Having a private house or cottage, the owners on their site must grow spicy crops. Some are satisfied with two or three kinds of names, but the real connoisseurs of savory dishes prefer to sow forbs.
In cooking, even a variety of wormwood is used - tarragon (it is also called tarragon). Due to the pleasant smell of the plant, the housewives add spice to the marinades when salting cucumbers and other vegetables, as well as spicy dishes. What is tarragon grass planting and care for it describes this article.
Tarragon is a perennial plant that can multiply by self-seeding. To the west came from Asian countries and immediately became popular with its piquancy.
It can develop in one place for 10-15 years. But gardeners are trying to keep the spice in the cultural turnover of not more than five years - with age, tarragon produces less useful green mass.
Grass tarragon in the garden
Since the grass is indifferent to the mechanical composition of the soil and is able to grow in the wild, farmers will have no problems with growing tarragon. But acidity is important for the quality of the spice produced from the bed.
Note! It is better if the pH is neutral - on very fertile soils the tarragon grows well and actively gains green mass, but loses the amount of essential oils (and, therefore, its smell). Wood acid will help reduce acidity.
If the country house stands on heavy, clayey soils, it is recommended to “fluff it up” with sand and organic fertilizers in combination with superphosphates. Add supplements in the fall, in the process of digging the site.
The grass develops well in shaded places, but if the tarragon is really cultivated, then it is better to select a sunny plot for a spicy vegetable garden. Waterlogged soils should also be avoided.
When seeding tarragon in a new place, it is desirable to take into account the crop rotation. You can not sow spice on the beds after the Jerusalem artichoke, chicory and lettuce. After the legumes tarragon will feel comfortable - they have excellent compatibility.
Estragon is a cold-resistant plant, so it is often sown before winter, just before the snow falls. But many gardeners prefer to plant beds in early spring, under a small layer of earth.
Propagating tarragon cultivation is carried out taking into account the specificity of the variety. The most popular for spicy qualities are those varieties that grow in the Caucasus. In the national cuisine of these peoples, tarragon occupies an honorable place (as in the French).
Russian hostesses have their own preferences. Each variety described below is worth it to make homemade preparations.
Popular varieties of tarragon
Monarch is often cultivated from the seeds of tarragon, which Caucasians rightly call the "king of cookery." But the seed of a variety is too small, so it is more reasonable to grow it in a seedling variant, sowing it in boxes in February-March. Saplings are transported to the garden in late April - early May. The monarch has a well-marked, sharp, refreshing taste and a spicy aroma pleasantly teasing smell.
In tarragon Goodwin, which is also grown in a seedling way, the aroma of the spice is strongly pronounced, but in the taste there is bitterness. Therefore, this grass only an amateur. Although gardeners are attracted by the fact that the leaves on the bush do not grow coarse until the autumn.
Reproduction of culture
Inexperienced gardeners often wonder how to grow tarragon, so that he quickly settled down on the site, filling the garden with a spicy aroma. Some believe that the seed method is the most accessible. In fact, it turns out to be more laborious, because the gardener does not immediately receive the results.
Important! When deciding how to grow tarragon from seeds, one should take into account such a nuance - the grass loses its spicy flavor with this method of reproduction.
Despite the winter hardiness of the plant, in tharkhun the seeds do not ripen in the zone of the Non-Black Earth region and the northern regions. If the gardener wants to grow tarragon from the seeds, you will have to use imported material and try to propagate the grass by seedling.
When a plant is planted with seeds, the tarragon will blossom only next year. And the first fruits can appear no earlier than in 3-4 years, if the summer will be hot enough.
The most convenient (and giving quick results) spice cultivation method is vegetative:
- dividing the bush - the plant is completely dug out in early spring, is cut into delenki with such a condition that in each part there is a good root and 3-5 shoots,
- root offspring - here they only do digging of the earth, in order to detach a part of the root with the stems growing on it,
- cuttings - at a distance of 15 cm from the top make an oblique cut, trying to keep a couple of leaves in centimeters 3 from the bottom edge; a permanent place in the open ground - by this time the cuttings will give strong roots.
