Today, the breeding of carps in the pond is interested in a large number of people settling in their summer cottages, as it is very beautiful, besides, it has a psychotherapeutic positive effect. In addition, many men like fishing: what could be better than fishing in their own pond in their yard? But not only summer residents are attracted by this fish, it was also chosen by entrepreneurs, as this is a good way to make money.
The carp is a big fish of brown or yellow-green color, living according to some sources up to 30 years, and by this time they can reach 50 kg! Their omnivorousness contributes to their rapid growth. Also, carp is translated from Greek as “harvest”, and carps are really quite “fruitful” - the male carp fertilizes about a million eggs laid by the female.
Economically, growing carps is quite beneficial due to its rapid growth and low demands on living conditions. At about 2 years, they reach their marketable weight - 1.5-2 kg. They are quite meaty, and their meat is of high quality. Price kg of live fish on our shelves about 110-120 rubles. In addition, this business is attractive and the fact that agricultural enterprises, which include all fish farms, have switched to a single agricultural certificate. Now, entrepreneurs pay the state only 6% of their income, reduced by expenses, freed from VAT, income tax, unified social tax and property tax.
Carp Pond Requirements
Wondering where to breed fish? For beginners, you can use an artificial pond. And now we will look at how this artificial pond should be.
Since carps are living creatures, they require certain conditions for their life, namely: the optimal amount of oxygen in a pond is not lower than 6-8mg / l, because fish cannot breathe pure oxygen, and from lowering the level of oxygen in water, carp can to die from suffocation, and one more thing - the optimal depth of the pond is 1.8-2 m.
Undoubtedly, an important point to consider when breeding carps is the temperature regime. The growth of fish in the period of maturation largely depends on this indicator. The most favorable temperature is 18–20 degrees. In summer, it can increase to 22–29 degrees. In this temperature mode, the carp fully uses food and, accordingly, grows well.
Depending on the climatic conditions, the carp pond can be of 2 types: for the southern climatic zones, elevated ponds are most suitable, and for zones with a cold climate, recessed ponds are effective, where the water temperature does not fluctuate so sharply.
A pond with an area of 5 hectares is enough to produce 10 tons of carp. It is interesting that the larger the reservoir, the easier it is to breed fish in it. A small reservoir is difficult to exploit because it cools quickly and warms up quickly, so it has a busy hydrochemical regime. In a large body of water, the temperature regime is more even, which is favorable for all fish. If you follow the standard carp technology, then there should be a small flow in the pond. In addition, it is necessary to provide for the possibility of filtering water. The best option is a two-stage cleaning system, which allows you to remove the waste of fish.
It is desirable that the carp pond was a drain: it will greatly facilitate the process of catching in the fall. To do this, you can build a dam, if, for example, a reservoir formed by damming the river.
Ponds can be of a regular and arbitrary shape. If you plan to mark the reservoir near the buildings, it is better to choose a regular (correct) shape. It can be a square, a rectangle or a circle. Landscape (arbitrary) style can be used if the complex terrain does not allow to build a reservoir of the correct form.
The cost of creating a reservoirIf you do the work yourself, you will be:
Rent an excavator, 1 working shift - 15 000 rubles.
Rent of 2 dump trucks, 1 shift - 20 000 rubles.
Sand for drainage - 8 000 rubles.
Material for waterproofing - 180,000 rubles.
Total: 223,000 rubles.
If financial opportunities do not allow to build such a reservoir, then you can try to breed carp in cages. The most important thing is to find the stakes or any other body of water in which you can install cages for growing fish. This method can be used if you plan to engage in carp breeding at home for sale. Cages are made of durable sackcloth and nylon network. They are attached to a wooden frame with floats, which use iron barrels with a capacity of 150 liters. After this, the tank is filled with a fry, weighing 25–30 g. Per 1 cu. Meter can be placed 200 pieces.
They can be made independently without serious expenses, and you can buy a finished tank, but the price depends on the form and configuration, and varies from 10 000 to 200 000 rubles.
Another option is a small sealed pool of fiberglass. Fish are placed there at the end of March or at the beginning of April, when the water begins to warm up gradually. In such a pool, carp with proper care will be able to gain up to 1.5 kg until December.
