Siberia is the largest territorial region of the Russian Federation. In the harshly sharp continental climate of this region, growing fruit orchards is not easy. Not every fruit tree will pass the test of Siberia and will delight juicy tasty fruits.
Recently, pear has been very popular with Siberian gardeners.. It turned out that she got accustomed to life in cold Siberia. The main thing is to choose the right varieties for planting. Today it is easy to do, as the breeders of Russia have advanced far in this direction and brought out a number of pear varieties with high winter hardiness. Ideally suited for the Siberian latitudes of the variety: Perun, Lel, Severyanka, Siberian, Taiga, and other frost-resistant varieties, with a description and characteristics of which can be found below.
Varieties of pear varieties in Siberia: description and characteristics
Autumn pear variety Perun was bred in the Siberian Scientific and Research Institute of Siberia in Barnaul in 1994 by young breeders through pollination of hybrid forms. In 1998, the first varieties planted in the West Siberian and East Siberian regionswhere they happily settled down and beget fruit.Autumn pear variety Perun
Perun - pear late autumn ripening. Fruits can be removed from mid-October until frost.. Immature fruits, having lain some time after removal, become juicy, do not lose taste.
The tree is low with spreading crowns, blooms in late terms (hence the later ripening of fruits). Fruits of medium and large size are golden - yellow. The average weight of a pear is 150-200 grams. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour fragrant, but not too juicy. The fruits are consumed fresh, dried for the manufacture of dried fruits.
The main advantage of pears of a grade "Perun" - high resistance to scab and other fungal diseases.
Terms of planting seedlings into the ground different, depending on the climatic conditions of the area. For snowy areas, spring disembarkation is recommended to avoid freezing of seedlings. Before planting, it is recommended to soak the pear for two days in water, then plant it. The tree begins to bear fruit 4-5 years after planting.
The disadvantages of this class include low winter hardiness. Therefore, this variety is desirable to grow in the southern regions of Siberia.
Early ripe for years proven variety of pears, favorite gardeners. Bred in 1967 by the crossing of the French Bere Bosc variety and Ussuri pear. Settled down in the Altai and Krasnoyarsk regions.Pear Svarog
Yield varieties medium fructification is not abundant (19-20 kg per tree). Trees of medium height with a dense crown. After planting, bear fruit for 4 years. Fruits ripen by mid-September, stored at room temperature for up to three weeks. In refrigeration chambers, shelf life increases until January. Small fruits weighing 75-77 grams. The color is green, when stored in room conditions it turns yellow. The taste is sweet and sour, the fruits are juicy and tender. Consume fresh and recycle.
Lack of variety - frequent defeat of the pear moth - a butterfly of the family of wormworms, which gardeners successfully struggle with: they cleanse the dead bark, use traps, etc.
Dignity varieties Svarog: high consumer performance due to excellent taste and high frost resistance of wood.
Lel cultivar of summer ripening pears, derived from the Siberian Horticultural Research Institute. Received wide acclaim in Western and Eastern Siberia.Pear Lel
A tree of average height, from 4 to 6 meters in height, bears fruit annually. High yield (up to 45kg from the tree). Fruits are yellow-green, medium size. Fruit weight 100-110 grams. Crop harvested in late August. Pears are stored at room temperature for two or three days. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, juicy, tender, so consumers are in great demand.
Saplings planted in spring and autumn. It is important that they are not "grabbed" frost. After planting, the Lel variety loves abundant watering. Capriciously refers to the quality of the soil, it grows better on loam. Fruits in 4 years after planting. Good frost resistance.
The only disadvantage of this variety - low transportability, due to the short shelf life.
Northerner - reliable, proven over the years variety of pears for the Siberian harsh climate. The history of obtaining this variety stretches since 1959, at the Michurin Institute they brought out a variety for cold winters Svetlyanka, which, after improvement and refinement, turned into the current Severianka. Its main advantage: strong frost resistance and the ability to recover quickly after severe winters.Pear Severyanka
Today, Severyanka is almost not used in production, as modern, more high-yielding varieties have appeared. But amateur gardeners appreciate this variety for reliability and winter hardiness, therefore, its popularity has not fallen in private Siberian gardens. There were cases when the seedlings did not die at 50 degrees of frost.
Early ripe grade of pears. Fruit in the second year of life. The tree is low. Fruits are medium: 80-100 grams. Productivity is high. In the hot summer up to 100 kg of pears can be removed from the tree. Harvesting takes place from the beginning to the end of August. During the harvest period, the fruits are green-yellow in color, then gradually turn yellow. Taste is sweet-sour, the consistence is dense, pulp is juicy.