Such methods of vegetative propagation are carried out in spring in order to use green spice by autumn. With the seedling method in the first year, the tarragon is better not to touch, so that the plant does not weaken and can take root well.
Multiplying tarragon cultivation from seeds is best practiced in the southern regions of Russia - the seed will sprout for a long time (at least 3 weeks). In the northern regions during spring sowing the plant will not have time to fully develop into an adult bush. Some gardeners sow under winter, but most prefer the seedling method.
The nursery can be small, easily located on a window sill. But real farmers prefer greenhouse film beds in the garden. Earth in the breeding ground is fertilized with a standard set of mineral water with organic matter, if necessary, you can add humus.
Note! In the central and northern regions, seedlings are grown in 2 runs. At first sowing is carried out in heated premises (greenhouse, living room). Closer to the summer, saplings are transferred to film greenhouses in the beds, continuing to grow them there.
Growing seedlings begin in the spring. In heated breeding grounds, sowing is carried out in the first half of April, and in greenhouse beds in early May.
If the seed is collected personally, it should be soaked for a couple of hours in a weak potassium permanganate before sowing. Purchased branded seeds have already passed the decontamination procedure. Due to too small seed sizes, soaking is difficult without special tools. The best option, which like to use gardeners - a snail.
To sow tarragon in a hotbed you need on the surface of the soil, not closing up, but only tapping on top of a thin layer of earth. An ordinary method is used with a distance of 15-20 cm. As soon as the shoots appear, they should be thinned out, maintaining the gap between the shoots of 10-12 cm.
This year, the seedlings do not land on the beds, and until next spring develops in the nursery. If the tarragon grows in the greenhouse in winter, it should be covered with warming material. In the absence of greenhouses, seedlings are brought into the house for the period of cold weather.
To get quality seedlings, it must be grown under certain conditions:
- watering often, but in small portions, creating moderate humidity, spraying tarkhun by agrarians is not practiced,
- the tarragon has enough natural light, so there is no need for lighting up,
- the seedlings calmly maintain the air temperature, a few degrees higher than that in open ground, the main thing is to prevent freezing,
- it is recommended to open a greenhouse when grown in a film nursery for the summer.
There is no need to provide additional seedlings with additional nutrition - they have enough of the nutrients that have already been added to the soil. Having finished with the cultivation of seedlings, they proceed to the question of how to plant the tarragon on the garden bed.
With the beginning of the new season, before planting the tarragon at a permanent place, the seedlings are watered. The transfer is made at the end of May, trying to plant the plant according to the scheme - to leave a gap of 30-40 cm between bushes, 70 cm between rows. After that, it remains only to properly care for the beds.
Tarragon is developing well in abandoned areas. But, knowing how to grow tarragon, you can get better products.
Tarragon needs care
Proper care includes the following points:
- the first abundant watering is carried out immediately after the landing of tarragon in the ground, the rest are carried out as needed - it all depends on the amount of precipitation in the season,
- In the first year, the tarragon can not be fed up (especially on fertile soil), from the second season in the spring a complex mineral water with 3 main components is introduced into the earth (it is also possible)
Important! For the cultivation of tarragon nitrogen plants should be much, but an overabundance of the mineral component worsens the tasting qualities of the culture.
- if the bush is high, it is desirable to tie it up with a peg so that the stems do not get damaged during strong winds,
- the remaining moments are typical for all garden plants: regular loosening, weeding and pest control.
Tarragon has no specific diseases - the herb can be affected by any infection that is common in the country. Tarragon and insects are also visited, but they do not cause much harm to the plantations. In order to provide a comfortable condition for development, when carrying out spring preventive treatment of a garden plot, the spraying of spicy beds will not interfere.