By the way, it would be advisable to place your facilities, be it a pool, cages or a reservoir, away from the city, from busy roads, so that the carp would not be disturbed by any of the extraneous noise. Besides, you need to make sure that one part is in the shade, and the other is in the sun.
In fact, if you only want to test the technology of this business, understand whether you like it or not, then we advise you to simply dig a 10 meter by 10 meter hole in your plot, organize filtration and safely launch the carp, feeding it with the most common feed for birds and animals, boiled potatoes, peas, earthworms, etc.
The highest costs for breeding this feed - about 50-60% of all costs. Of course, you can run the carp into the pond and wait until it grows, feeding on a natural base, but, unfortunately, it will take too long to wait.
In the intensive method of feeding carp, the main emphasis is on such basic components as high planting density, plus the use of Reflex feeders for high-protein nutritional feeds with a protein content of at least 26-28% and fat - 5-7%. They are most effective, although they are more expensive than conventional feed by 20%. The average price of feed for carp - 25-28 rubles per kg. To get an increase in weight per 1 kg, carp need to eat 3.5-4 kg.
When feeding fish, the main thing is to know the measure. If you feed too much food - the fish will not eat everything, but the hydrochemical regime of the reservoir may change. And, as a result, the fish will stop growing. On average, carp should be fed daily in an amount of 1.5-3% of the calculated weight of all fish in the pond, depending on the water temperature. The colder it is, the less feed is required, as the carp body temperature depends on the water temperature. In cold water, its metabolism slows down.
As a rule, carp is fed 2 times a day: in the morning and in the evening, and it is advisable to pour the food in a specific tray.
It is also extremely important to monitor the health of the fish, since it is possible to lose your entire farm in the shortest possible time, if you do not notice the time of illness and fish epidemics, such as aeromonosis (rubella), intestinal parasites, branhomikroz. Therefore, it is important to make a control catch every 10-15 days, to watch the growth, the state of the internal organs and gills, and depending on this, apply the treatment. Because of all this, it is worthwhile to regularly add to the diet of carp medicated feed with antibiotics or with drugs that increase immunity. You should also not be greedy, and hire a specialist who understands the health and treatment of fish.
When fishing for carp ponds, another “weedy” fish comes across with it. For example, carp. It is unprofitable to plant it: it grows too slowly. But when fishing on an industrial scale, the crucian can be sold for 15-20 rubles per kg or transplanted into ponds for paid fishing.
Big fish is in demand on the market, and for carp the optimal weight is 1.2-1.7 kg. For a set of this size they need as much as 3 years! In one summer, they gain up to 25 grams, in the 2nd summer - up to 200 grams, and in the 3rd summer they gain up to 1 kg.
The cycle of carp cultivation ends in the autumn, when all the farms lower (or fish) ponds, then there is a huge amount of fish on the shelves of stores, and their prices drop significantly. Unfortunately, during this period, business is on the verge of profitability, but there are always ways to solve this problem, if there is an opportunity for it. For example, you can overdo carp before the New Year and more, and only then gradually introduce it into the market when the price of fish slowly begins to stabilize. The only disadvantage of such a venture is that carps lose weight in winter (20%), and no one has canceled the sea fish (only 10%). Surplus fish can be smoked, made aspic and produce other food products.
Fish prices for your farm
Now about the most important thing: the acquisition of carp for your farm. There are several options here.
Firstly, the easiest way is to buy carp planting material, these are fry from 14 to 40 grams. And it's all worth about 150-200 rubles per kg.
Secondly, you can catch fry in the fall in a regular pond, and in the spring to settle in your artificial reservoir.
Thirdly, the most profitable, but at the same time, and very difficult - is to buy fertilized eggs, self-incubating it. You can order 100 thousand fertilized eggs for about 25,000 rubles. True, if the economy is beginning, then it is better not to risk it, since it is, however, very difficult.
The biggest drawback of fish farming is the long payback period of their investments. Therefore, we advise first to use the 4th option in passing, namely: to buy two-year-old fish weighing up to 200 grams, it will cost much more. But for 1 season you can fatten the carp to the presentation.
Undoubtedly, for the domestic breeding of fish will need a reservoir. Also need to take into account certain conditions that will be important for the carp. These include:
- Water quality
- Water oxygenation
- Compliance with proper nutrition.
