Having decided to plant a decorative spruce tree in their homestead territory, one must be prepared to fight for the health of the seedling. Diseases of spruce from a photo, we have already reviewed in the previous issue, today the pests of spruce were on the agenda, and methods of dealing with them.
Although the majority of parasites bypass the epheds due to the release of the last essential oils, however, there were also those who are not afraid of a frightening smell. They can cause serious damage to evergreen beauties.
Just like the scale insect, they belong to the small sucking pests of the family of worms. It has a shell, hence the name. Parasitic on blue and ordinary spruce. Four to eight individuals settle in, the body size of the insects can reach 0.6 cm. With the onset of summer, females are able to lay up to 3000 eggs with a dark red color, from which larvae suck juice from the buds of the tree or its lower part after a month. In October, adults appear.
How to deal with the pest ate?
Adhesive substance (young branches and needles are affected), small growths appeared on shoots (adult shit-shelters live there) - signs of infection. A young tree slows down in growth, needles and buds begin to fall off the tree.
The fastest and safest method is to remove the shield with the help of a soap solution and alcohol. You will need to moisten a rag with the following composition: 75 g of dissolved soap in 5 l of water and 50 ml of alcohol. Now flake can be eliminated manually.
A colony with several thousand individuals cannot be mechanically eliminated - only with chemical preparations such as “Aktara”, “Aktellik”, etc.
It is possible to completely destroy the pest of spruce in several approaches, because the laying of drugs does not work well.
Apha sitkhinskaya fir
It belongs to the main group of insect pests of ornamental spruce and common, essential oils resistant to conifers. Aphids settle on a plant with a colony numbering up to 10,000 individuals. They reach about 0.2 cm and prefer a Sitka, prickly or Serbian Christmas tree.
How to fight?
Aphid is very small, it can be seen only with an armed eye or on yellowish spots. You can accurately identify using white cardboard or just a sheet of light paper. Substitute the cardboard under the branch and lightly tap on the last. Some of the insect pests ate flaking on a piece of paper. In addition, you can notice a sticky coating on the needles that attracts ants.
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Fighting malicious bugs should start with ants who adore the "milk" of aphids and use it instead of "cows".
Green, potassium-containing soap helps to destroy a lot of aphids. Dissolve the bar in a liter of water and rub with a solution of the affected area.
Tobacco dust will help scare away not only aphids, but also many other threatening parasites.
Tetranychinae or spider mite
Most flower growers have met with this parasite pest ate among insects, affecting almost any plant species in the apartment or in the yard of a private house. It is a very small arachnid, its size is up to 0.06 cm. In adults, the body is bright red-orange in color. Nymphs are transparent or light green in color.
It is easy to identify a lesion with ticks: the needles are covered with a barely perceptible cobweb, yellow spots appear on them. After a while, the needles are showered. Mite, a pest of garden spruce and other species, consumes plant sap, leading to a decrease in plant resistance to disease. Most damage is done during the dry season or when the seedling does not receive enough nutrients. Traveling by air. The main reason for its appearance is dry air.
Coniferous Cape (Planococcus vovae Nas)
Dangerous for conifers pest ate. The parasite is white in color, up to 0.1 cm long. The shape of the calf is similar to a turtle. Depending on the species, the color of the body can vary from weak gray to snow white.
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The defeat of the scarlet can be determined by white bloom on the needles, the discharge leaves the insect as a result of life. With a large population from a distance, the tree is as if covered with frost. A black fungus often settles on the site of the boll excretions. The needles of the spruce lose elasticity, the tree begins to be very late in growth.
Spruce bark beetle
Dangerous pests of spruce, small in size, dark in color with a body up to 0.6 cm long. They inhabit the bottom of the trunk by eating coarse bark flakes. Initially, beetles settle on weakened or dried trees, but when the population grows, they can also migrate to healthy seedlings. During the season, such a population is able to “mow” about 10 trees.
- many small holes at the bottom of the trunk,
- characteristic patterns “tracks” on the bark,
- from the trunk of dust scum resembling flour.
Luboed large spruce or Dendroctonus micans
Pests of European spruce, blue, also live in fir and pine trees. Beetles are large, black color. Body length reaches 0.9 cm, the shape is widely cylindrical. Paws and whiskers are yellowish-brown. In the forest zone, the insect is initially inhabited by lonely damaged trees or growing in inappropriate conditions.
