Levamisole leads to depolarization of the parasite muscle membrane, violates bioenergetic processes. This causes paralysis, causing the worm to die. Thanks to the immunomodulatory effect in the human body, the production of antibodies to various antigens increases, the T-cell response, the functions of monocytes, neutrophils and macrophages increase. Therefore, levamisole not only kills the worms, but also enhances immunity.
Levamisole is relatively rapidly absorbed from the digestive organs and metabolized in the liver. The maximum concentration in the blood is observed 1.5–2 hours after administration. The half-life occurs fairly quickly - in 3-4 hours. Levamisole is eliminated mainly through the kidneys, with 70% of it going out within 3 days. Only about 5% leaves the body unchanged.
Levamisole is often used to dilute cocaine sold worldwide (most in the United States). In 2008-2009, levamisole was found in 69% of the cocaine seized by the US Drug Enforcement Administration. In April 2011, it already reported about 82% of cocaine samples containing levamisole.
Levamisole adds volume and weight of cocaine in powder form, while other fillers can lead to the formation of lumps, and also help the drug to appear more pure. Also in the well-known American newspaper "Stranger" after the investigation, it was said that levamisole has a stimulating effect, like cocaine, and allows you to take street tests of purity.
Levamisole inhibits the production of white blood cells, which leads to neutropenia and agranulocytosis. With the increasing use of levamisole as an impurity, a number of these complications have been reported among cocaine users. Levamisole also increases the risk of vasculitis, and two cases of diseases in this group that led to skin necrosis were reported in cocaine users diluted with levamisole.
There were several high-profile deaths in which such cocaine diluted with levamiosol was mixed. This includes the death of Adam Goldstein (DJ AM) in 2009, Andrew Koppel (son of the famous journalist Ted Kopel) in 2010.
In response to the risk of suffering from a dangerous drug, special tests began to spread, allowing to reveal an admixture of levamisole. These kits were used by both consumers and dealers.
Levamisole is intended for oral administration. The drug is used during meals. For people, the medicine comes in pill form.
When toxoplasmosis is prescribed 150 mg of the drug per day. It is recommended to conduct three treatments with an interval of 1 week.
With other helminthiases, levamisole is used once at a dosage of 150 mg for adults and 2.5 mg per 1 kg of weight for children. If the need arises, the treatment is repeated after 1 week.
Note: For children, tablets are available with a lower content of the active substance (50 mg). The medicine for adults consists of 150 mg of the active ingredient.
Children under the age of 6 years should not use more than 50 mg of the drug. Patients 6−14 years assigned 50−100 mg of the drug.
The solution for intramuscular injection (Levamisole 10) is used in the following dosages:
- cattle - 7.5 ml / 100 kg (permissible single dose is 23 ml),
- small cattle - 0.75 ml / 10 kg (maximum dosage - 4.5 ml),
- pigs - 0.75 ml / 10 kg. If a pig weighs more than 150 kg, it is necessary to use 3.5 ml of the preparation for every 50 kg extra. In the case of applying a dosage higher than 15 ml, the injection is done in two or three different places.
Levamisole 8 (powder):
- ruminants - 7.5 mg of the active component of the drug per 1 kg of body weight,
- birds - 20−40 mg of active substance per 1 kg of weight.
The powder is mixed with feed or water. With a strong invasion, it is recommended to carry out treatment for 3 days, reducing the single dosage by half.
Levamisole 7.5 as a liquid for injection is recommended for use at a dosage of 1 ml of solution per 10 kg of live weight. The maximum permissible single dose for cattle is 30 ml, for pigs - 20 ml, for goats and dogs - 4.5 ml.
Before using the drug in large quantities, it is recommended to test its effect on several animals.
While taking levamisole, a person may experience undesirable effects such as nausea, indigestion, abdominal pain, vomiting, and mouth ulcers. Isolated cases of pancreatitis were recorded. If you use the drug on the basis of levamisole for a long period, manifestations in the form of convulsions, headaches, increased fatigue, ataxia are not excluded. Patients in such cases may increase body temperature, skin rashes appear, and the blood formula may change. Women may experience uterine bleeding. It is undesirable to use the drug during pregnancy, since no accurate human studies have been conducted. But negative reactions are known when pregnant animals are taking levamisole.
Side effects in animals are manifested in the form of vomiting, increased arousal, frequent defecation and urination, ataxia.
Levamisole: how to apply to farm animals
Imported veterinary drug: LEVAMIZOL
Composition. 100 ml of solution contain 7.5 g of levamisole.
