Competent and timely care for the peach in the autumn period will guarantee an excellent harvest next year. In addition, the correct methods of preparing for winter will allow the plant to transfer the cold season easier and get out of dormancy more quickly. Immunity of the peach tree depends largely on the quality of fertilizers, and therefore it is so important to provide it with all the necessary nutrients and vitamins in the autumn.
Preparing for the winter
Preparing a peach tree for a cold period includes pruning, soil treatment, fertilization and shelter with special breathing materials.
The soil under the plant is dug up shortly before the onset of cold weather, so that pests placed deep into it could die. Dig deep enough, lumps do not break. The degree of exposure to frost and water will depend on this. Under the influence of low temperatures, the soil will loosen and the water will be able to freely seep into the soil.
Tree pruning is done after harvest and until about mid-October. The vegetative period at this time comes to an end. Removing the root growth will protect the tree from the additional loss of nutrients and the attack of harmful insects.
A huge role is given to the final pre-winter irrigation, designed to ensure plants a comfortable stay in the winter. To saturate the soil on each square. m. near-barrel circle make up to 100 liters of water.
The next stage is fertilization. Mineral complexes are used for this. They are simply applied to the tree trunks, up to 20 cm deep. First, phosphorus-containing fertilizers fall asleep, and then potassium. Between the layers should be a layer of soil at least 5 cm.
In the fall, you can make and nitrogen. Its quantity and nature of application usually depends on the age of a particular tree.
Autumn dressings are designed to help the tree recuperate after intensive fruiting, as well as to prepare for the new harvest season - to lay new flower stalks. Their task is also to enhance immunity, increase the resistance of the peach tree to spring frosts, gusty winds, droughts.
Depending on the cultivar, the fruiting period lasts only 10-12 years. However, the period of yield of the tree can be extended by rejuvenating pruning. First of all, the tree is inspected, since it must have a healthy stem and lower skeletal branches. Only then is the peach pruned. The scheme presented in this article will clearly show how this is done. First, remove all dried branches. Cut them near young shoots, which in the future will be the main shoots. A sore tree is not rejuvenated, it is cut without any rules in order to get a good harvest for a while.
Depending on the cultivation area, the plant is planted in two terms - in autumn and spring. Autumn planting is carried out only in the southern regions of the country, since freezing of the seedling in winter is undesirable. In the climatic conditions of central Russia and northern Ukraine, it is preferable to plant a peach (tree) in spring. Photos accompanying this article, clearly show how to distribute and cultivate it.
How to plant a peach in the fall
Before planting a seedling, the soil around it is compacted. In order for the root system to develop in a natural way, one should not allow free space near it. By the spring the roots are formed and strengthened, which eliminates the regular watering of young trees. Pruning a peach in the fall is an important point. As mentioned above, this is necessary for the formation of the main branches of the future crown.
Before planting a seedling, a planting hole 60 cm deep is prepared. Fertile soil containing humus and trace elements with the addition of wood ash to enrich the soil is poured into it.
To protect the root system, a mound is made 10 cm high, then the tree is watered with three buckets of water. It is very important not to pour the seedling at once, the liquid is poured gradually, as it is absorbed. Then the hill is brought up to 30 cm. To protect the peach from wind and frost, a plastic bag is put on it and bent to the ground with pegs. Thus, the seedling will be protected from adverse weather conditions and rodents.
Pruning peach in autumn
A peach is the fruit that no one who is engaged in self-harvesting can pass by. Juicy pulp and real nectar attract true connoisseurs of tasty fruits. Gardeners know that the peach tree needs thorough care in the fall. After all, this is the pledge of a bountiful new crop. The main enemies of the plant are various diseases and parasites. Kokkomikozy, klyasterosporioz, aphids make the tree weaker, prevent accumulate forces in the winter, which leads to poor harvest. Therefore, care for peach in the fall is very important. The tree needs regular feeding, spraying, watering and constant protection. However, these procedures must be performed according to the instructions. If after harvesting the leaves on the tree remained healthy, you do not need to remove them from the ground in the fall, as they are very fertilizer soil. The affected leaves should be urgently removed. Proper care for a peach in the fall will be rewarded with a high quality crop.
How to plant a peach in spring
In the spring, not all gardeners can buy quality seedlings. For this reason, young trees are acquired in the fall and they are added for the winter. With the onset of spring, gardeners begin planting peaches. The pit is also recommended to dig in the fall. Fertile land is mixed with humus and mineral fertilizers, and the soil is removed from the bottom of the pit. If such a useful composition of the soil is left for the whole winter, complete dissolution of mineral and organic fertilizers is achieved. In the spring it remains only to plant a tree.