Monochamus sartor or Usach fir
Insect pests of spruce, body is 4.5 cm long, black in color and long whiskers on the head. It affects all known types of conifers, most often settles in spruce and fir. The eggs are laid under the bark, later eaten by the larvae. Often spruce barbel can harm maples, birches and aspen trees. Eating the bark of a beetle exposes the bottom of the trunk. The crown shrivels from the trees infected with a big truncus, sokogon is disturbed, as a result they die.
Infected pests of spruce can be cut only in the winter. Among the natural enemies of the parasite, it is worth noting woodpeckers, who destroy it most effectively when they reach it from under the bark. It is the most effective method of struggle, since the harmful insect lives under the bark. It is also permissible to use injections inserted into holes made by a barbel.
The list of insect pests we presented ate far from all, but we described the most common and most dangerous ones. Also, if you decide to plant a decorative fir tree in your yard, familiarize yourself with its views in the following articles: "Varieties of Decorative Fir Trees" and "Types of Decorative Fir Trees for Landscape Design".
Pests of needles, buds and shoots of spruce
Pests of spruce, damaging the needles, buds and shoots, are called coniferous. These include various types of butterflies, some beetles and sawflies. Pine-eater insects feed on kidneys and young needles. By the nature of the kidney damage, it is possible to diagnose which species of the pest has attacked the spruce. If the kidney is damaged from the inside, then it is a spruce spike sawfly or a caterpillar of the spruce moth. If the kidney is damaged outside, then it is a weevil beetle. Young shoots harm gall midges and spruce moths. After settling of the shoots by flies-gall midges, the spruce shoots thicken and take the form of a peculiar cone. Damage to buds and shoots is especially dangerous for young trees. Pests of buds and shoots greatly weaken young spruces, slowing their growth.
Spruce, caterpillars of leafworm moths, Volanianas, peppered moths and weevils are among the pests of spruce that feed exclusively on pine needles. The activity of the spruce sawfly is easy to diagnose by the red needles on the young shoots of spruce. Damaged needles have a bright color and keep not falling from the tree until the spider sawfly eats the caterpillars completely. The main culprits of damage to the old pine needles were solitary and breeding sawflies. Both these sawflies are equipped with cobwebs and excrement dwellings.
Such pests of spruce as nun-moths, yellowtails and some moths are of great economic importance. These insects are capable of forming pockets of mass distribution.
Pests of cones and spruce seeds
Fir cones are a real delicacy for many pests. Cones damage caterpillars of moths, peppered moths, moths, and the larvae of grinders, gall midges and seed-eaters. Cones damaged by pests are easily distinguished by their curvatures, discoloration and dust from the cones. The photo shows signs of vital activity of the moth - trash is poured out of a young cone of spruce. Picture taken in June. If at the beginning of summer you have seen similar manifestations on the cones, then it is advisable not to wait and make the treatment. If you do not fight the fire moth, then in such spruce trees by the fall most of the cones are damaged by the caterpillars of the fire moth, the tree takes on an ugly look.
Pests of bark, trunk, roots, branches and wood of spruce
Pests of bark, trunk, roots, branches and spruce wood belong to the group of xylophages. These are goldfish, bark beetles, barbs, grinders, and drillers. In landscaping, the greatest danger is represented by pests of the trunk that damage living firs. One of these pests is the bark beetle. The fight against the bark beetle-typographer has recently become the main focus of forest protection. Bark beetle is dangerous because of its ability to grow rapidly. Both beetles and larvae of this pest damage the bark of spruce. Bark pests are dangerous during massive outbreaks. Inhabiting only dry-standing spruce trees in normal years, bark beetles are able to attack quite healthy trees as well if they develop foci. In landscaping, large-sized spruce trees suffer from pests of the bark and trunk immediately after transplantation and for 2-3 years after planting. If Another pest of the trunk ate - dendrokton (large spruce bark). Dendrokton can be identified by large inlets in the root part of the trunk of spruce. Holes reach three centimeters in diameter and plentifully poured with resin.
The main method of pest control is to prevent the development of the center of insects. To do this, conduct regular sanitary cleaning of forest areas and preventive treatment of trees from pests. If the hearth has already been formed, only mass felling of trees can save the situation. First of all, the spruce trees that were recently inhabited by the pest are felled - quite healthy trees with green needles. The photo shows traces of bark beetle typographer, spruce trunk pest. All trees that stand without needles, have already died, are another danger - a sudden fall and to be removed. The photo clearly shows how the trunks of spruce break in the middle and lower parts under their own weight.
