Portulaca (Portulaca) is an ornamental plant that is valued by gardeners and landscape designers for its spectacular and vibrant flowering.
The plant has spread throughout Europe and Asia. Some believe that the portulaca is home to tropical areas of the Eastern Hemisphere, but its exact origin is unknown.
From Latin, the name of the flower translates as "collar." This is due to the fact that the seed box of a plant opens like a gate. In the people portulak received the name "rug".
The photo below shows what the purslane looks like. The title photo is a terry Portulaca grandiflora.
In the Middle Ages, purslane was very popular in Europe and especially in England. It was used not only for cultural cultivation, but also for medicinal purposes, since the known healing properties of the culture. With these flowers, snake bites, wounds and even insomnia were treated.
Today in Europe portulaca is a field weed, because the flower is easily propagated by self-sowing, although many gardeners gladly grow this crop in gardens, getting a lush and elegant flowering. Purslane is grown as a ground cover plant in open ground, as well as in containers and pots. Portulaca-like flowers are miniature roses, because portulaca flowers in a truly visual resemble roses, especially for terry varieties.
In gardening, only one type of this crop is commonly used - this is portulac grandiflora (P. Grandiflora). This is a low plant (its height does not exceed 20 cm). The leaves are small, shaped like cylinders. Coloring - green or with a reddish shade. Visually resemble Christmas needles. Small flowers, their diameter is not more than 3 cm. Presented in the form of a cup, which consists of five petals. Can be simple and terry. The flowers are white, pink, yellow, red, and also have all the shades of these flowers. Despite the fact that these flowers are perennials, in Russia they are grown as annual crops.
Thanks to the selection work, a wide variety of varietal species of this plant were derived, which are distinguished by flowers, their colors and shapes.
Arctic - this is a terry purslane with spectacular flowers of snow-white color. The diameter of the flower is no more than 4 cm. The height of the plant itself does not exceed 15 cm. The flowering is abundant and long — from the beginning of summer until October. The Arctic is a sunny and drought-resistant variety that will be a wonderful decoration of any garden plot.
Scheherazade - This is a one-year variety mixture. The height of the culture is not more than 15 cm. The flower has a diameter of about 4 cm. The flowers are simple. Color shades differ in brightness and a variety: cream, purple, coral, red, yellow, orange. Flowering is long - from the beginning of summer to the first frost. This variety is used for growing in flower beds, in balcony boxes and flowerpots.
Peacock - a bright variety mixture, distinguished by large double-sized (up to 6 cm in diameter) flowers with strongly corrugated petals. The plant itself is compact, the height is not more than 15 cm. Peacock blooms from June to October. The variety loves warmth and sun, does not tolerate winter, therefore it is grown as an annual crop. It is used for cultivation in an open ground, in flowerpots and cache-pots.
Pink haze - a very gentle annual ground cover. Bush height does not exceed 15 cm. It can grow in width up to 40 cm. Terry flowers have a diameter of about 4 cm, visually resemble small roses. Their color is light pink. Variety loves heat and sun, can bloom profusely, even on poor soil. Bloom lasting. The variety is grown in open ground as a ground cover annual plant, in pots and flowerpots as an ampelous culture.
Happy Treals (Happy Treals) - spectacular varietal variety. Height - no more than 25 cm. The width of the bushes can grow up to 45 cm. This is ampelous annual crop. The flowers are quite large, terry. Flower colors are numerous. They can be yellow, orange, pink, crimson. The variety is used for planting in flower beds, containers, in rock gardens and rabatkah.
Sunny country - This is a short (no more than 15 cm) variety. Although these plants are perennials, they are grown in Russia as annual crops. The flowers are quite large, terry. Corrugated petals have a variety of colors: white, cherry, yellow, pink and bright orange. Flowering is long and abundant. The sunny country is a sun-loving and heat-loving culture. Grown in flower beds, balcony boxes.