"Severyanka" likes abundant regular watering, lack of moisture adversely affects the development of the fetus: the taste worsens, the fruits become shallow.
Variety pears Taiga
This is the result of crossing varieties of Tenderness and Hanging, a newly bred variety. Pear - summer ripening, high yield. Tree srednerosloye, begins to bear fruit for 4 year of life. Valuable: unpretentious in the care. Productivity is high, regular. The fruits are poured by the end of August, small to 90 grams. Firmly held on the branches, not showered. The color of ripe pears is green, without shades. The taste of the fruit is sweet, dessert, the texture of the pulp is oily, white. Universal in production: used fresh, make juices, compotes, wine.
Winter-hardy, drought-resistant, not afraid of pests, resistant to scab and gall mites.
There are no obvious deficiencies in this variety, except that the fruits are stored no more than a month.
Variety of pears, bred by Khabarovsk breeder A.M. Lukashev. Wild Ussuri pear was crossed with different cultivars to improve frost resistance. This strong variety of pears found recognition in all areas of Siberia.Pear Lukashovka
The height of the trees reaches 5 meters. Unusually high yields: You can collect more than 200 kg from a tree. Fruit in a year. Fruits of various shapes, from elongated to cubic. Fetus sizes are large, 100-200 grams. But their quality leaves much to be desired. Unsaturated fruits are sour and tart, it is worth a little overripe, juiciness disappears, the fruit softens and falls apart. Therefore, this variety of pears is not in demand among consumers as a healthy tasty fruit, but has become indispensable for preservation. From unripe fruits make jam and compotes. Jam from them - a delicious filling for baking. Dried fruits from this variety are stored for a long time and do not lose taste and beneficial properties.
Lukashovka does not like strong moisture. Can grow and bear fruit on any soil.. The variety cannot pollinate itself, therefore pollination must occur with the pollen of another nearby tree.
Dekabrinka, a relatively young variety of pears, the “brainchild” of the South Ural Research Institute. Gained great popularity in Western Siberia.Pear Decrinka
Pear ripening period. The tree grows to five meters in height. Ripe fruits appear by the end of September. The yield of the variety is quite high.. The fruits are small, shiny, dark green color of medium size (up to 120 grams). The flesh of the fruit is juicy, white, the taste is sweet and sour with a light delicate aroma. At room temperature, fruits are stored for one to three months. Well tolerated for long-term transportation.. Desirable for fresh consumption, not for processing.
Dekabrinka is very frost resistant. Confirmation: in the harsh Siberian winter of 1979, 98% of seedlings survived. The variety does not “take” scab and gall mite. Drought resistance varieties average.
Late blooming variety, not self-pollinating. Therefore, it is recommended to plant trees near it - pollinators. The optimal variety of donor pears is Uralochka, Larinskaya.
The disadvantage of this variety - Late onset of fruiting, comes on the 7th year after planting.
Unfortunately, the name is not true because variety is not widespread due to small fruits.Pear Autumn Dream
The tree is low, sparse, high yields, but the presentation of the fruit leaves much to be desired. The ripening period begins at the end of August, the beginning of September. Fruits of sweet and sour taste of medium density with a long shelf life. At temperatures up to 5 - 10 degrees, they retain their presentation and taste for up to six months. The variety is more suitable for processing than for consumption in raw form. Compotes, jam, juice - are ideal from this variety of pears.
Variety resistant to scab and other pests.
Care and cultivation of winter hardy varieties of pears
Many years of experience of gardeners shows that growing pears in Siberia is not only possible, but it is fruitful if certain rules are followed.When growing pears in Siberia, you must adhere to the rules.
Important to remember:
- pear - a plant that loves warmthit means that it should be planted in bright, protected from external factors places,
- northern pear varieties need additional watering in the first half of summerwhile the fetus is forming,
- is of great importance soil composition: black soil is desirable
- planting seedlings preferably in the spring from late April to mid-May, after feeding the soil with mineral fertilizers,
- every spring it is necessary to cut the crown and remove excess shoots in order to increase yields,
- for protection against insects on the trunk every spring, it is desirable to apply a lime solution.