In winter, all shoots can be cut and dried, and can be left until spring. But after the snow melts, dead wood is necessarily removed.
During the planting season, the tarragon is better not to disturb, but to enable it to gain a foothold on the site. From next year, you can cut the green mass as needed. The main harvest is carried out in the summer when the bush is old enough.
Although many gardeners prefer the May period, a delicate flavor is collected from the tarragon collected before flowering. In order not to weaken the plant, only a small number of shoots that have reached 15-20 cm in height should be cut from the bush.
Note! If you take only the tops with large leaves in the spring, the plant will become more powerful, in the fall you can safely cut off the shoots completely.
The collected grass is washed, crushed and dried in the shade, distributing on trays. Towards evening, the raw materials are brought into the room so that it does not become saturated with night dew, and in the morning they are brought under the shed again.
When the tarragon is completely dried, it is packaged in sealed containers and stored without access of light. If planting tarragon and caring for him carried out correctly, the dried grass can be stored in the kitchen cabinet for several years without harm to the spicy qualities.
Tarragon can be propagated in several ways: by sowing seeds, cuttings, dividing the bush and rhizomes. Growing from seed is the simplest, but not the most successful way in terms of grass quality. The fact is that the planting of tarragon from its own seeds over time leads to a degeneration of the culture - a decrease in the concentration of esters, and, consequently, a decrease in the intensity of the aroma. For this reason, experienced gardeners try to propagate tarragon vegetatively: from cuttings, or by dividing a bush.
The division of the bush allows you to save varietal characteristics of the culture, but at the same time the plant is experiencing some stress, because some parts of the already formed bush for a long time take root. It is necessary to divide and seat a bush in the spring or in the beginning of autumn. The plant should be carefully dug, divided into two parts (no longer desirable), then each of them should be placed for a while in a growth-stimulating solution, after which the roots can be dug in the prepared holes and watered abundantly.
Growing tarragon by cutting is quite simple. Planting cuttings in the ground is carried out in early May, and the branches for germination must be cut a few days before the estimated date of planting. Cuttings 10–15 cm long need to be placed for a day in the “Kornevina” solution (a biostimulant that accelerates rooting), or another growth stimulator, and then prikopat in wet sand, and cover with a film.
Care must be taken that the sand is always slightly wet, but not wet. If the care was correct, then within a month the roots germinate and the vegetative process begins. At this time, the cuttings are planted on the garden where their further cultivation will take place. It is convenient to resort to grafting if you need to grow a large amount of tarragon, since 60-80 cuttings can be obtained from a single adult plant.
Care and cultivation
Caring for the crop includes standard activities consisting of watering, weed removal and timely feeding. As a perennial plant, tarragon in the first year of life only develops, and it blooms and bears fruit in the second year, and then, in a cold climate, this can be expected longer. Therefore, the cultivation and care of tarhun to a certain extent depends on this feature:
- watering is carried out systematically, but as needed (it is necessary to ensure that the soil does not dry out, and was not excessively wet) - in the first year, while the plants are formed, watering should be carried out often, the adult plant is sufficiently watered 3-5 times / season and only in arid periods,
- the cuttings require more careful care: until the roots grow, the soil should always be wet, the shelter should be periodically removed for ventilation, also the cuttings that do not develop should be removed,
- removal of weeds is carried out as necessary simultaneously with the loosening between the rows,
- if the growth of tarragon was initially carried out on the garden bed, then with the advent of the first 2 leaves, seedlings must be thinned so that the distance between them was at least 10 cm,
- It is impossible to grow lush greens with excellent taste without organic and mineral supplements - fertilizers are used starting from the second year: in early spring mineral mixtures are introduced with a minimum nitrogen content, since this element adversely affects the taste of the grass, after each cut the bushes are fed with a liquid cowshed, droppings or fermented grass (1:10),
- it will be easier to grow young plants if you tie them to small supports, since the stems of the seedlings are very thin and easily broken,
- The last cut of greenery is carried out in August - it is not recommended to collect tarragon later, because it prevents the plant from accumulating the nutrients necessary for wintering,
- in September, when the leaves turn yellow and dry, the bush is cut at a level of 6-10 cm from the soil surface, a layer of compost is put on the remaining hemp, around the humus is sprinkled, and all this is covered with any organic mulch: sawdust, fallen needles, can be dry leaves,
- Some species of tarragon grow by means of underground shoots - so that the plants do not move to the next bed, they must be fenced with pieces of slate, recessed into the ground.