For a detailed consideration of the conditions it is necessary to determine exactly what the reservoir will be.
Carp can be bred in a variety of water bodies. For these purposes, suitable small lakes, ponds, pools. The bottom is settled with clay or foil, concrete or brick would be ideal. This stage of the arrangement is very important, however, special attention is paid to water supply when carp breeding.
The amount of water, as well as its quality, depends on the water supply of the pond. According to the technological standards, the reservoir should be flowing, but the flow should not be strong.
Pay attention to the filtration system, which has a high value for reservoirs with a weak current. The most suitable would be a two-stage filtering, including a biological and mechanical cleaning. Such a system will help clean the pond of organic waste and food residues, and will also ensure gas balance at an optimal level. Otherwise, you can face the problem of pollution of the pond (it is written in detail here).
Carp breeding technology
Successful breeding carp at home will be impossible if you do not carry out the selection of a suitable breed. It is all about the climatic conditions changing from region to region in our country.
The best option would be the species that live in the region of residence.
For example, in Eastern and Western Siberia it is best to breed Sarboyan and Altai carp. In the northern and central regions, Central Russian, Parsky and Chuvash carp will feel great. In the southern regions it is best to breed the Krasnodar and Stavropol carp. However, mirror carp are most often bred, since there are practically no scales on it. Conditions for its breeding are the same as for other species.
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Where to get carp fry
The easiest and most affordable way to start breeding fish in your pond in the country or in the backyard plot is to catch fry in the fall, and settle them in the water in the spring. If there is no possibility to acquire one-year-old carps, the reservoir is filled with fry by the method of growing fingerlings (growing fry from larvae in special nursery ponds). If it is rather difficult to buy planting material, it is necessary to have several types of ponds that will be used for wintering, breeding and raising carps. If you leave carp in the pond for the winter, it is important to take care of its aeration. Details about this written here.
The easiest way is to buy farmed carp fry in a fish farm or specialty store. Well, if such a farm is in your area. If not, you can make an order in another area, subject to the possibility of transportation.
In the video - in detail about the fry, carp breeding and their conditions:
Fish farming is a fascinating and profitable occupation. The main troubles in breeding carp are associated with the creation of a suitable reservoir, systems for water supply and purification, enriching it with oxygen. When creating favorable conditions, you can build a successful business.
Freshwater fish description
Ichthyologists characterize carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a widespread freshwater fish that is a member of the genus Carp.
Today, it is known in many parts of the world, even though Asian waters are considered to be her native. The fish successfully naturalized and became one of the most popular in the industrial group of fish farms in the temperate zone.
Naturalized individuals look different from savages. That is why, according to experts, in some regions of Ukraine the name “carp” characteristic of Russian traditions has taken root, which designate the semi-wild forms of carps. Within the aquaculture of our country, there are two species: Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed. Each of them has its own subtypes.
When growing carps in pools, mirror species that have long been popular with fishermen are most often practiced.
Their representatives have a thick body with a wide back, up to 1 m long. The weight of adults may be in the range of 35-120 kg.
But the species is heavier than 50 kg in our latitudes are not found. Such giants can be caught except in the waters of South-East Asia.
A specific sign of carp are swimmers, which can be light brown, bright red and even black. Scales on fish can be of different sizes, on some species it may be absent altogether.
Where to get fry for breeding
For beginners, carp farming at home always begins with the purchase of fry. It is desirable to make a purchase on fish farms of narrow specialization.
Choose the one that has been working for a long time and has worked well in the market. Learn about the availability of a license for this type of activity and ask as much about the fry as possible, what they are, how often and what they get sick, etc.
From these seemingly insignificant nuances their survival rate in a new place depends. Before buying, examine the conditions in which the product is contained.
Many novice fish farmers mistakenly think that it is much easier to acquire unfertilized caviar, to build a Weiss apparatus at home and to raise fry yourself.
Of course, this method is cheaper, but without a special experience and knowledge, it is almost impossible to get a quality and adapted for wintering years. Therefore, this decision will cost you more, because sooner or later you still have to buy fertilized material on the fish farm.