Lucky case - unusual creeping purslane up to 25 cm high. The flowers are quite large, terry. The color of the petals is very original - white with small bright pink shades. Variety prefers an abundance of heat and sunlight. Flowering long. It can be grown in flower beds, on Alpine hills, in balcony boxes.
Long summer - a popular terry seven, striking a variety of bright shades of lush, terry flowers. Bush height is not more than 15 cm. Gustomachroe flowers have a diameter of up to 5 cm. Colors: yellow, pink, raspberry, salmon. Blossoming is plentiful and long - from June to the first frosts. It is grown in flower beds, balcony boxes, containers, for decorating paths.
Sandalwood - Annual ground cover about 20 cm high. The flowers are rather large, simple or semi-double. Color: bright yellow, scarlet, pink, salmon, peach or two-tone. It is used for cultivation in open ground in flower beds and flower beds, for planting in containers. Flowers create a dense floral carpet when planted in an open grant. The bloom is intense and long lasting.
Portulak is a great option for hanging balcony flower pots.
Growing from seed
How to grow a seed culture? What is required for this? What care is needed for seedlings?
The purslane successfully propagated by seeds. For sowing, it is necessary to choose seeds older than six months, but not older than 3 years. Growing from seed is possible in two ways:
- Rassadnym way
- By sowing seeds immediately in open ground.
When and how to sow the seeds? Sowing seeds for seedlings is recommended in April, but not earlier.
For sowing it is recommended to choose wide, but not deep boxes. The soil for sowing seeds must be drained and aerated. It must be rich in nutrients. Substrate can be purchased ready in a flower shop or cook yourself. To do this, you need to connect the following components:
- Fertile soil,
Moisten the substrate before sowing seeds. Seeds do not need to be deeply deepened into the substrate, it is enough to distribute them over its surface and slightly sprinkle a small amount of soil.
Boxes with crops are required to be covered with plastic wrap or glass to create the greenhouse effect. The temperature of the content of crops - about 25 degrees Celsius. Periodically, it is recommended to remove the film in order to ventilate and moisten the substrate. Sprouts may appear within three to four days after sowing. Crops are required to keep in a sunny place. At the same time, if the sunlight is low, then it is necessary to use artificial lighting.
You can put the boxes with crops on the sunny balcony, if there is one. If the nights are cold, then boxes should be brought home at night. In too sunny hours the film can be cleaned completely, only the ground should not be allowed to dry.
When there are at least two true leaves, it is necessary to dive in separate tanks. The diameter of the tank must be at least 4 cm. Is it possible to grow portulaca flowers without picking? It is possible, only if the distance between shoots is not less than 5 cm. After picking, it is desirable, but not necessary, to make dressings in the form of mineral fertilizer.
The seedling is planted in open ground at the end of spring or at the very beginning of summer.
Sowing seeds in open ground
How to sow seeds in open ground?
In the open ground, seeds are sown when the average daily temperature will be at least 20 degrees.
Seeds are sown in the wells, the top bed covered with a film. The film must be periodically removed to ventilate the crops and to moisten the soil. You need to remove the film when the average daytime temperature is about 26 degrees.
When the height of seedlings at least 2 cm, they need to be transplanted to a permanent place of growth. The distance between seedlings should be at least 20 cm, as the purslane grows heavily.
When to plant a flower in open ground? Where and how to plant?
At the end of May or at the beginning of June it is time to plant the seedlings in open ground.
Planting site should be open and well lit by sunlightit is advisable to choose elevations. Nearby there should not be trees or any buildings, as they emanate a shadow, which the purslane has nothing.
The soil for planting should be water and breathable. Choosing places with stagnant moisture in the soil is a big mistake, since stagnant moisture can lead to rotting of the plant's root system.
Multi-flowered purslane can be easily planted in poor soil; in such a soil the plant will bloom even better than in soil that is rich in nutrients.
Saplings are planted together with earthen clods in pre-prepared holes. The distance between them should be at least 15 cm, since the plants expand greatly in width.
Planting seedlings are recommended to make either in the morning or in the evening.