Collection and storage
Like all herbs, tarragon must be harvested before flowering. In the first year, the plant is not recommended to be cut, because it is only being formed, and for harvesting the grass needs to be fully grown. In addition, young greens have a less intense aroma and taste.
Starting from the second year, young shoots with a length of 20-30 cm can be cut. Tarragon grows quickly - 3-4 crops of young greens can be harvested in a season. The stiffened branches are also used as an aromatic additive in canning and salting vegetables.
To prepare the tarragon for the future, they resort to drying or, less frequently, to freezing. The difficulty with freezing is that it is not advisable to cut the greens - the leaves and young twigs need to be separated from the stems by hand, washed, dried, folded into a bag and placed in a freeze. The grass dries easily and quickly, because its shoots contain only 5% moisture. For drying the tarragon is collected in small bunches, which are hung at the ends under a canopy in a dry place. When the bunches are completely dry, the hands are separated from the stems, crushed, and placed in jars for storage. In sealed containers dry tarragon can be stored for 1-2 years.
Brief description of tarragon
This type of plant looks like an ordinary herb, but it differs from it in that it contains a large amount of vitamins. Consider the main features of the tarragon:
- Tarragon in Russia is widely distributed in the Middle Band, as well as in the southern regions.
- This type of grass does not require special care, which can grow even in difficult climatic conditions.
- Tarragon has a pleasant light aroma that cannot be compared with other similar plants.
- Tarragon in its composition has a rich composition of vitamins and nutrients.
- This type of herb is widely used in traditional medicine recipes.
- Также эстрагон активно используется при приготовлении различных кулинарных деликатесов.
При выращивании травы не требуется регулярно ухаживать за ней, так как растение крепкое, и спокойно развивается без человеческого вмешательства.
Despite the fact that this crop easily develops independently, in order to increase the amount of the crop, timely care is required, as well as compliance with the rules of planting and subsequent harvesting.
How to choose varieties
When choosing a particular variety of this herb should be based on a number of points. Consider the main nuances in the selection of tarragon:
- first of all, it is necessary to take into account the climatic features of the region where the plant will be grown,
- It is important to take into account the required amount of the crop, which will be harvested after ripening,
- it is also important to determine the area that will be available for growing this plant,
- It is important to determine the possible time that will be spent on regular grass care,
- Since the shrub has a high growth, it requires a place where there is a lack of strong and gusting wind.
The best varieties for the Middle Strip are the following varieties of tarragon: Goodwin, Monarch or Zhelubinsky Semko. If you plan to grow this plant in the harsh climate of the northern regions, then the traditional shrub is perfect.
There is also a division of this plant into species: Russian tarragon, French varieties (for cooking), ordinary tarragon (it has an unpleasant odor that scares off insects and pests).
Also, when choosing a variety, it is important to determine the need for plant reproduction. Among the abundance of varieties there are options that are best suited for this purpose, for example, Gribovsky's tarragon 31, from which, on average, you can collect up to 30 shoots per season.
To propagate this type of shrub, breeders use different varieties, namely:
- sprouting plants with seeds (the longest breeding variant, as the grass does not grow so fast),
- increase in the number of subshrubs using propagation by cuttings,
- reproduction of this plant by layering (it is required to gather young and strong stems from the formed shrub),
- cultivation of tarragon by rhizome division (in practice, this method is used for adult plants).