It is very important that the plant is well lit by the sun and protected from the north winds. An excellent protection will be the wall of a building, a fence or a hedge. In order to stimulate the development of lateral roots, they are refreshed before planting. After powdering the soil, the plant is watered and done regularly until it takes root in the new soil.
Is it possible to grow a peach from a stone?
While enjoying the aroma of fresh peaches, many people ask the question: “Is it possible to grow a miracle tree in your garden, where to buy high-quality seedlings, will a full-grown tree grow from a seed?” To avoid such questions, you just need to roll up your sleeves and try to grow a peach from a bone.
First of all, choose peaches, adapted for our area. Alien varieties are unlikely to take root because they are not winter-hardy. A bone for planting a sapling is taken from a juicy ripe fruit, it must not contain defects and pests. It is good if the information about the selected fruit is known, on which tree it grew - grafted or rooted. In the latter species, the yield and characteristics are much higher. In addition, the grafted tree can grow hollow color.
Having decided on the choice of seed, start planting. For safety planted a few extra bones. They are soaked for a week (water is changed every day), then carefully dried to avoid damaging the inside, and planted in open ground to a depth of 8 cm. Planting is done in the autumn, away from mature trees. The ground should be well manured, loose and soft.
First, the bone forms a spine, later a stalk is formed.
In the spring shoots appear. It was during this period that the peach is gaining strength, and care for it consists of intensive watering and feeding. By the fall, the sapling grows 1-1.5 m, lateral branches appear on it. As soon as the height of the trunk reaches 70 cm, form the crown of the future tree. Peach pruning is done next spring. Leave a healthy branch, and the diseased and frozen frozen. A year later, the young tree is transplanted to a permanent place and the first three years are warmed for the winter period.
The peach tree grown from a sapling gives fruit earlier than from a stone. In our climatic conditions, you can get a full harvest for 12 years.
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Peach curl treatment.
Among the main peach diseases, the main one is leaf curliness on the scale of harmfulness and treatment, spreading is leading in the first positions.
The disease usually begins to manifest itself in early spring and is visible to the naked eye: on the newly spreading young leaves, blistering blisters of a light green color suddenly form, later they change color to pinkish and even reddish, become rather fragile and curly.
If this disease is not dealt with, the tree may absolutely be bare in May - early June. In addition to the leaves on the peach shoots may be affected curly.
In this case, they become yellowish, thicken and dry out. The disease of the fungal parasite dramatically weakens peach trees, and they become weak to future frosts.
A fungal infection of the fungus overwinter on branches, with curly shoots, under the scales of dormant buds, in micro cracks of bark and on abrasions with gum. The rapid development of curliness on peaches is facilitated by a lower ambient temperature and a saturated humidity of the air. The dangerous period on peach trees is a decade before the beginning of the spring bud break and the same period after the growth of young leaves.
Peach Curl Treatment during the progression of its extremely difficult thing.
Protection against peach diseases from annoying curly should be a complex of therapeutic measures. Among them, a special place is given to sanitary and preventive measures.
They consist of cutting, pruning of the affected shoots, careful collection and burning of fallen infected foliage. This is done in the fall or in early spring and spring before bud break. pruning should be done in May, signs of curly disease will be clearly visible, and the spread of fungal spores will not. In the fall, it was necessary to treat the peaches with 3 percent ordinary Bordeaux liquid. But if you did not, do not miss the time in early spring.
Processing and spraying peach curl.
In the phase of kidney swelling, sprinkle the tree with a 1-2% bluish solution of copper sulfate can (without lime), two or four days after this, repeat the treatment. For prophylaxis, double spraying with 50% copper oxide (0.5–0.75% solution) during the period of primary swelling and the start of bud dissolution are also effective. At the end of flowering, experts recommend spraying the peach with a substitute for standard Bordeaux liquid that does not contain copper (polycarbocin, for example).
It is necessary to imagine the curliness of peaches disease, fungal, cut off the affected parts of the peach and sprinkle vitriol well. Then we remove part of the earth from under the plant. These peaches require careful attention and preventive care. In the structure of the soil there is a lack of mobile potassium, and trees can not resist the diseases and annoying pests.
Having spent peach spraying buy the right potassium fertilizer; dissolve 1 cup by 20 liters. and spray all around. Fruit trees, garden shrubs, flowers growing nearby. if you do manure and contaminated compost untreated.
The drug Horus works well. If it is not desirable to use strong poisons, there are biological preparations, there are a lot of them. Mikosan (Ukraine), signs of curliness - almost did not arise. Varieties: Juicy, Red Heven, Demerdzhiksky. It is necessary to process more than 3 times per season, the first spraying, when the foliage is already well bloomed, before flowering.
Medications are used in treatment, like, Ridomil Gold, Profit, Ordan, they are from kinky on peach, contain mancozeb the main component from kinky.