Act. Levamisole is a levorotatory isomerut of elmizisol, two times more active than tetramisol, has a wider spectrum of anthelminthic action.
Indications. Levamisole is prescribed for invasions of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, liver of cattle and small ruminants, pigs, and poultry.
Application. The drug is given orally and injected subcutaneously.
Doses. Levamisole is prescribed in the following doses:
oral: cattle - 0.0075 - 0.008 g per 1 kg of live weight, sheep and pigs - 0.01 g per 1 kg of live weight, dogs - 0.01 g per 1 kg of live weight, chickens - 0.018 - 0.036 g per 1 kg of body weight with drinking water,
subcutaneously: cattle - 0.05 g per 1 kg of live weight, small cattle - 0.0075 g per 1 kg of live weight.
Note. Milk of cows is not suitable for food during treatment and the day after. Slaughter of animals for meat is allowed 7 days after giving the medicine.
Shelf life 3 years.
Packaging. Glassware 100, 240 and 500 ml.
The drug produces firm Vetprom, Bulgaria.
Levamisole (1 ml of solution contains 75 mg of levamisole), produced by JSC Pliva, Zagreb, Croatia, is also active against the most important intestinal and pulmonary nematodes of cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry. A single use of the drug is usually sufficient to destroy all forms of nematodes in these animals. Levamisole has no effect on fasciol and coccidia.
The drug gives a quick effect, is inactivated and excreted from the body. The action of the drug is terminated 2 days after application. In cattle, sheep and pigs, it is administered strictly subcutaneously in the following doses:
cattle: 5 ml per 50 kg body weight, but not more than 30 ml per head,
sheep weighing up to 10 kg - 1.0 ml, from 10 to 15 kg - 1.5 ml, from 15 to 20 kg - 2.0 ml, from 20 to 25 kg - 2.5 ml, from 25 to 30 kg - 3.0 ml, from 30 to 35 kg - 3.5 ml, from 35 to 90 kg - 4.0 ml, more than 90 kg - 6.0 ml,
pigs: 1 ml per 10 kg body weight
bird: the drug is given with drinking water at the rate of 25 mg per 1 kg of live weight or 1 ml of solution per 3 kg of live weight.
Meat of animals and eggs of hens fed Levamisole are unsuitable for food for 3 days, milk of cows and sheep cannot be consumed within 24 hours after using the preparation.
Levamisole is produced in 80 and 100 ml, in bottles. Shelf life is indicated on the packaging.
The book "Ambulance and Intensive Care for Small Pets" is a reference book dedicated to providing assistance in the most common critical conditions. The book consists of two sections. First, the basic principles of initial stabilization and maintenance of the vital functions of the whole organism of an animal are described, and then a systematic approach to the most frequently encountered critical conditions. Each section begins with a clinical approach to the patient, who shows signs of a critical condition for each system of the body, and then describes the treatment regimens for specific diseases. This manual also contains information on the monitoring and management of critically ill patients.
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This publication is a reference manual for the most common infectious and non-contagious diseases of small cattle. It also provides methods for the treatment of diseases and the main methods of their prevention. Background material will help the pet owner to diagnose the disease and provide first aid before the arrival of the veterinarian.
Release form and composition
The active ingredient of the drug "Levamisole" is levamisole hydrochloride, this tool is available and is available in the following forms:
- Tablets with an active substance concentration of 150 mg have white color, in the package there is 1 piece. The following substances are included as auxiliary components: yellow food coloring, sucrose, talc, lactose as monohydrate, corn starch and magnesium stearate.
- Tablets with an active substance concentration of 50 mg can be distinguished by a characteristic light orange shade. In each package there are 2 pieces.
- Solution 10% and 7.5% for injection is applied only in veterinary practice. As auxiliary components in the composition are present: metabisulfite and sodium citrate, citric acid, Trilon B and a special injection fluid. The product is sold in bottles with a volume of from 50 to 250 ml.
- 8% powder to prepare the solution is also a veterinary form of the drug.
The use of the drug "Levamisole" allows you to get anthelmintic and immunomodulatory pharmacological action.
- Removal of parasitic worms occurs due to the isolation of protein complexes, present in their bodies, as well as the process of inhibition of the regeneration of fumaric acid, which ultimately leads to a weakening of the muscle tone of helminths.
- Weakened parasites are derived from the human digestive system. in a natural way within a day after the application of "Levamisole".
- Stimulation of the production of antibodies to a number of antigens, improving the work of various types of cells and increasing the activity of T-lymphocytes allow Levamisole to have a complex effect on the immune system.