In the pool
As in the previous version, the size of the reservoir should be at least 1 m deep and ranging from 15 to 150 cubic meters. m It does not matter what the pool is made of - the fish will take root well in wooden, ceramic, concrete and even plastic structures of any shape.
But in this case there is an urgent need to equip the reservoir with a compressor, a UV sterilizer, an aerator, special filters and a drain system.
Despite these small efforts, many fish farmers prefer swimming pools. This is due to the simplified regulation of temperature and water exchange, which is vital for carps.
Such facilities are much easier to clean and maintain the necessary level of oxygen in them.
Recently, silo basins have appeared on sale, the essence of which is to supply water - it goes from the bottom and flows down around the perimeter of the tank in the measure of its filling. The only "disadvantage" of these structures is their small size. Zaryblevat pools can only be when they form the necessary microflora. После того как в водоеме появятся жители, не забывайте периодически обогащать воду кислородом, подкачивать и сливать ее.
What to feed
Если карпы получают сбалансированное и полноценное питание, то за 9 месяцев из крошечной икринки вполне реально вырастить полукилограммовую рыбку. Причем если рыбовод знает, чем кормить карпа, то добиться такого результата легко и в домашних условиях.
Experts note that the fry prefers to feed on ciliates, small crayfish, insect larvae, worms, and mollusks. Adults are omnivores.
They feed fish twice a day in a special place. For these purposes, you need to get a special tray, which is lowered into the water. Do not pour too much food, because in excess it only pollutes the water. A one-time feed rate is calculated within 3% of the weight of the fish.
According to folk signs, carp spawning begins when wheat is in bloom. Often this period occurs in steadily warm days not earlier than the second decade of May and lasts about a month.
First of all, small fish spawn, then medium fish, and only then the largest specimens. In addition, carp toss their eggs in stages over several days. A special role in this process is played by the weather and water temperature.
If it gets colder outside, the fish suspend their actions until favorable conditions occur. At home, these fish love to lay eggs in shallow water in the same areas. Often it is glued to the coastal grass.
In such conditions, it is comfortable to develop until the fry. After spawning, the mature fish lays for a while on rest, and then begins to feed intensively and recuperate.
Additional equipment for efficient breeding
Some fish farmers who specialize in carp, are advised to equip their water bodies with a special device that will provide effective returns and high profits. To do this, use:
- special lighting,
- fish ponds and cage lines,
- mechanical water filters,
- water reservoir cleaners (dredgers, and for large ponds reed mowers will be needed),
- ozonizers and ultraviolet sterilizers,
- fish feeders,
- oxygenators and oxygen generators
- fish caviar incubators,
- water meters (rapid tests),
- installation of closed water supply and circulating water supply system.
Choosing a breed and buying fry
For different regions is to select the appropriate breed. Altai and Sarboyan carp adapt well to life in Siberia, in the north and in the center they usually breed Chuvash or Central Russian, Parsky. For the southern regions are suitable Stavropol and Krasnodar.
Universal breed - mirror, it is bred everywhere.
Breeding carp fry can begin with the purchase of 30-40 young fingerlings, they quickly grow and multiply, so a small number is enough. The purchase will take about $ 15. Before transporting the larvae should spend several hours under running water to clean the gills and intestines from contamination. They are transported in water from the place of the previous habitat and together with it are drained into the equipped rates.
Pond and fry launch
For breeding suitable quiet, open to the sun, the area, fenced from various noises. There are two options for home improvement: dig up an artificial pond or buy a swimming pool. Dimensions of the pit: at least 4x6 meters in length and width, depth - 1.5-3 m.
The bottom of the self-excavated pond must be compacted: pour sand over the ground and pour concrete solution. When it dries, a PVC film or clay is placed on top, and only then water is poured.
Keeping fish in a pool is easier: easier to clean the water and maintain optimal temperature.
The tank of the right size will cost about $ 650. Keeping carp involves regular water purification. A two-stage filter with biological and mechanical cleaning (Ecosoft, Leader) costs $ 250-300.
Water is taken from a nearby natural reservoir, artesian, flowing. Within a few days the liquid settles. Then the larvae are launched into it at the rate of no more than 10-15 heads per 1 cubic meter. The optimal time for stocking the pond is March-April. To speed up the reproduction of microorganisms in it, put an armful of grass on the bottom.