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Shchitovka and false shield
Quite common pest of indoor plants can also affect conifers. The shield is a small insect that belongs to the superfamily of the worms. The pest has received its name due to the presence of a mini-shell that covers its entire body.
It is worth knowing that the flags and false shields have a number of differences. Besides the fact that they belong to different families, they also differ in structure (the shell is part of the body of the false guard, and in the scales it is separated).In this case, your plant can hit spruce defroster. This is a small parasitic insect that affects blue and common spruce. It settles on a tree in groups of 4-8 individuals. A characteristic feature of spruce false shielding is shell color (brown or light chestnut) and very small body sizes - up to 6 mm. At the beginning of summer, the female lays up to 3,000 burgundy-colored eggs, which in the middle of summer turn into larvae and stick to the plant buds or on the lower part of the tree. By October, the larvae become adults and grow a scutellum.
You can make sure that the spruce tree is struck with a false shield, you can on the following grounds:
- sticky secret (liquid) on the needles and shoots,
- small rounded tubercles on the shoots, which are adult scutes,
- inhibition of growth of a young plant,
- dropping needles or kidneys.
If the colony of false shield has a few thousand individuals, then simple cleaning will not help. For total destruction use chemical means: "Aktara", "Aktellik", "Phosbecid", "Admiral", "Biotlin", "Confido Extra"
In order for the parasite to be completely destroyed, it is necessary to spray spruce from pests several times, while using different insecticides to achieve the best effect.
Spruce aphidAphids are the main pests of spruce. Spruce aphids are not frightened by the smell of essential oils, and it settles in thousands of colonies on a tree. This insect has a size of up to 2 mm and parasitizes Sitkhinskaya, prickly and Serbian spruce. Aphid is so small that it is almost impossible to see it without a magnifying glass. Defeat spruce can be identified by yellow spots on the tree. To make sure that the plant suffers because of the aphid, you can use white cardboard or paper, which is substituted under the branch and knock on it a little. Also on the needles and shoots may appear sticky plaque, which attracts ants.
If you observe all the signs of vital activity of aphids on your tree, then it is urgent to begin the fight against the pest. Before talking about the destruction of aphids, it is worth remembering the reason for the appearance of an insect. Aphids eat fir trees, and ants eat sweet excrements of aphids and use them as livestock. From this it follows that, in addition to aphids, it is necessary to fight with ants.
You should always start a fight with folk methods to protect yourself and pets from toxic substances:
1. Using green potash soap, you can destroy a small aphid population. To do this, dissolve a piece of soap in 1 liter of water and rub the affected places with the resulting solution.
2. To get rid of aphids, you can use citrus bark. To do this, 300-400 g of crusts pour 1 liter of boiling water and let it stand for 3-4 days in a dark place (but not in the cold). The resulting infusion need to completely spray the tree.
3. Tobacco and tobacco frighten away aphids no worse than insecticides. To get the medicine we soak 150-200 g of tobacco in 5 liters of water per day. Further from the spray we spray the diseased plant.If the aphid has flooded all the shoots of a tree or your spruce tree reaches a height that cannot be climbed, then insecticides are used. To do this, use the following tools: "Arrivo", "Karate", "Neoron" and "Aktellik". If only one or two branches are affected with aphids, then they can be cut to prevent further spread of the parasite. Since the ants are transported to the tree by ants, you can wrap the lower part of the trunk with duct tape that insects cannot overcome. If this method does not help, then you can use the following drugs: "Delica", "Muracid" and "Anteater".
This pest is very difficult to notice, since the lesion is in the reach of our place.
Two types of aphids parasitize on spruce: the honeysuckle (in this case, the spruce is an intermediate plant) and the spruce root. Honeysuckle aphid is interesting because it parasitizes both on honeysuckle and spruce. A female mosquito lays eggs in spring on honeysuckle, and in summer on spruce. In this case, the plants must be in close proximity, otherwise the honeysuckle aphid will not parasitize on the spruce tree.Therefore, most often the tree will suffer from spruce aphids. This small insect up to 3 mm in length has a color ranging from pale pink to light red. In this case, the female aphid has wings, so it can carry the larvae over long distances. In early spring, she lays in the ground larvae, which parasitize on the thin lateral roots of the plant. After 2-3 weeks, the larvae become adults. К концу лета самки начинают перелетать на другие деревья и откладывать яйца (этот помёт почти всегда умирает).