Preparing Siberian pears for winter
That the pear safely transferred frosty Siberian wintersu, you need to carefully prepare for it. For this:
- remove old fruits on the branches, windfalls and fallen leaves carry away from the site, as they are a source of infectious diseases for plants,
- pruning dried branches, the release of bark from dead growths is a mandatory procedure before hibernation,
- important process the crown and scab from the trunk, for this safer to use a five percent solution of urea, and not toxic chemicals,
- to increase frost resistance it is necessary to feed the tree with potash or phosphate fertilizers,
- mandatory rule - to spud a tree with earth, and after precipitation, with snow, to retain heat in the root system. In case of a snowless winter, it is recommended to wrap the tree trunk with roofing felt or roofing paper. These materials will also protect the tree from the terrible enemy - rodents.
In this way, cultivation of pears in Siberia, a grateful business, bringing not only a good harvest to gardeners, but also giving room for creativity. With good care, compliance with the rules and rules of cultivation, a pear can give a wonderful harvest and a reason for pride to its breeders.
Pear varieties for Siberia: description of the 12 most cold-resistant
Isetskaya juicy is distinguished by high rates of winter hardiness, productivity and immunity to scab. For pear gall mite and leaf spot, susceptibility is average. The shape of the crown is almost round.
As the name implies, the fruits are especially juicy, while sweet, oily. Weight up to 110 g. When ripe, they get a thick cream color and a blush with a pinkish, sometimes coral shade. Crop harvested in the second half of September. You can store about a month.
Sverdlovskaya Skotospelka is a variety resistant to severe frosts (up to -50 ° C) and spring frosts, one of the best for breeding in Altai. In terms of winter hardiness, it resembles Flute variety. The important point: the Horospels grow quite long branches, which is bad for fruiting. Young tree is important to carry out trimming pruning.
The fruits are small, weighing 80–110 g, juicy, tender, very tasty - honey-sweet with harmonious sourness. The smell is pleasant, pronounced. The skin is rough, light yellow, covered with dots.
Pear varieties Perun refers to moderately resistant, so planting is preferred in southern Siberia. Its important characteristic is resistance to fungal infections (scab, etc.).
Since the variety belongs to the self-fertilizing, the cultivation of this pear in Siberia requires the presence of pollinators.
Fruits are lumpy, large, from 135 to 180 g, golden. Have a sweet and sour taste. Late autumn ripening: harvest begins in October and may continue until the first frost. You can store until the New Year. In a torn state, the pear burns in, acquiring a special juiciness. The fruits are consumed fresh and dried.
In little snowy areas, it is advisable to plant such a pear in spring, otherwise seedlings may freeze. She gives the first crop 4–5 years after planting.
Pink barrel has an average level of winter hardiness. The warmer the summer was, the earlier the harvest lasted (September-November). Description of the fruit corresponds to the name of the variety: a pronounced dark pink blush is clearly visible on the yellow-green skin. Fruits have a pleasant sweet-sour taste.
Listing the best varieties for the northern regions, one can not but mention the pear Svarog. The variety has high winter hardiness and good resistance to fungal diseases. To grow a tree requires regular watering - to drought, resistance is low. May be affected by pear moth. Productivity to 20 kg from a tree.
Fruits are small - up to 80 g, yellow with a slight blush. The flesh is creamy, melting, sweet with a pleasant sourness. The harvest begins in mid-September. In the cool it is stored for up to 3 months. Fruits of universal purpose - they can be consumed fresh and processed.
The variety is zoned for eastern and western Siberian regions. Average winter hardiness. The harvest gives annually, about 45 kg from a tree. Prefers loam.
Fruits from 65 to 100 g, yellow-green with a pronounced blush. Ripen in late August. When choosing this variety, please note that the fruits are stored for a very short time, only up to a week in coolness and 2-3 days at room temperature. However, their juiciness, tenderness and great taste (sweet-sour, slightly spicy) makes this variety very popular.
Saplings are planted both in autumn and spring, the main thing is that there is no threat of frost. For them to grow well, some time after planting requires abundant watering.
One of the oldest varieties grown in Siberia. Despite its relatively low yield, it is popular due to its reliability: it is able to withstand severe frosts (down to -50 ° C), adapts to the conditions of a mountain climate. Quickly recovers from problem winters.
It is a columnar pear, it is rather compact and suitable for small areas. Fruiting begins as early as 2 years after disembarkation. Fruit weight - up to 100 g, they are dense, juicy, sweet and sour. Harvest ripens in August. It is recommended to remove it a week before full ripeness, as the fruits tend to crumble. They ripen well in a torn state.