Most often this type of shrub is propagated by the root system, since this part of the plant has the strongest structure.
During the reproduction of the tarragon, it is necessary to closely monitor its age, since only young, mature specimens respond well to breeding.
Here we are talking about reproduction due to cut stems. As a rule, this is done in the spring, when young stems, not older than two years, are carefully cut off, and then placed in a shallow ditch and sprinkled with soil.
Also required in the lower part of the stem to make a small slot, which will accelerate the development process. After planting, it is recommended to constantly keep the soil moist, so that the planted stem will grow strong and give roots.
Toward the end of May, it is necessary to cut the cuttings from the mature adult bushes. These shoots should have an average length of 15 centimeters. It is first necessary to lower the plant into a special solution that will allow the formation of a new root system. After one day, the cutting is removed from the solution and transplanted into the prepared soil (a mixture of sand and ordinary moist soil 1: 1 is used here).
When disembarking, the part that stood for a day in the solution, is deepened by 4-5 centimeters. In order for the seedling to germinate, it is required to regularly keep the soil hydrated. After one month, you can land a shoot in the open ground.
In order to germinate tarragon, it is required to begin sowing seeds in early March. For seedlings used metal pots or plastic containers. Here is taken a light composition of the soil, which well passes and retains moisture. After sowing seeds, the soil is constantly maintained in a moist state.
Further, at the onset of summer (early June), the tarragon is planted in open soil. Here you need to plant two shoots in one hole, which will allow the young shrub to develop and form faster.
Terms of planting culture
Consider the main periods of time when you need to engage in planting this plant:
- in the Moscow region and throughout the territory of the Middle Band it is required to begin preparing the culture in the spring,
- seeds are planted in prepared containers in early March, and then kept in a warm room on the windowsill,
- seedlings are required to be planted not earlier than the beginning of June, when warming is observed,
- for the southern regions, it is allowed to sow seeds immediately in open ground, this is done in late April or early May,
- cuttings or processes also begin to prepare in spring (planting in open ground begins at the end of May).
Particular attention is paid to soil moisture when growing tarhuna, since the plant loves water, the soil must be constantly kept moist.
In the northern regions, this crop is planted when the warm period begins, since young plants can not withstand the effects of low temperatures.
Growing tarragon seeds in the open ground
This method of growing shrubs in the country, as a rule, is used in the southern regions. Consider the main points to pay attention to:
- Before planting, you need to insist the seeds in warm water for one day to moisten them,
- seeds are planted in open ground, where there is the greatest amount of sunlight,
- after planting it is required to regularly maintain the soil in a wet state (water every day),
- disembarkation is made in late April or early May, when the average daily temperature exceeds 15 degrees.
To prevent young saplings from catching the sudden frosts, it is recommended to monitor the weather and, if necessary, cover the beds where tarragon seeds are germinated.
Planting seeds in open ground is only available for the southern regions, since in the Middle Strip or in the North almost all the seedlings may die and then not climb.
Tarragon requirements for the environment
Despite the fact that young plants are quite demanding, adult dwarf shrubs do not need regular care. For good grass development, the following is required:
- abundance of precipitation
- no prolonged drought,
- the presence of sunlight
- no strong gusting wind.
If such conditions are present, the shrub will begin to grow rapidly, and in addition, it can grow for decades.
When growing tarragon, it is not recommended to combine it with other cultures, since the grass root system has the ability to absorb all the useful components of the soil, while it extends over long distances.
Site preparation for planting
Before planting seedlings in open ground, it is required to prepare it. This event includes the following sequence of actions:
- soil digs up and carefully loosened,
- pre-required to improve the soil fertilizer
- it is recommended, before planting, to feed the soil with nutrient compounds,
- before planting it is necessary to moisten the soil,
- all wastes present in the ground are eliminated
- just before transplanting seedlings, wells are prepared.