How to understand that the spruce tree is affected by the root aphid? If the plant is stunted, has a sore appearance, begins to wither or dry and there is no parasite on the aboveground part, it means that you are dealing with a root aphid.
To overcome root aphids can be a variety of ways:
Let's start with agrotechnological methods that do not involve the purchase of drugs or their manufacture:
- Destroy all weeds near the tree. Especially henbane, corn and chicken millet, since it is on these plants that aphids often develop.
- Disposal of all waste (roots, shoots, leaves) near the spruce.
If you are asked which pests most often parasitize on a tree and eat needles eaten, then you can safely answer that they are Hermes. Hermes are a species of aphid that lives exclusively on conifers. This pest settles on larch, fir, spruce and needles. The infected plant is covered with white patches, as if it was powdered with snow. However, this does not happen in winter, but in the middle of spring. White dots are covers that cover the parasite from damage and sudden temperature changes.
It should be understood that if you have several coniferous trees on the site, after the defeat of one plant, the Hermes will move to another, since most species of this parasite are migratory insects. If the hermes has spread to the whole plant, then in the places of the greatest accumulation of the parasite, the needles begin to turn yellow and fall off, the shoots are deformed and dry.Get rid of the pest is quite difficult. It is important to do this before the middle of summer, otherwise it is not enough that the larvae will cause serious harm to the plant, so they can still fly to the neighboring coniferous trees. To begin with, the shoots of the tree are washed out with a stream of water under strong pressure. This procedure should be carried out several times to wash away the maximum number of parasites. After the "water treatment" you need to inspect the tree. If you find huge clusters on certain branches, then they are better to cut and burn. If the whole tree is evenly covered with white dots, then use insecticides ("Fufanon", "Aktellik", "Aktara", "Komandor", "Iskra"). In addition to these methods, you can also treat spruce with a suspension of mineral oil (100-150 ml per 5 liters of water). The tree must be processed completely to get the maximum effect.
Spruce MothSpruce leafworm refers to those pests that eat cones of spruce and other conifers. The sheet worm is a small butterfly with a wingspan of up to 1.6 cm and a dark color. Adults appear in late May - early June. Favorable temperature for pests is 20-22 ° C. Before you tune to mop butterflies from a plot, it is worth understanding that it is not the insects themselves that are harming coniferous trees, but their larvae. Thus, the caterpillars of the fir moth are the main pests of the spruce, damaging up to 90% of the cones, from which it is then impossible to collect the germinating seeds. During the mating period, the butterfly lays eggs in the scales of the buds of female plants. In the future, the caterpillars live and feed in the cones.
Understand that a sparrow has settled on spruce can be on the resin on the scales of the cone. Also on the needles appears rusty raid. Looking closer, you can see the fibers that twist the needles. The caterpillars not only damage the cones and spoil the seeds, but also gnaw through needles at their base, after which the tree begins to lose plenty of green cover.If you are sure that the leafworm is parasitic on your tree, then you need to start treatment. Chemicals, biologicals, or folk methods can be used against caterpillars. If you do not want to spray hazardous substances on the site, then try to use the drug "Bracon caudiger", which is an insect that destroys the larvae of the moth. They pose no threat to the tree, or to people or animals.
We turn to popular methods, which can also help in the fight against pests. In spring, spruce need to be sprayed with extract of tobacco or decoction of wormwood. However, this should be done before laying eggs with a butterfly, otherwise everything will be in vain.
Butterflies in the daytime remain sitting on the tree, so another option is duct tape, which is wrapped around the tree. Leafworm lures smell. Around the spruce hang small cans of kvass or beer. Butterflies fly to the smell and fall into the trap. If the above methods do not help, then you should use pesticides such as Accord, Fatrin, Landing Party and their analogues.
Spider miteMany florists have encountered this parasite, which can infect almost any plant in the house or on the site. The spider mite is a microscopic arachnid animal that has a size of up to 0.6 mm. Adults are painted in bright red or its shades. The larvae are either transparent or have a light green color.
To understand that a tree is affected by a tick is quite simple: a barely noticeable cobweb appears on the needles, they become covered with yellow spots and eventually fall off. Also, tearing the escape through a magnifying glass can be considered small pests.