It has partial self-fertility (up to 35%), pollinators are needed for harvest. Needs abundant watering.
Winter-hardy high-yielding variety. Kidneys and wood are resistant to cold. Excellent immunity to gall mite and scab. About the same indicators of endurance has a popular pear varieties Berezhenaya. Fruiting begins at 4 years. Most often the crop ripens at the end of the summer.
The fruits, though small (up to 90 g), are tasty, sweet, dessert, with oily white flesh. Ripe fruit evenly green. Almost do not fall from the branches, even in a strong wind. It is consumed fresh and also used for preservation, cooking, preparation of compotes and juices. Stored for about a month.
Frost-resistant and high-yielding variety: in some years one tree brings up to 200 kg of fruit, but bears fruit after a year. Nesamoplodny, pollinators are needed. The soil is undemanding. Tree height up to 5 m. Does not like excess moisture.
The fruits have different shapes - from almost cubic to elongated. Weight - 100-200 g. They are used almost exclusively for preservation: fresh pears are tart and sour, but after lying down, they do not survive, but quickly deteriorate. But they make good compotes, jam and jam. Long stored as dried fruit.
The best Siberian pear varieties: variety description, tips on care and planting
The first immigrants, having arrived to develop Siberia, unsuccessfully tried to grow a pear there. Their mistake was that the European varieties that the new gardeners were trying to grow in difficult weather conditions could not tolerate the cold winters of those places.
But pears can be grown under the conditions of severe Siberian weather. To do this, you only need to choose the appropriate varieties that can survive in Siberia.
Наиболее подходящими являются такие: «Северянка», «Осенняя Яковлева», «Любимица», «Память Яковлева», «Осенняя мечта», «Светлянка», «Таежная», «Лукашевка», «Миф». Дальше рассмотрим подробнее некоторые сорта.
Сорт груши «Северянка»
Дерево, как правило, вырастает не большое. The crown is mostly not thick, wide, pyramidal shape. The bark is smooth, gray in color. Runs pears of this variety are not very thick, light green color. The leaves have a slightly curved shape with pointed ends and wide round bases. Flowers Severyanka white, inflorescences are located on 4-6 pieces.
Fruits, pear Northenica, brings small, have a truncated conical shape. When ripe, the fruit becomes greenish-yellow in color, gradually turning yellow and acquiring a dull blush. Northerner has a sweet-sour taste, juicy pulp of medium density. The fruits ripen by early August.
The advantages of this variety include the small dimensions of the trees, high yield, winter hardiness, a variety of fruit use, and the immunity of scab.
In addition, this variety has drawbacks: increased shedding of the crop, a large variety of fruit sizes, which leads to the appearance of too small pears and a reduction in taste. Drawing attention to the disadvantages, Northerner is less actively used by gardeners, but is good for breeding new varieties.
Pear "Autumn Yakovlev"
Trees varieties Autumn Yakovleva grow rapidly and grow tall. The round crown wilts a little at the tips of the branches, the skeletal branches are firmly spliced. Shoots are usually curved and have a small amount of lentils. The leaves grow upward, have a wedge-shaped form and a serrate edge.
Pears appear on fruit ponds and kolchatka. Fruits grow a broad pear-shaped form of yellow-green color, with a reddish side. The average weight of pears is 250 grams. To taste the fruit is tender, rather juicy and sweet. The crop ripens in late summer - early autumn. The average yield from one tree is 30-35 kg of pears. In cold conditions, the fruit can be preserved until January.
Planted this variety in loamy, light soils. It is better to disembark in spring, or a month before frosts in autumn, adding peat, compost. Seedlings should be watered regularly, and in the first year you can not fertilize. An adult tree does not require constant watering, as it does not tolerate excessive moisture. Pear gives good results on nutritious, drained soils.
Among the advantages of this variety - a good transfer of drought, frost and a wonderful taste of the fruit. The disadvantage is the low resistance to scab and large dimensions of trees.
About variety "Svetlyanka"
Mature trees are medium in size and have a sprawling, not too thick pyramidal crown. Straight shoots grow medium thickness, light brown in color, with a large number of lentils. Svetlyanka leaves are medium in size, oval in shape, slightly pointed with a serrate edge.
Fruits grow medium size, about 90-120 grams. Pears have a regular, rounded shape, the skin is smooth. The main color of the ripe fruit is greenish-yellow. Fruits have a deep funnel and middle, obliquely stem. The flesh of these pears is creamy, tender and juicy. The harvest is ripening around the beginning of September and can be stored for about 90 days.