Exceptionally after these events, you can begin to sow seedlings.
Immediately after the landing of the tarragon, it is necessary to water it (it is not recommended to loosen the soil after this).
Sowing Tarragon Seeds
Prepare for this procedure before planting seeds. Consider the main preparatory activities:
- pre-prepared containers that do not allow water,
- loose soil is selected,
- further it is necessary to fertilize the soil,
- prepare small wells
- seeds are soaked for a day in warm water.
After these events, the seeds of the plant are planted, and then watered.
When growing tarragon, it is necessary to constantly keep the soil moist (this applies to young, fragile seedlings, as well as to ungrown seeds).
Planting tarragon seedlings
You can plant a shrub in the area when the air temperature exceeds 15 degrees, and the soil warms up. Here you must comply with the following recommendations:
- preparing the ground
- the optimal time for transplantation is calculated,
- young sprouts are planted two pieces per well,
- the soil is watered.
After the seedlings are transplanted into the ground, it is not necessary to loosen the soil, it is only necessary to regularly release it from the formed weeds (this does not happen often).
Growing tarragon at home
This kind of culture can be grown at home. Only you should know beforehand that a strong aroma is characteristic of tarhun. To plant and stably grow a plant at home, the following is required:
- prepare a small container for seedlings,
- prepare a large container for the subsequent cultivation of seedlings,
- make room on the windowsill,
- fertilize the soil with natural fertilizer,
- plant seeds in a small container.
As the seedlings climb, it can be moved to a larger container. Regularly need to water the plant. In addition, you should not keep near other plants.
When breeding this culture at home, it is recommended once in 5 years (more often) to select strong young processes and replace the old overgrown bushes with them.
Care of plants in an open ground
Agricultural cultivation of tarragon implies regular care for young shrubs. The following guidelines are followed:
- to shrub grew strong and strong, you need to take care of it regularly,
- watering the plant regularly (the soil should not be dry)
- periodically it is required to use top dressing,
- timely prepare the plant for winter,
- collect the grass in time and prepare it for the winter,
- to prevent diseases.
Observing all these recommendations, it is possible to keep a plant on your plot for a long time, which will produce crops from herbs rich in vitamins and nutrients every season.
When taking measures to care for a plant, it is necessary to be guided by the advice of experienced gardeners so as not to harm the crop.
Estragon - moisture-loving plant. That is why, when it is grown, it is required to regularly moisten the soil. It is not allowed for the shrub to be in a drought for a long time, otherwise the plant will quickly begin to wither. In the absence of precipitation, watering is performed 2-3 times a week.
This type of plant likes nutrients, which is why it develops a large root system. That is why it is not recommended to plant other crops closer than two meters. In addition, do not plant grasses close to trees.
Top dressing is carried out in the fall. To do this, use compositions enriched with minerals and phosphorus. Also, before direct planting, the soil is fertilized with compost.
Preparing for the winter
Adult tarragon freely tolerates exposure to low temperatures, which is why it is not required to prepare it separately. It is only necessary to remove diseased, dry and weakened stems from the bush in order for the plant to better endure the winter season. Also young shrubs required to cover (age up to 3 years).
Diseases and pests
Despite the fact that the plant with its fragrance deters pests, some preventive measures should be carried out. The shrub is periodically sprayed with bioinsecticides (insect protection). In addition, protection from diseases involves the periodic spraying of the shrub with herbal infusions (chamomile, millennial).
Collecting and harvesting grass
Collect and harvest grass should be based on the following recommendations:
- In the first year, the crop is harvested only in autumn.
- In subsequent years, greens can be cut throughout the summer.
- Harvesting must be completed before flowering.
- After the grass must be dried.
If necessary, cut greens placed in the refrigerator (if used in cooking). For the purposes of traditional medicine, the grass is dried and stored at home.
Young tarragon bushes have high yields. Usually from one square meter you can cut up to two kilograms of fragrant grass.