Water culture is required regularly - about 5 times a week. Especially important is watering in dry weather. The purslane does not tolerate the absence of moisture for a long time. However, the culture can not be poured, it is fraught with rotting roots.
This plant is very unpretentious. It feels great and in poor soil, it does not need dressing. Periodically it is possible to feed the culture with mineral fertilizers, if the soil is characterized by excessive poverty.
To pests flowers are quite resistant. However, periodically the plant can infect such pests as:
Fighting these pests is required with insecticides.
Application in landscape design
Portulac is actively used in the design of garden plots due to the compactness of the bushes, the duration and abundance of flowering and bright colors. In addition, purslane has a very important quality for design - a great combination with other colors.
Purslane is suitable for growing in flower beds and flower beds. Often the culture is used for planting in balcony boxes, containers and floor pots and vases. Also undersized varieties are used to frame the tracks.
In addition, these garden flowers are often planted on ridges, alpine slides. Used for decorating slopes.
What colors does it match?
- Chinese carnation
The photo shows flowers in an outdoor flowerpots.
Portulac is ideal for rockeries, rock gardens and rocky gardens due to the possible growth on any soil.
Photo portulaca on the flowerbed. Flowers are great for framing flower beds.
Flower beds from flowers of various bright colors.
Portulac is perfect for landing along the tracks.
Portulaca grandiflora (Portulaca grandiflora)
The plant reaches a height of 30 cm. Its leaves are small, fleshy, cylindrical, green or slightly reddish. Stems creeping. The flowers are average, with a diameter of 2.5-3 cm, have the shape of a cup of five petals fused together. There are simple and terry, various colors: red, white, cream, orange, yellow, pink. Portulac flowering period is from June to October.
This type is used in ornamental gardening. A portulac covering both soil and slopes. It is used on stone walls, rockeries, on the slopes of alpine hills, in mixborders (in the foreground), as a curb plant. On dry soils, lawns are made of it. Also planted in hanging pots and boxes on the balconies, loggias.
For exquisite gardeners displayed several varieties of portulaca grandiflora. We describe the most common.
The plant of this variety is one of the lowest, the height of its stems does not exceed 10-12 cm. It has a strongly branched stem. Leaves - small, fleshy, cylindrical. Flowers - terry, bright scarlet color, with a diameter of 5 cm. It blooms from early June to frost. Flowers open only in sunny weather.
Apply scarlet purslane for planting in vases, balcony boxes, between the plates of garden paths. Used for decorating the southern slopes.
BelotsvetkovyThis variety is attractive due to large white terry inflorescences that look like marshmallows. It grows quickly and grows - in a short time its bush can reach 35-40 cm in diameter. Resistant to heat and drought. Able to grow and bloom even in stony soil without additional dressing.
In landscape gardening culture used for decoration of rocky hills, borders, planted in pots and containers.Due to the fact that the purslane variety “Kalambur” is widely spread, it is an excellent groundcover plant. Blooms luxuriantly with double and semi-double flowers of various bright colors with a diameter of 4 cm. Requires a sunny location. It prefers drained, light, sandy soils, but survives even in very poor soils. Drought resistant
Suitable for creating flower beds. It is used in the design of alpine slides and borders.
The purslane orange has a strongly branched stem. It grows up to 10-12 cm in height. The flowers are bright orange in color with a diameter of 5 cm. The buds open only on sunny days. This species is planted in dry sand and sandy soil. He is drought-resistant, frequent watering him to anything. Does not tolerate low temperatures and shade.In landscape design is used in flower beds and stony hills. Planted in flowerpots, containers on balconies, loggias, window openings. It is possible to plant in pots as an ampelous plant.
The main feature of Sanglo is that its flowers, unlike most other varieties, do not close in cloudy weather. In addition, it gives the largest flowers - up to 6 cm in diameter. Inflorescences can be a variety of colors:white, scarlet, gold, orange, pink, peach.Like most portulakovy, it is a light and heat-loving plant with high resistance to heat and drought and undemanding to the composition of the soil.
Looks good in carpet flower beds, when decorating borders.