Indisputable advantage is a good winter hardiness and high immunity of disease, as well as a pleasant taste of pears. The disadvantage is the shallowing of the fruits due to the thickening of the crown and, in some cases, the rotting of individual fruits during prolonged storage.
Soar pears "Myth"
Myth trees can grow both medium and tall. They grow quickly and have a crown of medium thickness and a narrow pyramidal shape. The branches are compact. The shoots are medium in size, brown in color.
The leaves, as a rule, are medium, slightly oblong and slightly rounded in shape, their color is green, they do not have pubescence, but on the contrary shine. The sheet has a serrate edge and is slightly curved towards the bottom. Flowers with oval petals grow medium in size.
Fruits variety Myth small size. Their skin has roughness, dull, greenish-yellow color. The stem of this pear is usually long and slightly curved, the funnel of the fruit is small, sharply conical. The flesh of the fruit is quite juicy, cream-colored. The crop ripens by the end of September and can be stored from 30 to 90 days.
The strength of the variety experts call winter hardiness and, of course, good taste and resistance to scab.
A little about the grade "Uralochka"
Trees varieties Uralochka can reach up to five meters in height. The branches grow straight, the crown is not thick. The bark, in most cases, gray. The shoots are medium, slightly articulated and rounded. The leaves are elliptical in green, shiny and smooth.
The fruits are very small - about 45 grams. The skin is rough and slightly dull. When ripe, the fruits become golden yellow. The stem is medium in size, slightly curved and starts in a small funnel. The flesh is sweet and sour and juicy enough. Variety Myth is late autumn and ripens by September 15-25. Shelf life is not very long - up to 30 days.
Gardeners consider the advantages of the variety: high winter hardiness, scab resistance, a high degree of color resistance to night frosts. Reproduction occurs by budding and grafting Ussuri pear. Pruning is carried out mainly for young trees, and it is done with a formative purpose. Subsequent pruning is carried out on adult trees for rejuvenation.
Variety pears "Fairy"
"Fabulous" trees grow tall enough. Straight branches form a dense crown of a narrow pyramidal shape. Shoots grow medium in length, dark red in color with small round buds bent off.
Small leaves grow oblong, short-pointed, dark green in color, with a smooth, hairless surface. Mature fruits can reach a mass of 180-250 g, most of them are the same, the correct form.
With a ripening pear, the Fairytale variety becomes a yellow-green color. Fruits with medium dense pulp are white, tender and quite juicy. The sweet taste of pears has a faint spicy flavor.
The harvest ripens at the end of the summer. Shelf life does not exceed ten days. Therefore, the Fairytale variety, in most cases, is used to make compote or juice.
Tall Fairy tale is considered a disadvantage, but this pear has much more advantages: of course, it is good winter hardiness, immunity of scab and pear mite, as well as large tasty fruits.
Pear varieties "Svarog"
Svarog trees are medium in size and have a dense round crown. Shoots bow downward. The small leaves of an elliptical shape twist helically to the top. Leaf color is light green, slightly wrinkled and hairy.
Fruits are small in size, broad pear-shaped, the average weight is about 80 grams. Reaching maturity, the fruits turn yellow and have a light blush. Delicate cream-colored flesh has a pleasant, juicy, sweet-sour taste. You can collect the fruit in late September - early October. At cool temperatures, pears can be stored for up to 90 days.
Variety tolerates winter and is resistant to fungi, but susceptible to drought.
Features of growing and caring for pears in Siberia
Having considered several types of varieties that can grow in the conditions of severe Siberian weather, we see that the cultivation of pears in Siberia is still possible. Finally, summing up, we will give some tips that will help improve the conditions for growing pears in the Siberian climate.
Pear is a heat-loving plant, so it is best to grow in well-protected places. The chosen place should be sufficiently light, because in the shade of the pear the small branches of the crown will die off and the harvest will decrease.
Siberian pear varieties require additional irrigation in the first half of summer. The composition of the soil is also important for pears, the most suitable - chernozem, meadow chernozem, gray forest and chestnut.
Before planting pears, it is necessary to prepare the soil. The introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers is required. It is best to plant seedlings during the period of the end of April - beginning of May.
The pit for planting should be 80-100cm wide and 60-80cm deep. The root neck of the tree should go 4-5 cm underground. While planting the seedling in the ground, you should add about 8 kilograms of organic fertilizer.