Indications for use
As an anthelmintic drug, Levamisole is used if one of the following indications is present.:
- Infection with parasitic worms of the necator genus.
- Infection of the small intestine with ascaris.
- Hookworm disease caused by the activity of roundworms.
- Helminthiasis in chronic form.
- Allergic reaction to the lungs and skin caused by the activity of roundworms.
- The defeat of Toxoplasma with asymptomatic disease.
This usually occurs when the following indications:
- Diseases characterized by inflammation of the joints and connective tissues.
- Active course of hepatitis B in the chronic form of the disease.
- Inactive forms of hepatitis with viral origin.
- Reiter's disease, in which the patient has a simultaneous lesion of various groups of joints, urinary system and organs of vision.
- Infectious diseases and their relapses triggered by the activity of varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex type 1 or 2.
- Inflammation of all or most parts of the intestine.
- Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with the formation of ulcers.
- The rehabilitation period after undergoing chemotherapy or surgery to remove malignant tumors of the breast, digestive system or bronchi.
The drug "Levamisol" has many analogues, the use of which allows to achieve similar therapeutic results.
Some of the most popular and effective tools are discussed below:
- "Dekaris" Available in tablet form, the active ingredient is levamisole, its concentration can be 50 or 150 mg. The drug is used as an anthelmintic agent or immunomodulator, due to its similarity in composition, the characteristics of the intake are the same as in Levamisole. Packing cost is about80 rubles .
- Pyrantel used as an anthelmintic agent, is the most budget drug in this group. The drug can be used to remove parasites in children older than six months, at such an early age, the permissible dosage is half a measuring spoon or half a tablet. It is not recommended to use while taking piperazine-based drugs, because it reduces the therapeutic efficacy of Pirantel. The cost of tablets is 20 rubles, the suspension can be purchased at a price from 50 rubles .
- Vermox is a Hungarian analogue based on mebendazole, the content of which in 1 tablet is 100 mg. The drug is prescribed for the same indications as "Levamisole", it can be used to treat children older than 2 years. In the presence of diabetes requires prior consultation with your doctor, because the tool reduces the need for insulin. A package containing 6 tablets costs from 100 rubles .
- Neovir Available in the form of a 12.5% solution for intramuscular injection, the active substance is cryodime. The main indications for use are viral infections, oncological, dermatological and venereal diseases, as well as their prevention with an increased risk of infection. The drug does not enter into undesirable interactions with other medicinal substances, is intended only for the treatment of adult patients. Packing cost is about t 600 to 900 rubles depending on its volume.
- "Likopid" in tablet form contains 1 mg of glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide, which is the main active substance. Этот компонент представляет собой заменитель бактериальных клеток искусственного происхождения и выполняет функции иммуномодулятора, повышая естественную защиту организма человека от грибковых и вирусных инфекций.The drug is allowed to use in pediatric practice, as well as to reduce the risk of recurrence in the presence of diseases in the chronic form. The cost in pharmacies is from 250 rubles .
- "ADS-toxoid" - it is a solution for intramuscular administration, used as a preventive measure to stimulate immunity and prevent infection with tetanus or diphtheria under the age of 6 years. The cost of a package containing 5 ampoules is 700 rubles .
- "Derinat" is an immunomodulator based on sodium deoxyribonucleate. The tool is prescribed for severe viral diseases or frequent recurrences of chronic ailments. If the patient has diabetes, the use is carried out under the supervision of the attending physician, in some cases it is possible to use the drug during pregnancy or during breastfeeding. The cost of a solution intended for intramuscular injection is from 1500 rubles .
Transparent colorless or yellowish injection liquid with a characteristic odor. Available in dark glass bottles. 1 cm 3 of levamisole contains 75 mg of active ingredient.
The drug is administered intramuscularly (goats - subcutaneously) without prior starvation diets. The dosage is 1 ml of solution (7.5 mg of active ingredient) per 10 kg of weight, but for cattle - not more than 30 ml, for pigs - not more than 20 ml, for goats and dogs - not more than 4.5 ml at a time. If it is necessary to inject more than 15 ml at a time, then several injections are made into different parts of the body.
Before mass use, a batch of drugs is tested on 5-10 control animals, and only after that they are used on the entire population.
Levamisole - Dekaris
Dekaris 50 mg it is intended for children, these are sweet tablets which contain saccharin sodium, starch, povidon, apricot aroma, magnesium stearate, talc and special food coloring - Ariavit Sunset Yellow as excipients. The package contains two tablets.