Spider mite feeds on plant sap, gradually reducing the resistance of the tree to diseases. The parasite inflicts the greatest damage during a severe drought or if the tree does not receive the required amount of nutrients. The tick is transported through the air, and the main reason for its occurrence is low humidity.
We turn to measures to combat sucking pest spruce. Knowing that the mite likes the dry air, you can plentifully spray the tree with water from a spray bottle, thereby worsening the conditions for the parasite. This method can only help at a very early stage. It is worth considering and folk methods. If the tree is small in size, shoots and stem should be wiped with ammonia.A similar method is the treatment of the entire aerial part with soapy water. It should be remembered that soapy water should not fall on the ground near the radical neck. Use garlic infusion. For 1 liter of water, take 2 medium heads of garlic, chop and pour water. We put the vessel in a dark place and insist about 5 days. Next, we breed in half with water and spray the whole plant from a spray bottle. If a tree is big or a tick has a many thousands "army", then you need to fight with it only with chemistry. The following drugs help to completely destroy the tick: "Fitoverm", "Aktellik", "Fufanon", "Apollo".
There are biological drugs, the main advantage of which is not only the destruction of adults, but also eggs. Such drugs include phytoseiulus predatory mite. Each individual kills 5 adult ticks and 10 eggs per day.
Coniferous scarletThe pest refers to a variety of insects that parasitize both on houseplants and flowers, as well as on vegetables, fruits, and even conifers. The pine bite is white in color, up to 10 mm in length and resembles an oval turtle. Different types of pests can range in color from pale gray to snow white. The activity of a coniferous worm can be seen on a whitish plaque on shoots and conifer needles. As in the case of aphids, a soot mushroom settles on these secretions, causing additional damage to the tree. If the pest population is numerous, then even from a distance the tree will be as if crushed by frost. In addition, the spruce will begin to lag far behind in growth and lose the elasticity of the needles.
Since the coniferous scarlet can completely destroy the tree, the processing of spruce from the pest must begin immediately. A small number of worms can be removed with a sponge dipped in soapy water. During cleaning, it is necessary to remove not only the pests themselves, but also the whitish plaque on which the fungus develops. A week after the mechanical removal of the pest, you need to spray the whole tree with a solution of green soap. It is necessary to carry out the procedure several times with a break of 10 days.Chemical preparations “Calypso”, “Confidant”, “Mospilan”, “Fitoderm” do a great job with a broomstick. As far as possible, treatment with chemicals should be carried out after mechanical cleaning of the pest. Also, for the best effect of the preparations, spruce need to be re-processed. If possible, you should use two or three kinds of insecticides so that the worm cannot adapt.
There are several folk remedies that will help expel the worm:
- Infusion on garlic. 500 ml of water take 1 head of garlic. Garlic is crushed and poured boiling water. The resulting solution is allowed to stand for about 5-6 hours. After that put on needles with a brush.
- Olive oil. At 5 liters of water take 10 tbsp. l olive oil and the resulting emulsion sprayed wood.
A coniferous worm in nature has several enemies that kill thousands of pests without harming the plant. These include Anagyrus, Aphitis, Coccophagus, Leptomastix, Leptomastidea. It is quite difficult to find these insects, but the effect will be at the level of chemical treatment.
Spruce mothAnother name for the pest is the spruce fur cap. It is a species of butterfly wolf that feeds on pine, spruce, larch or fir needles. The spruce moth is painted gray with glimmers of white. The wingspan is up to 6 cm. In spring the butterfly lays eggs between the needles of the spruce. Hatching caterpillars mercilessly destroy greens on a tree. With a strong defeat, the spruce can remain completely without needles.
The activity of the caterpillars falls to the end of spring. The caterpillar feed period is up to 50 days, after which it pupates and turns into a butterfly 15 days later. Each imago can lay up to 300 eggs, which are collected in one heap. You can determine the activity of the spruce moth by using coiled needle and bare branches of a coniferous plant. Also, moth eggs can easily be seen with the naked eye.Knowing what damage the spruce moth caterpillar can cause, it is necessary to immediately proceed to the destruction of the parasite. Start by checking and removing shoots with butterfly eggs. If this is not done, then the whole plant will be treated with chemicals in several approaches. When the caterpillars appeared on the tree, chemicals are used, namely “Bacillus thuringiensis”. However, it should be remembered that this tool works well only when the air temperature is above 18 ° C. If you do not want to use chemistry, then try to hang on the tree special adhesive rings or homemade scotch traps. Butterflies, falling on them, will not be able to get out.