Young plants require pruning for the formation and subsequent development of the crown. In the spring, pears require thinning of the crown to remove excess shoots. In order to protect against rodents and sunburn, the trunk and skeletal branches are wrapped with improvised material. Also, to protect the table from insects, lime mortar is applied on it.
In winter, additional hilling is necessary not only with earth, but also with snow, in order to retain heat.
If you follow all these simple rules for the care of a pear tree, it will certainly thank you for a good harvest.
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What varieties of pears are grown in the harsh climate of Siberia
Earlier, pears for Siberia were not considered at all as a full-fledged option, but now they can not only be grown, but at the same time consistently collect generous harvests. All that is required of a domestic grower is to correctly select varieties that can tolerate low temperatures and quickly form fruits. At the same time, it is necessary to study those agrotechnologies, without which the development of these fruit plants will not bring results.
Among the key recommendations for growing and caring for winter-hardy pears, the following points should be highlighted:
Knowing the basic techniques of pear tree care, planted in the northern part of Russia, for example in Siberia, you can break up a whole orchard, even taking into account the harsh climatic conditions.
Among the key advantages of such a plant, first of all, it is worth highlighting its resistance to low temperatures, excellent yield and non-susceptibility to scab or other common diseases. Tasty, fragrant fruit can be plucked from the tree in September. They persist for a month.
FEATURES OF GROWING PEARS IN SIBERIA
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Among fruit crops pear takes the second place after an apple tree. The best varieties of pears due to the high requirements for growing conditions are concentrated mainly in the southern regions. The beginning of the appearance of pears in Siberia is laid in the Far East, where the most winter-hardy species grows in the wild - the Ussuri pear (Pirus ussuriensis). As a result of breeding work in research institutions of the Far East, the Urals and Siberia, in recent decades, crop varieties have appeared that have high winter hardiness and good quality fruits.
According to research K.K. Dushutina (1979) pear fruits contain from 6 to 12% sugars, 0.12-0.4% acids, 0.18-0.74% pectin substances, 11-65 mg% tannins, 30-40 mg% P- active substances, 5-12 mg% of vitamin C. According to research L.I. Vigorova (1976) found a significant amount of arbutin glycoside (up to 80 mg%) in the fruits of small-fruited pear varieties, which is useful in diseases of the kidneys, bladder, and has antiseptic properties. Pear fruit is a good raw material for making compotes, juices, jam, jams and fresh. Compared to apple trees, pear plants have a more pronounced stem and larger fruit formations. The crown of a tree is usually compressed, pyramidal in shape. The development of strong continuation shoots from the terminal buds of skeletal branches is characteristic. Therefore, in the first five years after planting, the characteristic feature of a pear is active growth in height, reaching 6–8 m. At the same time, pear plants are characterized by a high budding of buds, which is taken into account when forming pruning (the best form is bush). Shoots shorten slightly, which gives the branches the right direction and does not reduce the number of overgrowing branches. Pear fruit formations are represented by ringworms, fruits, spears, fruit twigs, fruit bags.
Pear varieties created with the participation of the Ussuri fruit bear fruit not only on rings, spears, and other types of formations, but also on annual gains, which is a peculiar adaptation of plants to the harsh conditions of the region. The inflorescence of pear - flap. Flowers bloom out of time, from the edge to the center. All varieties of pears are practically self-productive, require cross-pollination, therefore, to the main variety, it is necessary to select pollinator varieties in an amount of at least two or three. To save area of the site, several varieties can be grafted into the crown of one tree.
In relation to heat, pear is a more thermophilic culture than apple. Therefore, for its cultivation should select more protected places. In severe winters, not only flower buds can freeze, but also wood, trunk bark and skeletal branches, especially in the winter-spring period after thaw. A pear is a more light-loving culture than an apple tree. Under shading conditions, dying off of small overgrown branches of the crown is observed, as a result of which the yield of plants decreases. In the Siberian region, pear growing is impossible without additional irrigation, especially in the first half of summer. Young plants are more sensitive to the lack of moisture. Heat resistance and drought resistance of pear plants of different varieties are not the same, characterized by a low degree, especially in those periods when high temperatures are combined with dry air. In relation to the soils, the pear, like the apple tree, places increased demands. Plants grow well on chernozem, meadow chernozem, chestnut and gray forest soils of average mechanical composition, with a depth of groundwater of at least 1.5-2.0 m. The root system of a pear has a pronounced core structure with the main mass occurring of roots in a layer of 30-90 cm and a radius of their distribution up to 3 m (Ryzhkova TS, 1962, Ryzhkov AP, 1981). The deep-emitting vertical root and horizontal skeletal roots of the plant create a strong framework that can hold them even on steep slopes.