Dekaris 150 mg - contains levamisole in adult dosage. As auxiliary substances they use magnesium stearate, sucrose, talc, lactose monohydrate, corn starch.
Adults Dekaris used in the amount of one tablet (150 mg) at night. Children up to 6 years old - on a 0.5-1 tablet of 50 mg, for children from 6 to 14 years old - 1-2 tablets of 50 mg.
Read more about the drug Decaris
Interaction with other drugs
Levamisole is not used in conjunction with fat-soluble substances, such as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, ether, tetrachlorethylene. This medicine enhances the toxicity of these substances.
It can not be used in conjunction with any substances that cause a decrease in leukocytes in the blood. Levamisole enhances the effect of indirect anticoagulants.
If it is used in conjunction with myelotoxic drugs (the so-called substances that inhibit the growth of myeloid blood cells that provide cellular immunity), it increases their toxicity to blood cells.
In combination with amphotericin B increases the risk of kidney damage and the development of bronchospasm.
In combination with busulfan, it increases the risk of veno-occlusive liver disease when the venules of the liver are blocked and its circulation is disturbed.
In combination with doxorubicin, pegaspargase and penicillamine increases their toxicity and side effects, and also increases the likelihood of complications.
Co-administration with pyrantel is not recommended due to the possibility of toxic effects and overdose (cumulative effect).
Enhances the effect of phenytoin. Enhances the toxicity to liver fluorouracil, and together with chloroquine increases the incidence of bone marrow aplasia and skin lesions.
Levamisole for animals (in veterinary medicine)
Levamisole is widely used in veterinary medicine for deworming large and small ruminants, pigs, chickens, waterfowl and small domestic animals - dogs, cats, ferrets and others. If in medicine the main dosage form of levamisole is tablets, then veterinarians successfully practice the use of levamisole injections, which reduces the likelihood of the harmful effects of this drug on the stomach, and accelerates the onset of its therapeutic effect. The main direction of the use of levamisole in veterinary medicine is anthelmintic therapy.
Veterinary practice of levamisole has shown that when injected, it does not cause allergic reactions, has no embryotoxic or teratogenic effect, that is, does not cause fetal death in pregnant females or the appearance of congenital deformities in the offspring. It refers to moderately toxic drugs.
Waiting period after the completion of the deworming of productive animals.
Pigs, large and small cattle - 8 days, poultry - 18 days, milk, eggs - 3 days.
Levamisole enhances the toxicity of organophosphate insecticides, therefore, it is not possible to use these substances at the same time.
Levamisole for birds
It is applied both in the form of injections, and in the form of tablets or powder.
For subcutaneous injections, a dosage of 7.5 mg of active ingredient per 10 kg is used, but not more than 4.5 ml of solution at a time.
When giving medication in the form of powder or tablets, a dose similar to that for pigs is applied - 1 gram per 10 kilograms of weight.
Levamisole or Vermox?
Vermox - Mebendazole tablets, which have a spectrum of action similar to levamisole on round worms. The tablet contains 100 mg of active ingredient, as well as colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium lauryl sulfate, magnesium stearate, sodium saccharinate, corn starch and lactose monohydrate.
Adults and children over 10 years of age are discharged at a dose of 100 mg once, children from 2 to 10 years old - at a dose of 15-50 mg. Take with a little water.
Vermox differs from levamisole using a lower dosage, as well as a milder effect on the body.
Read more about Vermox
Experts note the effectiveness of this drug, not only for anthelmintic therapy, but also as an immunomodulator. After applying Dekaris to quickly remove toxins and restore normal bowel function, experts recommend that you additionally take in enterosorbents and probiotics.
Victor Savelyev, general practitioner, Omsk: Most often treated with ascariasis. I prescribe Levamisole, there have been no complaints so far, the results are excellent.
Anna Ivanova, Physician, Vladivostok: Worm invasions are well treated with Levamisole, I like it. Assign together with Linex. The results are satisfied.
Artem Korneev, p. Ivanovka: There was a slight nausea after the drug, but he himself was to blame - he did not follow the diet that day. And so the result of treatment arranged. The tests are good, nothing bothers you. Thanks to the creators of the medicine!
Dina Malova, Anapa: After the sea came back with abdominal pain. Has passed analyzes - worms! She was treated with Levamisole, she had a little headache, but perhaps it was not related to taking the drug. Repeat analysis was normal.
