These flowering early cultivated plants in floriculture occupy the first places. Vitoka's violet, pansies, tricolor violet and viola - these are the names of these plants. Gardeners and gardeners worship this flower-decorative culture. Pansies - this is the popular name for the Vitoka violet. The color of violets is very diverse: black and white, blue and red, with red, blue, yellow shades. The center of the flower may have a spot of original color and shape.
Pansies are shade-tolerant and winter-hardy crops. Planted in the shade viola bloom longer, but the abundance of flowering is not the same as in the sun. Their flowers are not so bright and smaller. Viola prefers moist and fertile loam. Do not like pansies nisin with the stagnation of melt water, planted in a place they vypravayut and die. The viola should be planted on a breathable and moisture-permeable soil with a mechanical structure.
Viola - a two-year culture
Most often, pansies are grown as a two-year culture, the seeds are sown in June - July in open ground. Seedlings should be expected in 1-2 weeks, in August transplantation of grown seedlings to a permanent place. The flowering of such plants will come in the spring of next year, the pomp and duration of flowering is much higher than that of pansies grown by seedlings.
Summer planting of the viola for the winter should be warmed with spruce leaves, fallen leaves or straw, this will prevent the root system from freezing in severe frosts.
Top dressings in the spring are introduced before the appearance of the buds and at the beginning of flowering. Manure can not be used for feeding the viola. Instead of organic matter, you must use mineral fertilizers: superphosphate, ammonium nitrate. 20 g of these fertilizers are embedded in the ground at 1 meter square.
Growing Viola seedlings
This is the only way to grow pansies where there are harsh winters, where large-flowered varietal viols do not have a chance to survive in open ground. As a houseplant, Vitrok violet is not grown, as it is demanding of light. She will not have enough illumination with fluorescent lamps, and the use of mercury lamps requires electricity, and it is not economically feasible.
pansies on the garden
For supplementing seedlings fluorescent lamps are suitable, and better fitolampy. In order for the viola to blossom in the landing year, it must be sown from December to February. Illumination should be carried out daily for 14-16 hours. Even doshochivanie does not prevent the stretching of seedlings, but the treatment of seedlings growth regulator Alar, limits their growth. Enough one or two treatments with the drug.
For a friendly germination of the seeds of the viola, a temperature of 18-20 ° C is needed. The seeds germinate at this temperature 5-14 days. For the emerged shoots it is necessary to provide a temperature of 12-15 ° C.
The substrate for sowing viola seeds should have a pH of 5.5-5.8. It is not recommended to add fertilizers to the substrate, so when 2 true leaves develop, then fertilizing begins.
The sowing of viola seeds is carried out on the surface of the moistened soil, followed by vermiculite powder. While plants do not ascend, containers with crops need to be kept covered with a film.
Growing healthy and strong Viola seedlings is accompanied by an important condition - ensuring good drainage.
At the age of five weeks, the viola seedlings are ready to dive into pots, their diameter should be about 10 cm. It is better to carry out the growing of the violet Vitroka in unheated greenhouses.
Planting of seedlings of pansies on flowerbeds is carried out after the withdrawal of the return frost, at the same time it is necessary to shade the seedlings at first from the rays of the sun.
Vegetative reproduction viola
This method of reproduction of Vitrok's violets is cutting. This is an effective, economical and easy way to reproduce the viola. Grafting begins in May: green shoots with 2-3 knots are cut from the tops of the bushes and land in the shade to a depth of 0.5 cm close to each other. Landings are then watered and sprayed with water. For the development of roots in cuttings of violets it will take up to 3-4 weeks. Early grafting viola allows you to grow plants that bloom in summer - autumn. Viola, grown from cuttings when cutting in late summer, will produce flowers next spring.
Conducting cuttings of pansies, we not only receive additional planting material, but also rejuvenate the plants. Due to this, Viola bushes do not grow much and bloom well. One developed viola bush is enough to receive up to 10 cuttings in one step, 30-40 cuttings can be obtained during the summer.
Watering on dry days should be daily, every two to three weeks you should feed the viol with mineral fertilizers, and still need to weed. For the winter, it is necessary to cover the violet plants with spruce branches, sawdust or straw.
Pansies can suffer from diseases: powdery mildew, spotting, gray mold. In the event of damage to plants, they should be removed, and so that they do not hurt, they should be sprayed with a solution of soap and soda ash, or sprinkled with ground sulfur.
From all that has been written, it is clear that growing a viola is not an easy process, but how can it frighten it, because viols bring good mood all summer. Good luck to you!
Care and cultivation of viola (pansies)
Accommodation. Almost all viols prefer open sunny places, but they bloom well in slightly shaded ones. Fragrant violet loves moderately moist places in a light shade.
Young Vittroka violets are planted on beds at a distance of 10-20 cm. Too dense planting sometimes leads to the defeat of various rot.
The soil. All viols prefer loose fertile soil. Pansies unpretentious plant, but it is better to grow on well-drained soils, where there is no stagnation of water.
Watering and fertilizer. Watering is recommended in dry weather, otherwise the flowers become shallow and flowering stops. On the fertile, moderately moist soil pansies bloom throughout the season without requiring any worries.
Organic fertilizers do not make, mineral dressings contribute to the extension of flowering. Excess nitrogen fertilizer in wet weather sometimes leads to the defeat of plants with fungal diseases.
Breeding. Propagated viola seeds. If you want to keep some kind of particularly interesting color of flowers, you can propagate pansies cuttings.
Fragrant or tricolor violet is usually not specially propagated. It is enough to sow the seeds once or transplant a bush into your garden, and the plant will take care of itself further. Of course, if the conditions for violets are suitable. Very often fragrant violets are found in spring among berry bushes, along paths, in other places where weeding is rarely carried out, and the soil is loose and fertile.