Planting, agricultural bookmarks and care
The agrotechnics of laying and planting pear trees are similar to those of bookmarking and caring for apple trees. The area set aside for a pear also requires careful preparation of the soil to a depth of at least 40-45 cm with simultaneous application of organic (up to 100 t / ha) and mineral (1.5-2.0 c / ha) fertilizers. It is better to plant the plants in spring at the end of April - beginning of May, keeping the seedlings when digging in the winter. The pear planting pattern is 6 (5) x 3 (4) m, the size of the landing holes is 80–100 cm wide, and 60–80 cm deep. When planting in the planting hole, add an additional 8-10 kg of organic fertilizer, dig the root neck of the seedling by 4-5 cm, water and mulch the tree trunk. Immediately after planting, trim the 1/3 length central conductor and the skeletal branches of the plants to create a better coordination of the aboveground and root systems. European large-fruited varieties of pears are best grown in a creeping shape, having an inclined planting at an angle of 40-45 degrees, directing the top of the plant to the south. It should be noted that European pear varieties in the growing form on the Ussuri pear rootstock form a large crown, are difficult to form, do not have time to prepare for winter and freeze hard, To avoid this, the European pear seedlings are best grown using seedlings as rootstocks irgi, hawthorn, black chokeberry. Such plants live for 10-15 years, are well formed, winter and give high-quality fruits.
In young plants begin to form the crown. Pear varieties, in the origin of which the winter-hardy Ussurian pear took part, are best formed in the bushy form of the crown. To do this, on the conductor in the first and the next 2-3 years choose 3-4 side branches directed in different directions with a distance between them of 10-25 cm and an angle of discharge from the trunk of 60-70 degrees. Tree trunks should be 15-30 cm. When working with a crown, it is necessary to take into account the high excitability of the buds, as compared with the apple tree. After winter damage, the crown of plants becomes heavily thickened due to the tip shoots and requires thinning pruning. In the case of pear-bearing fruit trees in early spring, annual pruning is carried out: removing the tops of the tops growing inside the crown, cutting to the living part of the diseased, frozen branches growing inside the crown. To protect the trunk from sunburn and rodents, the trunk and skeletal branches are tied with handy material (reed, roofing felt, roofing felt, etc.), lime whitewash, and the layout of poison baits. During the winter period, additional snow retention is carried out by hilling trees with snow and compaction of snow cover in tree trunks. When fruits ripen, prolonged air dryness and the insecurity of plants with nutrients can adversely affect the quantity and quality of the crop (A.M. Belykh and V.N. Soro-Kopudov, 1997). leads to a decrease in crop yields and the quality of their fruits. В этот период необходимо провести полив растений и внесение элементов питания в виде подкормки. Для сохранения полученного уро-жая во избежание разлома деревьев уделить особое внимание чаталовке растений, расстановке подпор (чатал ) под плодоносящие ветви.
Районированные и перспективные сорта
Веселинка (Новинка)- получен на Красноярской опытной станции. Сорт урожайный. Дерево небольшое, с пирамидальной кроной. Fruit weighing 30-40 g, pear-shaped with a bright, crimson, solid blush. The flesh is tender, juicy, sweet, aromatic. Very early ripening, the fruits are ready for use in the second decade of August.
Kuyumskaya - obtained in NIISS them. M.A. Lisavenko (city of Barnaul). Winter-hardy tree, medium thick with a rounded crown and regular yield. Fruits are short-fibrous, slightly angular, yellow. The taste of the flesh is satisfactory sweet and sour. Weight to 70 g. Fruits ripen in early September, stored for 2 weeks. The fruits of this variety are good raw materials for processing.
Siberian - variety obtained in the Institute of Siberia. M.A. Lisavenko N.N.Tihonov.