Portulaca "Sonya" refers to plants that can grow on very poor soils.It grows well in the open sun in areas with loose sandy soil. This mixture produces bright multicolored flowers that bloom profusely and for a long time.
This purslane is recommended as an element of the design of alpine slides, rocky gardens, decorating the southern slopes."Splendex" attracts attention with its large flowers of bright pink or purple-pink flowers. It is a free-flowering creeping undersized plant with a height of 10 cm. The stems are light green with a reddish tinge. The structure of the flowers can be simple or terry. In diameter, they reach 3-4 cm.
This view is perfect for creating carpet compositions and group plantings on lawns, for the front background of rockeries and alpine slides. Splendex can also be decorated with balconies.
Undersized variety with highly branched stems up to 12 cm. The flowers of "Cherry" terry, cherry color, hence the name. Like most varieties of portulaca large-leaved, Cherry loves light and heat. Easily adapts to a cool, damp climate. It tolerates hot and dry weather. Blooms luxuriantly, from June until frost. Requires rare and non-abundant watering.Apply to decorate the southern slopes of the site, when making borders, stony hills, in flower beds. Planted in vases and containers.
Flamenco - terry purslane up to 20 cm high with multicolored flowers and a strong root system. The flowers are double, with a diameter of 4-6 cm, of various shades. Feels good in dry, sandy and stony soil. Heavy and acid soils do not suit him. Poor blooms on rich fertile soils and in cloudy weather. It can live for a long time without irrigation, it is watered only with a strong drought.
Portulaca "Flamenco" planted on the southern slopes of flower beds and rocky hills.
Portulaca garden (Portulaca oleracea)
In addition to decorative, there is garden or edible (vegetable) purslane. Sometimes it is also called “dandur”. This is an annual plant up to 40 cm in height with oval succulent leaves and small yellow flowers with a diameter of 7-8 mm. It blooms from June to September.Due to the fact that this type of portulaca can grow on almost any soil, it is often considered a weed. Although this dandur has healing and good taste properties. In cooking, there are many recipes for dishes, one of the ingredients of which is purslane.From its leaves and stems, you can cook soups, salads, pickle, add as a seasoning in vegetable dishes, gravy and sauces.
Purslane is an excellent antioxidant and diuretic. It is added to medicinal extracts in the treatment of diseases of the kidneys and liver, for insomnia. It is believed that it affects the normalization of blood pressure and blood sugar levels.
Garden purslane also includes several varieties.
This variety can be found on the green with a yellowish tinge of leaves and small yellow flowers. The plant is very thermophilic, so much so that it ceases to grow at low positive temperatures, and at insignificant frosts it dies.A strong leaf plant with a stem height of 30-35 cm. Its leaves are smooth, glossy, crunchy. The yield of green - 1.5 kg / sq. m Thermally. Unpretentious to the soil. The leaves and the tops of the stems are used for making salads and for canning.
Portulaca "Paradox" loves light, heat, does not tolerate negative temperatures. Valuable fleshy and thick leaves of green and green-pink color. The variety is early ripening - the period from germination to ripeness is only 25-30 days. In cooking, he is advised as an alternative to spinach. Paradox greens are used to make multivitamin salads, cook soups, use them in sauces and as a seasoning for meat dishes, pickled and marinated.The portulak garden "Firefly" gives juicy, fleshy stems and leaves. It grows in height to 45-50 cm. This purslane loves sunny, shaded areas, fertile and moist soil. With one square meter you can collect 2.5 kg of leaves and shoots for later use in food. Greens have a sour taste.
"Firefly" is advised to eat people who suffer from diabetes, kidney and liver disease.
For summer residents, purslane is interesting, first of all, because of its unpretentiousness. When planting, it is necessary to take into account that this plant is light and heat-loving, therefore, it is necessary to choose a bright place for it. The optimum temperature is + 20-26 Cº. Although the flower easily tolerates a slight decrease in degrees. Sole purslane loves sandy, without peat.