Vittrock's viola seeds are sown at different times, depending on how you use violet - as an annual plant or as a two-year plant. If grown as an annual, the seeds are sown in March in greenhouses or boxes. The temperature should be moderate, the seedlings develop normally and at 10 degrees of heat. Such plants bloom in early summer.
When the viola is grown as a biennial plant, the seeds are sown almost immediately after ripening, in June or July, in special beds for seedlings. Seedlings appear after 2-3 weeks, after another half a month the seedlings dive (when two true leaves appear). In late August or September, they can be landed at a permanent place. They will bloom in early spring, immediately after the first bulbous.
If in September Viteroka violet seedlings are transplanted (the flowerbed is still busy with autumn flowers), then in early spring you can transplant bushes with buds or flowers, - pansies transplant the transplant well, even in flowering condition.
The best varieties of viola can be propagated by green cutting, which is carried out from May to July. On the cuttings take the green tops of shoots with 2-3 nodes. They are planted on the beds (preferably in a shaded place) to a depth of 5 cm, quite tight. After planting the cuttings must be sprayed with water. Most of the cuttings rooted in moderately moist soil after about 3 weeks. General care for cuttings consists in regular watering, spraying and weeding. Cuttings, rooted in May, bloom the same summer. Later bloom at the same time as the two-year-old viola.
How to use violet in garden design
Violet begins to bloom very early. The colorful carpet of pansies looks amazing. They will look very decorative if you plant a primrose or other spring bulbous flowers next to them.
Viola can be used for landscaping terraces and balconies. Garden vases with pansies will not leave anyone indifferent. Thanks to the many varieties, you can create perfect floral arrangements. Many landscape design experts recommend combining wild and cultural types of pansies. In the garden you can grow a field viola. The tricolor violet is almost always present in Moorish lawns. Fragrant violet is a popular ground cover plant that is ideal for shady places. Regardless of the type, the viola enchants with its beauty, original shapes and colors.
Choosing a place
The most comfortable violet will feel in well-lit places. These charming colors will suit a slightly shaded place. Violet fragrant prefers a light shadow. It will grow better in moderately humid places.
Young plants should be planted on flowerbeds, I observe an interval of 10-20 cm. Thick planting is one of the risk factors for the development of root rot.
Violet is considered an unpretentious plant, but it is better for her to pick loose, fertile soil. Land for cultivation should be with good drainage so that it does not stagnate water.
On poor and sandy soils, violets grow poorly, and their flowers become smaller. To avoid this problem, compost with humus must be introduced into the ground.
Pansies need moderate watering. Excessive moisture is contraindicated. Because of this, violets can rot. Despite the fact that they tolerate abnormal heat well, watering should be increased in dry weather. In the heat they must be watered every other day, constantly loosening the soil. Due to the drying of the soil, the viols lose their decorative effect. Trying to retain moisture, the bushes bend down to the ground. Flowers become small and inconspicuous. Flowering stops.
For better growth and development of the soil in which pansies grow, it is better to enrich with mineral fertilizers. The plant is fed with nitrogen, so that the foliage is thick and green. Phosphorus and potassium are necessary for bright colors of flowers. It is important not to overdo it with nitrogen fertilizers. Excessive nitrogen content in the soil in a humid environment contributes to the growth of fungal diseases.
Diseases and pests
When growing pansies, flower growers rarely encounter diseases and pests. The greatest danger to violets are the insect larvae that live in the soil. This is a favorite delicacy of the grubs of the May beetle Also, the plant is subject to attack by aphids and owls. Get rid of them is quite simple. To combat them use special tools that can be found in flower shops. Failure to follow the rules of viola can cause such diseases as powdery mildew, spotting, root rot, and black leg.
Violet is able to multiply by seed and grafting. Most often, to obtain a new offspring using the seed method. To preserve an interesting color of flowers, pansies are propagated by cuttings.
There is no need to specifically propagate violet tricolor or fragrant. Under suitable conditions, these species take care of themselves. They grow beautifully on loose fertile soil. Do not be surprised when new bushes appear under the berry bushes or along the tracks.
Depending on the type of plant viola sown at different times of the year. If you want to get an annual plant that blooms in early summer, seedlings are sown in late February. It is grown in greenhouses or boxes. As a rule, the first shoots appear in 2-3 weeks and dive into the ground, and in May they are planted in a permanent place. Such plants will bloom in early summer. When growing pansies as a biennial plant, sowing seeds in the open ground is made immediately after ripening, choosing the appropriate beds. For the seeds to develop well, they can be transplanted during flowering, when there are buds and flowers on the bushes. They are well tolerated transplant.
For the best varieties of pansies use this method of reproduction, as green cutting. The procedure can be carried out from May to July. For cuttings take green tops of the shoots, which have 2-3 nodes. They need to be planted in a darkened place, deeply deepened by 5 cm. It is equally important to spray the cuttings immediately after planting. As a rule, rooting of cuttings takes 2-3 weeks. At the same time they should be looked after and kept in moderately moist soil. For better rooting in the early days, the cuttings are covered with moistened paper. After that, they will not rot. The cuttings are regularly watered, sprayed, and weeds that grow nearby are weeded. When rooting cuttings in May, the first flowers appear in the summer. If rooted later, they will bloom in the second year.
Propagation of hybrid species of violets allows you to rejuvenate the plant. In most cases, in the third year pansies greatly expand. Because of this, flowering becomes not so attractive. You can get about 10 cuttings from one plant at a time. Over the summer, their number may increase to 45.
Viola (pansies) photo.