Curly stone trees are a fungal spring disease, there will be no repetitions in the current season, therefore during autumn spraying, apricot is treated with copper sulphate with a one percent content to destroy fungal spores.
In the spring spraying Horus (half a spoon of 10 liters of water) on the green crown and immediately after flowering.
Preparations for peach curl.
To get rid of curl on the leaves, it is recommended to spray trees with fungicides. It is necessary to spray 2 times a year on peaches with a 3% recommended Bordeaux mixture. It is usually done in the fall, with fallen leaves, and in the spring, before the buds open.
Well proved to be and having quite good responses on destruction of curliness a preparation the Skor fungicide. The tool has a positive preventive effect for a period of up to 10 days and an important therapeutic up to 5 days. The drug “Skor” is safe for gardeners and the surrounding dacha environment and is not toxic. 1 ampoule (2 ml), dissolves completely in 10 liters of water, having a consumption of 1 hundred fruit trees.
Pruning of sick and infected peach shoots the treatment is done with fungicides when the first signs of the presence of the disease are detected, further after 12 days. A solution of a suspension of sulfur colloid (1%) works well. When the temperature is + 25 + 30, you can spray it by mixing ground sulfur simply with a lime dose of 2: 1. Bordeaux mixture helps everywhere (100 g of copper sulphate plus 100 g of lime we know to dilute carefully by 10 l.) When the growing season is 1% with the prepared solution up to 5 times.
Abiga-Peak is used 40-50 g. 10 l. in the process of growth 4 times in the interval of 2 weeks. The drug is used quickly (0.2 kg / ha) - the main first spraying is on a “green cone, the second is already after flowering. "
Peach curliness is manifested in spring with sharp and strong daily temperature drops. The best remedy for curl on a peach is to tear off the diseased leaves (it is imperative to burn them), when pouring fruit, there is no curl at all and the young leaves are no longer affected.
About peach frost resistance
Peaches are not so sissies, as it seems at first glance. Very many varieties at the stage of absolute rest are able to withstand low-temperature regimes to values of minus 30-32 ° C, but flower buds often die even at temperatures of minus 21-23 ° C, and flower buds - minus 8-10 ° C. Unfortunately, flower growers, peach flowers and ovaries can die during cold snap in minus 3оС.
Высокозимостойкие сорта, способные выдерживать значительные морозы, даже суровой зимой подмерзают в незначительной степени, и представлены:
- «Золотой Москвой»,
- «Красной Девицей»,
- «Пушистым Ранним»,
- "Fairy Tale"
Not only winter but also spring frosts, to which the varieties “Valiant”, “Veteran”, “Lebedev”, “Golden Jubilees” and “Red Haven” are the most resistant, can harm the garden fruit crop. When planning the planting of peach plantations on the plot, it is recommended to pay attention to frost-resistant varieties of novelties, which include Vavilovsky, Harmony, Doktorsky, Crimean Autumn, Crimea Fireworks, Freshening, "Ambassador of Peace" and "Starting".
Spraying peach against pests in the fall
Autumn processing by peach plantations will be required to effectively suppress the active reproduction of fungal spores. As the practice of gardening, it is in the autumn period that the most favorable conditions for the development of a fungal infection are formed., including high temperature conditions and increased humidity. If the autumn processing is not performed promptly and correctly, then with the onset of spring heat, a huge number of fungal spores will develop on the tree, which will actively spread throughout all branches and shoots.
Effective control of such an infection will require considerable effort, including cash to purchase chemicals and time. For this reason, autumn preventive treatment is mandatory and is performed for the future. It should be noted, that the dates of crown treatment are directly dependent on the soil and climatic conditions in the region where peaches are grown.
On fruit-bearing trees, the first spraying is done during the leaves, but when half the foliage is still stored on the plant. The best effect is achieved by using Bordeaux mixture at a concentration of 3%. Such a drug is not washed off by rain and snow, and therefore serves as a reliable protection of the garden against fungal infections. Among other things, it is necessary to remember that spraying is carried out in dry and low wind weather, in the morning or after sunset.
Autumn processing of peach plantations will be required to effectively suppress the active reproduction of fungal spores.
Protection against sunburn and frost
Garden heat-loving crops need not only protection from winter and return frosts, but also from getting sunburn by the plant. To prevent the formation of frost and sunburn, whitening of boles and skeletal branches with special compounds is carried out.
Whitewash with Bordeaux mixture is used for processing the stem of the peach tree and all large skeletal branches. Such a composition will prevent not only the occurrence of burns on wood on too sunny winter days, but will also prevent overheating and premature development of the kidneys harmful for the plant. In young peach plantations, trunks of trees are recommended to be wrapped with stalks of sunflower or corn for the winter period, as well as fir spruce branches or rather thick paper.
Whitewash with Bordeaux mixture is used to process the stem of the peach tree and all large skeletal branches.