Download file - Pear myth description photo reviews
Pear - a representative of the genus of fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs. Belongs to the class dicotyledonous, department of flowers, order of rosaceous, family of pink, genus pear lat. Most of the pears are deciduous trees. Under favorable growing conditions, the height of the trunk can reach 25 m, and the diameter of the crown is 5 m. Wild pear species have a dense pyramidal or rounded crown. The leaves of the pear are broad, egg-shaped, dark green in color with a glossy top, arranged spirally in 5 rows. Flowers of pear are white, rarely pinkish, five-petal, collected in umbellate inflorescences in pieces. Ovaries of pistils spliced with receptacle, are cup-shaped. The fruit of the pear in most species of oblong shape, extended downwards, although there are varieties with a spherical shape of fruit resembling an apple. Pear wood is hard, dense, with a fine texture and barely noticeable tree rings. Treated with black stain, pear wood perfectly imitate expensive ebony, and under the influence of hot air turns red. With natural aging, pear wood acquires a distinctive amber color. The average life expectancy of a pear is years, although some types of pear trees live to see years. In the wild, pear is widespread in Europe and Central Asia, it is found in the form of deciduous thickets, but such a wild pear gives small and completely tasteless fruits. As a result of successful breeding activities, the pear tree is cultivated in a cultural form in the backyard plots. Today, the distribution area of this tree is spread from the Urals and regions of Western Siberia to the Crimea, Belarus, Ukraine, the foothills of the Caucasus, Japan, China, and the southern and northern regions of the European continent. Pear - a tree that grows on fertile, loose soils and gives abundant yields of fragrant fruits. Moreover, the optimal soil for planting pears should be neutral or with minimal acidity. On poor, sour and excessively wet soils, the pear takes root very hard and often refuses to bear fruit. An important step is to choose the right place for planting pears and to carefully prepare the planting pit. For planting, one- or two-year-old pear seedlings with a developed root system and no visible damage to the aerial part are used. A spring planting of pears is permissible, although experts recommend planting a pear in the fall - in the middle or end of September, when sap flow of the foliage saplings has stopped. The best soil for planting pears is clay and loamy, with deep groundwater. Acid soils preliminarily lime. Place for planting pear seedlings choose sunny and protected from the winds. A landing pit 1 m wide and 80 cm deep is excavated in advance. At a distance of 30 cm from the center a stake is driven in, which is necessary for the proper growth of the tree. Kg of rotted manure or compost, 50 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium salt are added to the pit and mixed with a small amount of earth. A pear tree is placed in a hole and they begin to add soil, periodically shaking the tree itself. When properly seated, the root neck will rise cm above ground level. Then the soil is stamped tightly and shed in several buckets of water. The trunk of a pear seedling is tied to a peg and at the end a tree trunk is mulched with humus or manure so that the mulch does not touch the trunk of the tree. Young pear trees should be watered regularly at the rate of 1 bucket of water a week, and watering increases during drought. In the first 4 years, the pear is fed with nitrogen fertilizers, several times a season, and 1 time per season with any potash fertilizer. In the spring and autumn loosening of the trunk circle, the same fertilizer complex is used that was used during planting. Starting from year 5, fertilizers are embedded in specially dug grooves around the periphery of the crown. The formation of the crown is in the spring and autumn pruning of branches. They remove closely and in parallel growing branches of pears, shorten especially long ones, achieving the same length of the crown tier. Places cut slices crushed with coal or garden pitch. Autumn care for pear trees includes a number of necessary measures: Spring care for a pear begins with the removal of shelters and repeats autumn, only phosphate fertilizers are replaced by nitrogenous. Depending on the variety, the pear begins to bear fruit for the year of the tree’s life. Pear bloom occurs in April - May, pear harvest occurs, depending on the region, in August - September. The pear is propagated by the seed method, cutting, layering and inoculation. Seed propagation is more used by breeders for breeding new varieties. In the people, the simplest method is reproduction by layering, and the layering begins to bear fruit much earlier than seedlings. Despite the resistance of modern pear varieties to a number of dangerous diseases, bad weather conditions and non-compliance with preventive measures can lead to tree disease :. Timely processing of pears with insecticidal preparations, colloidal sulfur, Bordeaux mixture, as well as sanitary pruning and burning of affected shoots and foliage of pears help prevent the spread of the disease and in most cases save the plant.
The modern classification includes 33 types of pears, divided into 2 botanical sections - Pashia and Pyrus. Below are several varieties: Depending on the time of ripening, pears are divided into early summer, middle autumn and late winter varieties. Early pear varieties ripen at the end of July - August; in cold regions, harvest occurs at the beginning of September. Pear summer should be collected on time. Depending on the variety, summer pears are stored in a cool place for 7 to 17 days. Despite the limited shelf life, early fruits are distinguished by their juiciness, excellent taste and high commercial value.