In addition to adhesive tape, you can use infusions on tobacco or garlic. Constantly inspect the tree and cut the branches with the largest number of caterpillars. Try to inspect not only the spruce, but also other plants in the garden, as there are species of moths that parasitize simultaneously on a large number of different plants. Use gloves when collecting caterpillars, as their cover is emitted by a poison of weak action.The peppered moth is a pest butterfly that spoils the harvest of fruits and vegetables in the garden or summer cottage. There is a species of this butterfly, which is parasitic on conifers. The pine moth most often harms the pines, but can leave spruce and fir without green cover. The insect has a wingspan of up to 4 cm and is colored in a reddish-brown color with flashes of white.
The pest lays 130-150 eggs on the old needles, which in 10-15 days turn into green caterpillars up to 4 cm long. They eat needles, leaving small "hemp". Each caterpillar during its development can eat up to 100 needles, while at the end of summer the parasite is taken for the destruction of the needles of this year. A puppets pupate and winters in fallen needles under a tree.In order to prevent the favorite coniferous tree from drying out, or even the entire planting, one must begin to destroy the peppered moth. To expel this pest without the use of chemicals, you will need to work hands. You need to start with cleaning all the needles from under the tree in a separate pile. Further, it is desirable to burn the collected dry needles or simply remove them from the site. If you have goats or pigs, they need to be tied near a tree so that they, digging in the ground, find and eat the moth pupae.
In addition, the soil around the tree must be dug up so that the remaining pupae are destroyed. In the spring, when the butterflies appear, spruce is sprayed with drugs (neonicotinoids or peritroids). After the appearance of the caterpillars, baits (made from the bottom half of the bottle) with kvass or beer are placed on the tree, which lure the caterpillars. It should also be understood that the natural enemies of caterpillars and pupae are ants, birds, moles and some insects.
It is because of the abundance of natural enemies that the use of chemicals in the summertime can do more harm than good. Therefore, we recommend processing at the time of appearance of the first caterpillars and over the next 10 days.
Spruce sawflyThe spruce sawfly is another insect that greatly damages the spruce needles. As in the case of butterflies, the sawfly lays eggs, from which caterpillars are born and destroy the green of the tree. Sawfly refers to hymenoptera. The parasite has a body length of up to 0.6 cm and a wingspan of up to 1.4 cm. The black color of the body helps the sawfly to merge with the shoots and tree trunk. Caterpillars have a length of up to 1.5 cm and are painted in the color of young needles. At the initial stage, they are colorless and barely distinguishable (size - 0.6 cm).
The sawfly eats only needles of this year, parasitizing on the tree for about a month. The time of abundant feeding of the caterpillars falls on the end of May - the beginning of June. Caterpillars pupate and hibernate in spruce litter. A pest can appear due to favorable wintering conditions for it - a warm, dry winter without severe frosts. Such conditions give an outbreak of mass reproduction, which can affect a large number of coniferous trees in the area.You can detect sawflies in May. If you notice that there are a lot of damaged needles on the tree (united or completely missing), this is a signal that a caterpillar appeared on the spruce. You can destroy the pest using chemistry, and agrotechnological methods or by attracting natural enemies. If you notice several caterpillars on a tree, hang 1-2 bird feeders nearby. The initial attraction of birds can have the same effect as the use of chemicals. Ants, tachini flies and rodents are the natural enemies of caterpillars. If they do not harm you or other vegetation in the area, then try to lure them to the affected tree, and the result will not keep you waiting.
If the tree is low or the caterpillars massively accumulate in one place, then they can be collected manually or simply cut a branch (after cutting it must be burned). Effective methods are the installation of adhesive plates or tape winding shoots that do not allow the larvae to rise to the needles of the tree.
Mass defeat by sawfly is “treated” with “Chlorofos”, “Karbofos” or “Kinmiks”. Use them only at the time of the appearance of caterpillars. Spraying is carried out several times with a small interval in time. After the larvae began to disappear from the tree, you need to do spruce bedding. It is piled up and burned off-site. Soil around the tree dug up to get rid of the pupae.
Stem pests ate
This group includes parasites that develop and live in the wood of the plant itself. They damage the bark and eat up moves in the trunk and spruce spruce. Often, the activity of these pests leads to a drying up of the plant or to serious diseases. In addition to direct harm, damaged wood loses its value and cannot be used in recycling.