Proper mulching of tree trunks of fruit trees is recommended from the very beginning of their planting in a permanent place. Even in the summer, there must be a quality mulch near the trunk., which helps prevent soil drying and root system overheating. For the winter period, mulching is needed especially, especially in regions with unstable temperatures.
For mulching, foliage can be used, but preferably collected under ornamental trees, including birch, oak, linden and common hazel. Also, a very good result is given by mulching pristvolnyh circles dry sand mixed with sawdust or traditional fir spruce branches, peat chips, high-quality compost or humus. Mulching of fruit plantations should definitely be started before the onset of stable and severe frosts, and The standard layer of mulch can not be less than 10-15 cm.
Features autumn peach care
Even winter hardy varieties of garden peach need proper autumn care. Of particular importance is attached to the shelter, the degree of which directly depends on weather conditions and the level of protection of thermophilic plantings from gusts of wind. Shelter is both permanent and temporary.
In order to preserve heat in the area of the root system, it is required to make an ordinary earthen mound up to a quarter of a meter high. This mound must be located about a quarter of a meter above the scion, around the stem of the peach. Trees are most often sheltered for the winter period with sacking, which is wrapped around a seedling. Anyway, the material used for the shelter must be breathable, that will prevent vyprevanie garden culture during the thaw.
Trees are most often sheltered for the winter period with sacking wrapped around a seedling.
Watering and feeding peach in autumn
Joint application of organic dressings and mineral complex fertilizers significantly increases the natural frost resistance of the garden peach. It is necessary to fertilize garden crops correctly, since fertilizer can not only make the plant more durable, but also bring some harm, including burns and untimely activation of growth processes. If the spring top dressing is carried out with the purpose of activating the vegetative processes, then in the fall the main emphasis is placed on preparing for winter.
Top dressing of peach plantations in the autumn period consists in timely introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers into the soil of the near-stem circle. Additionally, ordinary wood ash can be applied to the soil. In no case should you bring any nitrogen-containing compounds into the ground before winter; since in this case the fruit tree will not be able to hibernate on time and will die at the first frost. Experienced gardeners also recommend that the garden soil be seasoned with well-rotted manure in the fall.
One of the most important measures in preparing garden peaches for wintering is moisture recharge irrigation. After irrigation, the soil should be moistened to a depth of 60-70 cm. Soil in tree trunks needs to be loosened, which will greatly facilitate water absorption. Trees are watered before the onset of frost, and later irrigation measures often cause freezing of the fruit crop.
Top dressing of peach plantations in the autumn period consists in timely introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers into the soil of the near-stem circle
Appointment and peach pruning scheme for beginners in the fall
Approximately in October or early November, depending on the conditions in the region of cultivation of heat-loving fruit plantations, Standard crown trimming should be performed:
- sanitary pruning is done to remove all diseased branches, which are then removed from the site and burned,
- Forming autumn pruning is done only in the southern regions, and involves the removal of all overgrown, strong branches, which will prevent competition with skeletal branches,
- The rejuvenating pruning on old trees contributes to the renewal of the crown and giving it a very convenient, productive cupped shape.
Sanitary pruning is done to remove all diseased branches, which are then removed from the site and burned.
In the process of such a mandatory event as pruning, it is necessary to remove all the dried out or affected branches of the pathogenic microflora, as well as to clean the old and dead bark, located on the shtambah or large skeletal branches. Also during this period, it is imperative to remove from the branches all those affected by diseases or pests, and dried fruits, which will serve to prevent damage to plants by hibernating infections.
After the pruning is done, the clamp and the base of the skeletal branches are examined. All wounds that will be detected by visual inspection are neatly but carefully cleaned to fully healthy wood, and then treated with garden warrior with the addition of chemicals intended for treating or preventing stem rot.
The stripping of the cuts requires special attention, that can inhabit cytosporosis pathogens. With the same composition on the basis of garden warrior and chemical insecticide-fungicides, all cutting sites that appear in the process of performing the fruit pruning of fruit plantations are processed.
How the peach is grafted in the fall
Harvesting cuttings is done at the end of autumn or at the very beginning of winter, immediately after the leaf fall, but before the onset of constant severe frosts. Strong growth growths and two-year-old, well-matured shoots that do not have flower buds are selected. Prior to vaccination, all sliced cuttings are stored in the snow or in the basement, laid in sand, at a temperature of 0-2 ° C.
There are several ways of inoculation, but it is recommended to give preference to the budding of the shield in the crown and to budding in the butt, as well as to the improved copulation performed with the tongue on the oblique cut of the cutting. Grafting of nectarine should be carried out similarly to ordinary peach. It should also be noted that in the southern areas garden peach planting is possible not only in spring, but also in autumn, the latter option being the most popular and preferred.