Felt cherry, or, as it is also called, Chinese, fell in love with the inhabitants of all Russia. It is decorative, gives high yields of sweet berries, undemanding in the care, resistant to frost - all this allows you to grow varieties in all regions. In addition, this type of cherry begins to bear fruit from the second year after planting, no need to wait for years for the first harvest. So, today we get acquainted with felt cherries. Description, photos and reviews gardeners attached. In the same article you can learn how to properly plant varieties, rules of care.
Felt cherry general description
In this form there are many varieties, with the best of which we will meet in the future content. Now we offer to consider a general description and a photo of varieties of felt cherries.
This is a tracery low tree, or shrub, reaching a height of two to three meters. In spring, the branches of this beauty are decorated with orange-white, pink-white or pure white flowers. During the fruiting period, the felt cherry changes the outfit from flowers to berries, which can be both pink and bright red beads. In general, for a long time the plant pleases the eye.
Why felt? The fact of the matter is that its shoots, the underside of the leaves, and sometimes the fruits themselves are decorated with a gentle light firing.
This beauty now belongs to the genus of plums. Today, during the transition from generation to generation, it is called both cherry and plum. Despite the fact that there is a similarity with ordinary cherries, it is impossible to cross varieties. But with cherry plum and peach - please!
Around the world, felted cherry has spread from Southeast Asia, where it grows in the wild. What is interesting is that in the Far East of Russia they consider felt cherry as the real cherry. But oddly enough, many ordinary people do not plant a plant, using it only for decorative purposes. In the gardens of Europe and North America it is a popular fruit crop, although it appeared there only in the 20th century.
Thanks to Michurin Ivan Vladimirovich, felted cherry appeared in the European part of Russia. It was he who first brought a sapling, acclimatized it, brought the first large-fruited variety Aldo.
In the description of varieties of felt cherries there are many advantages, it is:
- fruiting and ripening of berries comes almost two weeks earlier than that of ordinary cherries,
- tolerates winter and severe frosts,
- the crop is stable every year
- decorative plants
- does not give root offspring,
- disease resistance.
The advantages include the onset of fruiting - this is the second year after planting the seedling, or the third or fourth year when grown from a stone.
With regard to taste, the berries are sweet, very juicy, especially like the taste of children who themselves, without the help of adults, can pick fruits from low bushes.
The average yield of one adult plant is 8 kilograms. But reviews of felted cherry say that if you take good care of the bush, the yield is much higher.
A good harvest from a plant can be obtained for 10 years.
In terms of flowering felted cherry, reviews of which will be at the end of the article, is divided into early, middle and late varieties. For example, residents of the Moscow region, where flowering begins in mid-May, should not choose early varieties.
If the autumn is long and warm, then the cherries may not have time to ripen annual shoots, whose growth in such a climate becomes protracted. As a result, such shoots freeze and die, but this factor does not affect the quality of the future harvest.
Use of fruits and benefits
Photos of felt cherries are available in this article. It shows that this is a real decoration of the site! But not only in the beauty lies the benefits of the plant. The fruits of felt cherries are used to make juices, stewed fruit, jam, they are also good fresh.
Their benefit lies in the fact that they are recommended for anemia, cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the fruits are widely used in traditional medicine for:
- lowering the temperature
- increase appetite
- antiseptic effects,
- easy weakening action
- prevention of colds and viral diseases.
The origin of the felted cherry
The interesting name of the plant was due to the villi that covered the leaves, young shoots, petioles and even the fruit of the cherry. Its homeland is considered to be China, Manchuria, Korea and many regions of the Far East.
Felt cherries are markedly different from their wild relatives, as well as from “cultural relatives growing on the European continent. Firstly, it is unusually frost-resistant, and secondly, the height of the plant is not at all great, thirdly, fruiting is surprising in its abundance, and the berries themselves have an interesting appearance.
For these reasons, scientists, then still the Soviet Union, became interested in an unusual plant and engaged in its cultivation. All works by the breeder were full-scale, and by the thirties of the 20th century about ten varieties were bred, differing in yield, frost resistance and drought tolerance.