Also requires regular watering, weeding and thinning. Provided that all these factors are observed, excellent floral “rugs” will come out that will delight you throughout the summer.
Types of Portulaca
- Portulak terry - a decorative annual cop, which blooms with large flowers all summer. Flowers open in the sun and close at night or in the absence of sunlight.
To date, varieties have been bred, the flowers of which are open 24 hours a day regardless of the sunlight falling on them (Sunglo, Sundance).
- Garden purslane (medicinal or vegetable) - most often grows as a weed single plant, usually multiplies with the help of self-seeding, quickly capturing large areas.
It differs in creeping shoots, reaches a height of up to 30 centimeters, differs in branching stems and oblong green leaves, flowers are relatively inconspicuous, small light yellow shade.
But this is not its main advantage, it is usually grown because of its healing properties. The foliage and shoots contain carotene, organic acids, ascorbic acid, potassium, magnesium, zinc, calcium, sodium, copper, iron, norepinephrine, nicotinic acid.
- Portulak ampelnaya Is an artificial hybrid, characterized by branching flexible stems and leaves in the shape of a cone.
The flowers are simple or double, the color is varied (white, red, pink, purple or lilac). Most often, this culture is used in alpine slides and rabatkah, as well as grown for hanging pots and street vases, or as a houseplant.
- Portulac grandiflora. The most common form in Russia. Most often grown as an annual ornamental garden plant. Its bloom can be observed all summer until the first frost.
Differs creeping shoots. The stems themselves are covered with small foliage in the form of small cones, while the flowers can reach up to 7 centimeters in diameter.
The color of flowers is the most diverse from white to burgundy or purple. Inflorescences tend to close at night or during bad weather. It blooms from mid-summer to mid-autumn.
Among the most popular varieties are the following:
- Royal with simple large flowers of various scales.
- Air marshmallows are distinguished by short shoots up to 10 centimeters and large double florets of various colors.
- Belotsvetkovy similar to the previous variety, but has flowers exclusively white.
- Princely different corrugated petals with white, orange or scarlet color of inflorescences.
- Splinders are characterized by double large purple-pink flowers.
- Large-flowered. Up to 20 centimeters in height, it is distinguished by large flowers similar to tea roses, with dense cylindrical leaves. The color of the colors themselves can vary from white, yellow and coffee to combinations of two colors at the same time.
Watering. Watering is needed not so often frequent as regular, it is enough to water the plant every 4-5 days with soft settled water. It is important to water the plant during periods of severe drought.
Growing from seed. Seeds gain their germination no earlier than 6 months after harvest. And keep it for 3 years. It is possible to sow seeds both on seedlings at home, and immediately into open ground, on a flower bed or bed.
It is possible to plant seeds on open soil after establishing a stable temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. When growing seedlings, seeds should be planted not earlier than April.
For this, small containers or containers with lids, such as cakes or salads, are best suited. As a substrate, you can use a mixture of sand, garden soil and crushed charcoal.Ready store soil may not be suitable due to excessive peat content, which the purslane difficult to transfer. In the container for planting it is necessary to prepare openings for the flow of water, the bottom of the tank can be laid out with a layer of small stones for additional drainage.
Put the prepared substrate on the drainage, condense and pour. Distribute the seeds evenly over the soil surface and sprinkle with earth.
Cover the seeds with a lid or film and place in the warmest place at a temperature of 25 degrees. When organizing the right conditions, you can observe the first shoots after 3-4 days.
Until this time, the mini-hothouse needs daily airing. Further, the planting needs to be watered and thinned in a timely manner. In late May - early June, seedlings can be planted in a permanent habitat in open ground.
More than one year
The unusual herbaceous culture is that there is also a long-term purslane - ampelous variety. Nevertheless, the harsh climate of northern latitudes does not allow it to be grown in open ground. It just freezes and turns into an ordinary annual. While some practice sowing seeds in pots / containers and grow at home. In the fall, it is brought into the room, trying to constantly keep the soil moist. In spring, the specimen needs reinforced dressing. As soon as he is taken out into the street, all the stems are cut off at once, so that new ones can form.
