railway, which are regularly amenable to ground vibration. And because of such constant powerful pressure, a more fragile material will soon lose its properties, which will adversely affect the level of wall reliability.
If you plan to build a retaining wall as a decorative element, then the use of wood, brick or gabion is already permissible.
Wooden retaining wall
Установка такого типа подпорных стен считается дешёвой, но с самим процессом строительства придётся не так уж легко и быстро, как может показаться сначала. Creating and installing the wall will immediately require smooth, high-quality wood. A more simplified method of construction is to place the logs vertically, tightly fitting them to each other. Logs with a diameter of 12-18 cm are considered the most suitable for the construction of the supporting wall. The height of the logs must be calculated depending on what height of the supporting wall we have planned. Examining each step in advance, do not forget that when installing the wall somewhere around 50-60 cm of the structure will be buried in the ground. And this is at least.
Each log is located vertically and close to the other logs. At the top, they are tightly wrapped with wire. And to prevent displacement, the logs are connected by nails. To ensure maximum stability after the logs have been fixed, the trench should be completely covered with concrete.
To avoid rotting of a tree that is partially under the ground, it is lubricated with engine oil. This is a very effective tool for this situation.
Do you want to use the following method called "fence"? It will be more difficult to build, because here each vertical log must be established with a certain interval. It is necessary to make a special hole in which a log of a smaller diameter will be installed quite tightly.
There is no way to do without high-quality and even logs, because everything can completely deteriorate because of rotten wood. And we certainly do not need this, but it turns out that all the efforts and work will go down the drain. Often use this method: take logs, are strictly vertically, tightly joining with each other. The diameter here is taken, as in the previous method. But the parts that will remain underground, are about 40-50 cm. This length will be quite sufficient for the structure to stand straight in the spring and not shift when the ground begins to absorb moisture many times more. The reliability of the design should be ensured first.
Concrete retaining wall
This is the most durable and solid construction. Its construction begins as follows: a trench is pulled out, which will have exactly the same perimeter as the wall itself. It is worth considering the fact that the height of the wall affects the depth of the trench.
At the bottom of the trench, a mixture of gravel and rubble is laid, after which the armature falls, which is fastened with a cohesive wire. Only after that the formwork is displayed. Formwork is made of planks with a thickness of at least 25 mm and no more than 45 mm. Nails or ties attached to the structure of the fortress. In the future, it will not crumble, deform the concrete. Due to the pressure of the mixture, the side walls of the formwork may begin to arch. To prevent possible further destruction, it is necessary to score metal rods at intervals of 1.5 meters.
At the end of the preparatory work to strengthen the retaining wall evenly poured concrete. We must wait a couple of days to form a wall. Then the formwork is removed. And if there are any irregularities, they are leveled with plaster.
Then you can proceed to the facing works, in the implementation of which each owner can choose the necessary materials at their own discretion. Here you can already give preference to everything that only the soul desires.
Construction of a brick support
The brick wall is laid in the same way as during normal construction. The only thing that needs to be emphasized: here the thickness needs to be done less. If the wall is less than a meter in height, it needs to be laid out with a half brick. If the wall is higher, then a whole brick is applied. Facing materials for brick construction are used the same as for concrete.
For this structure you need a foundation of the depth that will be affected by the final height of the wall, the composition of the soil and the degree of freezing. If we talk about the width, it is often 20-30 cm larger than the retaining wall itself.
During the construction of the wall the main thing to remember to follow the ratio of length and thickness of 1: 3. The special design of the retaining brick wall has always distinguished it from similar structures from another material. Installation of such a wall is not considered to be too simple, but at the same time it is not very difficult. The main thing is to carefully follow each item of the instruction.
Retaining walls made of natural stone
The construction of stone walls is a more significant material and physical costs. But the game is worth the candle, because the beauty and aesthetics of such support can not be compared with anything. Indeed, if you look at such a construction, it is impossible not to note this particular style and appearance, which gives the natural stone to the whole building.
Stone retaining wall
Stone retaining wall has a considerable advantage: plants are planted in pre-formed earthen pockets. Natural stone is the most attractive material from which a retaining wall is manually created. Often in construction use granite, basalt and syenite. These are the most common natural stones. Sandstone or lime will help to give the retaining wall a vintage look. They can quickly absorb moisture, moss appears on the treated places. Because of this, the design has a shade of an old building. And this solution looks very romantic. The foundation is laid in such a way that its width is more than 30 cm. Without following these rules, as a result, an unstable wall can be obtained, which may soon collapse.