Spruce bark beetleAnother name for the pest is the bark beetle-topographer. A dangerous pest is a small dark brown insect with a length of up to 6 mm. If you look at the pest through a magnifying glass, you can see that it is a bit like a May beetle. The topographer often parasitizes on spruce, but can live on pine and fir. Bark beetle appears in the month of April. The pest parasitizes in the lower part of the tree, preferring thick, coarsened bark.
The harmfulness of the bark beetle in the spruce forest can be compared with the activities of the Colorado potato beetle in a potato field. If you do not take up the pest control in a timely manner, then it may well destroy several dozen trees in a season. The cause of the beetle is drought or fire. In general, everything that leads to the appearance of a large number of dry or damaged trees.
Signs of spruce bark beetle activity:
- a large number of small holes in the bottom of the tree,
- patterns on the bark that the pest leaves,
- wood dust around the trunk or on it (chopped wood obtained in the process of making passes).
The most effective methods of destruction are injection into wood and traps with pheromones. Only specialists make injections, and they are quite expensive, but you can make a trap yourself. For the trap, you need a funnel with a diameter of 25-30 cm, an average plastic cup, 2 plates with dimensions of 35x45 cm and a pheromone dispenser (purchased in the store).
We make an incision on one plate and insert another to make a cruciform shape. A bag of pheromones is hung from the bottom of the plates. A funnel is attached to the edges of the plates, on the bottom of which a cup is glued. The glass is fixed so that it can be removed and remove insects. Holes are made at the bottom of the glass to prevent rainwater collection.
This method of collecting pests is used in many European countries, as it is the cheapest and quite effective.
Spruce BeetleSpruce beetle or dendrocton belongs to the family of bark beetles. The parasite is a small black-colored beetle up to 1 cm long. The insect feeds on the bark of conifers. In Russia, only one species is common. The main habitat is South and North America. Luboed chooses single weakened trees with a damaged crown or trunk.
The pest appears at the end of June and continues its activity until the beginning of September. The female makes a hole in the bark and colonizes there the larvae that feed on the bast (the inside of the bark).Lubooed is not able to quickly destroy the spruce, but his work greatly weakens the tree and makes it vulnerable to frost and disease. Fight with the pest can and should be. For the treatment of spruce used various methods and means. To begin with, cut down dry trees and prune diseased branches. Feed the tree and conduct a thorough inspection. You can fight directly with the pest only with the help of subcortical injections or by spraying the lower part of the trunk with an insecticide. As in the case of spruce bark beetle, Clipper gives a good effect.
There is one popular method that was used before the advent of chemicals.The solution was made from cow dung, lime, animal blood and tobacco. The resulting mixture was coated with the lower part of the trunk of spruce.
Unfortunately, if the methods described above do not help, then severely affected trees are subject to cutting and burning.
Spruce barbelA beetle that belongs to the subfamily lamine. The pest has a length of up to 4 cm, an elongated body of black color and characteristic long antennae on the head. Spruce barbel common throughout Europe and in some parts of Asia. The parasite damages all types of conifers, preferring spruce trees and fir. The female lays eggs in the bark. The hatched larvae feed on the bark, the bast and the wood itself. As in the case of spruce bastard, the larvae emerge and begin to multiply only after the second wintering. Beetle appears in early May. It starts laying larvae and massively destroying trees from June until the beginning of September.The harmfulness of the parasite is impossible to describe. The beetle spoils the bark, exposing the lower part of the trunk. The barbel contributes to the desiccation of the shoots in the crown, violates sap flow and leads to the complete drying of the tree. The appearance of the spruce barbel is favored by a large amount of spoiled or dried wood.
In order to drive the beetle out of the plot, it is necessary to carry out a large number of sanitary cuttings and clean the area from rotten and dry wood. In fact, the beetle will parasitize only on diseased trees that have either been attacked by another pest or grow under adverse conditions. Treated with barbel trees are cut exclusively in winter.
The natural enemy of the beetle are woodpeckers, who easily get pests from under the bark. You can attract birds with the help of feeders. This method of control is very effective, since a very small amount of chemical agents can help in the fight against the beetle.
If no methods help, then you should purchase specialized insecticides. It is necessary to use them only in the form of injections, since the surface treatment of the result will not give. The solution is injected into the holes made by the beetle. If possible, pour chemical into all holes in the bark.