Sometimes patients report nausea and more frequent bowel movements when using Decaris, there are negative reviews from people who have abused alcohol after taking this medication. Taking large doses of alcohol on the background of taking Dekaris gave severe nausea, vomiting, and headaches.
Brief description of the veterinary drug
"Levamisole" is a drug intended for helminth control. It actively acts on all sexually mature representatives of roundworms - geohelminths, biohelmints and contact helminths, as well as their larval forms.
Active ingredient, dosage form, packaging
The main active component of this drug is levamisole hydrochloride. In 1 ml of the injection contains 0.075 g of this component, and the excipients are:
- distilled water
- citric acid,
- sodium citrate and sodium metabisulfite,
- methyl and propyl-hydroxybenzoate,
- Trilon B.
It is produced in a darkened glass container of different volume - from 10 to 250 ml, sealed with a rubber lid with an aluminum tip. Or packaged in sterile transparent ampoules with a volume of 2 ml.
The action of Levamisole is based on the negative influence of the main component on the muscle system of the worm. This leads to the restriction of the production of parasite enzymes, which is first accompanied by uncontrolled contraction of the muscles of the body, and then their relaxation. The consequences of such actions is the complete immobilization of the worm, after which its death occurs.
The drug is administered parenterallybypassing the digestive tract. This drug, after ingestion of an animal, is rapidly absorbed, enters all organs and reaches its maximum concentration in 30-60 minutes. Over the next eight hours, it is actively acting on the body. Levamisole hydrochloride is removed after a week in its original condition with waste products.
Dosage and administration
The use of medication does not require prior preparation of the animal. It is necessary to inject an injection 1 time strictly under the skin, having previously calculated the dose for a particular individual.
This remedy has a limited therapeutic index, so an incorrectly calculated dosage can lead to toxicity.
Before carrying out antihelminthic treatment of the whole herd, it is necessary to test the injection on individual animals and leave them under observation for three days. If the selected individuals do not show any deviations in their state of health, then you can use this batch for the entire population.
The maximum amount of the drug for MRS is 4.5 ml. If the weight of the animal is too large, it is recommended to divide the dose into 2-3 places to reduce pain, sting preferably under the scapula.
The dose, once administered to pigs, should not be more than 20 ml. It must be placed in the subcutaneous fold on the knee or behind the ear.
Personal safety and hygiene measures
To protect yourself from accidental damage, working with a medical product, you must adhere to general requirements:
- carefully prepare the injection site,
- wear work clothes and protect your hands with gloves
- find an assistant for rigid fixation of the animal during the injection,
- dispose of empty vials and syringes.
Term and storage conditions
Store the product in its original packaging at room temperature, choosing dark, dry places that are difficult to reach for children and animals. May be used for 3 years from the date of issue.
Proper use of "Levimisole" in veterinary medicine contributes to the preservation of the number of livestock of livestock, protects it from diseases that appear in the background of increasing the number of worms. And, as a result, protects the final consumer of food products from undesirable consequences.
Instructions for use Levamisole
Levamisole is used in animals 1 time, without the use of laxatives and starvation pre-diet, intramuscularly (MPC and cattle) and subcutaneously, based on the proportion of 1 ml per 10 kg individual weight, in individual doses:
- KRS - 30 ml,
- Pigs - 20 ml,
- MRS - 4.5 ml.
- Dogs - 0.01 g / kg animal body weight.
Each batch of drug before mass treatment is pre-tested on 15-20 animals, which are monitored for 72 hours.
Levamisole throughout the population used in the absence of complications.
Interaction with other drugs
Levamisole is able to enhance the toxicity of fat-soluble substances, therefore its simultaneous use with ether, chloroform and other similar preparations is not recommended. It is forbidden to use drugs based on it with drugs that reduce white blood cells in the blood. Levamisole can enhance the effect of indirect anticoagulants. Simultaneous administration with amphotericin B increases the likelihood of renal damage. In combination with busulfan, the drug increases the risk of veno-occlusive disease. It is undesirable to take levamisole with pyrantel, since side effects are possible as a result of overdose. If used with warfarin, bleeding may occur.
Trade names and prices
Trade names - Levamisole, Dekaris. Produced in different countries, including Hungary, Romania.
One tablet (single dose) of Dekaris in Russia costs approximately 1 dollar. In Ukraine, it will cost at least 2 times more expensive, but you can buy Kharkov-made Levamizole, which is several times cheaper.
For the solution for injection will have to pay from 3 dollars. for 100 ml. A bag of Levamisole in powder form (10 g) can be bought for approximately 0.15 dollars.