Such an overview of the most popular types of portulaca varieties is quite concise. In fact, there are hundreds of hybrids of each of them. However, the main characteristics remain unchanged.
Proper care for purslane
Although the plant does not belong to the demanding ones (for which many flower growers appreciate it), nevertheless some rules for its maintenance must be observed. To a greater extent, this applies to good light and special soil composition, where preference is given to light, sandy, poor soil. In the rich soil, the purslane will gain green mass, but most likely it will not bloom.
Portulac likes good lighting - when placed in shady areas or during periods of prolonged overcast weather, the buds are poorly disclosed, there is a danger of a complete lack of flowering. In the shade of the plant, the stem is significantly extended and the overall attractiveness of the flower cover is lost. But in direct sunlight, it is not afraid. When choosing a place of residence for a flower in apartment conditions, the choice falls on the southern window-sills, and in summertime it is better to transfer the flowerpots to a balcony or loggia. It is also recommended to turn the pots from time to time so that the plants grow in the same way.
Since portulac is home to South America, care must be taken to ensure that it receives a lot of heat. The optimum temperature should be at least + 22C. The most beautiful lush bloom can be observed when the thermometer reaches + 30C. Portulaca should also be disembarked in warm weather when the temperature does not fall below +20.
Culture does not apply to lovers of excessive moisture - waterlogging of the soil can lead to rotting of the root system and death. No purslane needs additional spraying, except for the period of growth of seedlings. At the same time, with a strong lack of moisture, the plant may begin to fold the leaves, therefore a modest but regular moistening of the soil, which is necessarily equipped with drainage, is necessary (this is especially true for indoor species). In rainy summer, watering is applied as needed.
The purslane must be carefully watered both during planting and during its growth. Then the amount of feed decreases, as the maturing fleshy leaves have the ability to accumulate water. An adult flower is sufficient to be watered once a week. At the same time, it is necessary to loosen the ground in order to provide sufficient oxygen to the roots. In particularly dry periods, the frequency of irrigation increases to 1 time in 3-4 days. Room representatives can be very long without moisture.
Fertilizers and feeding
Adult purslane does not need feeding. The main thing - to provide him with suitable soil. The most favorable will be sandy soil with no peat. If the soil is heavy - it can be fertilized with charcoal.
Increased attention is paid to seedlings - they are fed twice. The first feeding should be two weeks after picking with nitrogen fertilizers. The second - is made shortly before planting in the open ground. In this case, you need to apply complex compositions with a high content of potassium and phosphorus.
Pests and diseases
Portulac extremely rarely suffers ailments, but they can still overtake the plant under adverse conditions of detention. Particularly dangerous fungus, signs of which are spots on the leaves, damaged shoots. The infected parts of purslane must be removed, and the remaining vegetative system must be treated with a fungicide preparation containing copper.
The main pest of culture is aphid, which attacks the shoots during flowering. Insecticidal solutions help to cope with it. Thrips feeding on sap plants are also dangerous. Their presence is characterized by the appearance of silver droplets on the leaves and fading. Be sure to require treatment with insecticides.
How to transplant purslane
Portulak tolerates transplant. Thus, you can land a young plant or transplant a part of an adult culture, separating the part with a rhizome with a shovel. It is necessary to provide a suitable light, loose, sandy soil, sunny territory. It is better to replant it in the warm season - at the end of spring. In cool conditions, when the temperature fluctuates within + 10C, purslank may not settle down, the leaves will begin to fall.
Bushes are located at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. The first days need to ensure daily watering, especially during droughts.
Portulak - photo
Due to its unpretentiousness and the ability to take root on any soil, purslank is widely used in landscape design. With it, you can form a whole flower carpet, decorate a rock arion, an alpine slide, supplement a motley flower garden, or significantly transform a balcony or a loggia. All the richness of the colorful diversity of the plant can be seen in our photo gallery, which also presents various ways of planting it. Enjoy watching!