Retaining wall do it yourself
Retaining stone wall, whose height is 1 meter, with the presence of longitudinal drainage.
1) It is necessary to make a plot of the site.
A suitable place for support is chosen in advance (with a slope at the terrace, which is located higher than the ground level). The poles are driven in along the edges of the selected area and the cord is pulled over.
2) Prepare a trench.
With the help of a garden knife, the soil is cut by markings. And with a shovel removed a thin layer of earth. After that, the digging of the trench itself, the depth of which will be 40 cm, will follow.
3) Laying the foundation.
The bottom of the trench is properly leveled and compacted. Then a layer of concrete is poured with a depth of at least 30 cm. The concrete mix for the foundation consists of one part of concrete, 6 parts of sand and gravel. That should be the proportion.
If the soil is loose, then before pouring the concrete mix, you should make a wooden fence. Let the concrete pad dry before the end of it takes about three days.
4) Creating a lime layer.
When the foundation is completely dry, before laying the stone, it is necessary to smear it with a lime mixture in 2-3 cm layers. Sand, water, cement and lime are included in the mixture. For one part of quicklime, 3-4 parts of sand are needed. For each kilogram of this mixture, 300 ml of water is required. In order not to get lumps, water is added gradually. Then you can add cement. We obtain the ratio: 1 part of cement to 7 parts of the mixture.
5) We lay stone.
Stones are carefully cleaned of dirt and moistened with water. You can not put a stone on top of one another. Otherwise, the building will fall apart due to the slightest external impact. The junction of two stones is located in the center of the stone in the previous row. Along the edge is always put a larger stone with the correct forms. For the middle fit a smaller stone. It is necessary to try to find stable positions for all stones.
For the next row of walls, the same principle is used with lime mortar. The mixture should be with a minimum thickness of 1-1.5 cm, and too large seams waiting for rapid destruction. For the stability and durability of the structure, the edge that is behind is made with a slight bias towards the soil being held (approximately 5-10 degrees).
The broken curvilinear configuration of the retaining wall is more durable and reliable, since such lines of the walls are characterized by a reduced span length. They do not have a huge load, and due to the rough surface of the back wall there is a more intimate contact with the soil.
6) Use drainage and drainage.
Each established row of support between the soil and the wall requires that a layer of rubble with gravel or small pebbles with gravel fall asleep. After that, everything is neatly rammed. When laying the second row of support, you will need a drainage pipe.
When the retaining wall is installed, traces of the lime mortar are removed with water, a sponge and a brush.
Retaining wall in landscape designs
Immediately it should be said that each site has its own individual shape, size, features of the relief. Therefore, in the process of building retaining walls, their special approaches are applied, taking into account the personal preferences of the owner, his tastes, the style of the house itself, the territory of the garden and everything related to it. For example, if this landscape has a pronounced relief, then you should use a vertical layout. That such a move would be really appropriate. To do this, the plot is divided into horizontal levels, which are fixed with supports.
For a small land area, the height of the erected wall reaches 60 cm. Bushes grow well along such structures. While too high a wall creates an unpleasant impression of gravity. If, however, such buildings are planned in advance at the site, then they are “diluted” with the help of various interesting architectural elements (for example, a bench, niches, steps and other similar things).
The selected material for the construction of retaining walls should be explained by specific design decisions. That would be logical. Indeed, for the “elevation” of the monumentality of the support, a relief, textured material is used. Also in this case, the installation of large granite stones, laid a large seam. And here it is appropriate to use a powerful log. To create a more subtle, to some extent imperceptible, but on the other side of an elegant relief, the wall covering is done with the help of small stones and plaster.
Today you can implement any project. It is important not to break the construction technology.
Appointment and appearance
The retaining wall on the plot is needed if the plot of land is located in a hilly area or on a steep bank of a reservoir. These structures are built from various building materials.
It is better if the retaining wall fits into the rest of the design of the site and is in harmony with the outlines and color with the building and the external fence.
When selecting building materials for the retaining wall, one has to take into account the architecture of the house and the design of the land properties adjacent to the building.
The retaining wall does not necessarily have to look like a massive structure and annoyingly climb into the eyes.
The support fence on the allotment of a small area can have a height of only 50 - 60 centimeters, and at the same time it will still reliably perform its functions.
Large structures look heavy, hide space. Designers recommend visually breaking them down with ladders, niches, built-in benches.
The structures of the retaining walls are subject to their purpose. The fence strengthens the ground or serves as a decoration of the site - the structures in both cases will differ.
However, the overall device is the same. Any fence is a combination of the base and the visible part.