Another insect that loves to eat wood and bark of needles. The wood beetle has a length of up to 2 cm, the color is black or dark brown.The spruce woodcutter damages felled trees, as well as those that have been weakened or susceptible to damage. The pest eats away the bark and gnaws the wood, making it unsuitable for processing into furniture or used in construction.
The woodcutter appears in May and by the middle of June begins to mate. The eggs lay under the scales of the bark, from which after 2 weeks the larvae hatch and begin to eat the bast of the spruce. It is worth remembering that the beetle does not touch young trees, damaging only the old ones or those that are culled for cutting.
We turn to measures to combat insects. It is worth starting with the implementation of sanitary rules: cutting down old and sick trees, harvesting bark, sawdust and parts of wood. Regular monitoring of conifer plantations will help prevent an increase in the beetle population.
As in previous cases, attracting natural enemies - birds. Woodpeckers can reach both larvae and adults from under the bark, reducing the pest population. If no measures help to reduce the beetle population, then the affected trees should be cut and burned.
Pest Cones: Pine CasterThis pest eats frequent conifers. Many people confuse a fire butterfly with the usual moth. In color and size, they are almost identical. The butterfly is painted gray with a brownish pattern and glimpses of white. Wingspan - up to 3.5 cm. Fire attack appears in June-July. It damages the cones and lays eggs in them. Caterpillars have a dirty red color, reach a length of 2.5 cm.
Caterpillars make moves in the cones, feeding on the base of scales and seeds. After the activity of the caterpillars, the cone grows brown and falls off (reddish excrement is visible on the cone). In addition to the generative organ, the moth damages the apical shoots of spruce and gnaws wood.
If fire has settled on your fir tree, then you will observe the following signs of its activity:
- damaged buds and young shoots,
- yellowing needles,
- Pine cones, brown spots,
- eaten scales on the cones, no seeds.
The butterfly does serious damage to the plantings, weakening the tree and depriving it of its ability to multiply. By increasing the population of caterpillars, the spruce can dry out completely.
To expel a firebug from the site, you need to use insecticides. Processing chemicals begin 2-3 days after the start of dusting male inflorescences. Spruce is sprayed with “Lepidocide II” at the rate of 1 kg per hectare. Re-processing should be carried out a week after the first.
If the processing time of chemicals missed, then you should manually.
The most common pest of pines and firs is red and common sawfly. These small caterpillars eat young spring shoots. At the same time, the branches look burnt and dry. Pines, Canadian, European and Serbian spruce are the hardest hit.
It is easy to fight with the sawfly, the main thing is to notice the caterpillars in time and destroy them. For the fight, you can use chemicals Aktellik, Fury, Decis, BI-58. And for prevention, it is enough to examine the plants from May to the end of June.
No less often on conifers found aphid. She sucks the juice of young, juicy needles from mid-May to late June. For the destruction of female aphids and their larvae using Confidor Maxi, Caesar or Actofit.
The most malicious pest for spruce is the tick. It attacks the plant in early spring when it is above zero temperature. Conifer needles are particularly affected on the sunny side. The needles of a damaged tree turn brown, covered with small dots and cobwebs. The following drugs are effective against ticks: Aktellik, Actofit, Konfidor, Omayt and Antio.
This is a special group of pests of pine and spruce, which form dark green galls that look like a fir cone. There are several types of Hermes: late and early monoecious, as well as yellow. Yellow hermes develop in August green cone-like large galls. Early Hermes forms oval, small galls at the ends of the branches, appearing in late June. The latter is distinguished by large globular galls, which are formed in August-September.
In autumn, small larvae appear at the base of the kidneys, which in spring turn into adult insects. Females feed on the sap of conifers and lay their eggs. The emerged larvae damage the kidneys and deform them. Later in their place galls are formed.
To combat all types of this pest, spraying with preparations based on mineral oils - Aktellik, BI-52, Fastak, Mospilan is used. In the spring, Konfedor or Aktar are brought under the root.
Dangerous pests are also scale insects. On the inside of the needles, under the scales between the needles, one can see elongated, gray-white shields of females and males. They suck the juice, causing yellowing and falling needles.
Fighting this pest is not so easy, because the insect is hidden under the shield. Therefore, the most effective time to deal with them is the moment of appearance of the larvae. For destruction use konfidor maxi.