The work of scientists N.N. Tikhonova, I.V. Michurin, G.T. Kazmina was not in vain, and after a few years, varieties and hybrids of felt cherries were obtained, capable of growing and bearing fruit not only in the mild climate of Primorye, but throughout Russia.
Features of felt cherries and its characteristics
- Today we know quite a lot of varieties and hybrids of this plant, which have a height of one to two and a half meters and give up to 15 kg of tasty and extremely useful berries. All of them are hardy and able to grow on any soil.
- Moreover, felt cherries have excellent immunity against a number of dangerous diseases of stone fruit plants.
- It is much less likely to be attacked by pests, and at the same time the fruits ripen much faster than conventional and well-known ordinary cherries.
- It will take you only a couple of years to verify its fertility, one day you will see sprigs completely plastered with flowers, on which ovaries and fruits will appear.
It would seem that with such virtues, the Far Eastern plant has no flaws, it turns out. Life expectancy for felt cherries under conditions of a middle band is somewhat less than indicated in the description. The Asian is inferior to ordinary cherries, and after 9-10 years already, it is necessary to completely update the plantings, whereas her usual relative is able to successfully grow and bear fruit for 20-25 years.
The difference in varietal characteristics of felt cherries for individual regions
For the North - West region and the Leningrad region, it is necessary to select special varieties, since plants often vypravayut, and suddenly frosts and thaws often become the culprits. The same situation often happens in the Urals. In general, strong remoistening and cold summers are very dangerous for this type of cherry. Dampness and cold cause infestation of plants with moniliosis, from which crops are lost, and often the bushes just die.
If you are not sure of the climatic conditions that can favorably affect the plants, but rather are afraid for their condition, you should carry out special planting treatments with fungicides several times during the growing season. Prophylactic spraying with preparations and sanitary pruning, as well as the application of fertilizing and the removal of fallen fruits and leaves, help to save plants from death. In order not to cause the spread of pathogenic bacteria, litter and diseased shoots must be burned.
If you wish to plant in your garden felt cherries, residents of the Moscow region or the central part of Russia should select varieties that are well resistant to frost. An important factor for the successful growth of the plant will be the soil, it must be different looseness, and have a neutral or slightly acid reaction. If necessary, the land must be deoxidized, mixed with sand, peat, humus, ash. This manipulation is done when planting the plant, as well as every five years. Feed seedlings and already adult plants should be every year.
Popular varieties of felted cherries
This is quite a powerful shrub up to 2 meters high, the fruit of the cherry is also large up to 4 grams. The berries have a dark red hue, light downiness, differ in red juicy, and sour-sweet pulp. Fruiting occurs in the middle of summer
Despite the height of the bush (more than 2 m), it is quite compact and not thickened. Fruits are red, sour, having a thin peel reach maturity by the end of July. In order for the berries of this variety were not too small, the bush should be well watered. The plant tolerates frosty winters and is recommended for planting in the northern areas.
Plant up to two meters, harvest can begin in the second half of July. The height of the cherry is not more than 1, 9 m, and the fruiting is equal to nine kilograms of oval berries from the bush. Berries have a universal purpose due to the harmonious taste and dense pulp.
A low plant, only one and a half meters or a little more. The crown is wide and dense. Berries with sour, up to 4 g in weight, ripen by the twentieth of July. From the bush, under favorable conditions, 10 kg of fruit can be taken, but this will require pollination, since the variety is self-productive.
The progenitors of this variety are bush and sand cherry. The plant grows rather slowly, especially in the first three years. The fruits are a bit fresh and large, ripen in mid-July, require almost instant processing. Winters satisfactorily.
Cherry is not tall, but incredibly fruitful. Just imagine, from 1.3 meters you can collect up to 8 kg of rather large berries, juicy, tender and incredibly tasty. The plant is intended for cultivation in the Leningrad region and the Urals.
The height of the bush is one and a half meters, it is quite thick, so it should be constantly shaped. If the plant is provided with normal care, it can produce up to 9-9, 5 kg of large berries. Harvest can be collected from the tenth of July.
Variety for the Moscow region, grows to 1.8 m, carries a load ranging from 7 to 9 kg of berries. Early ripening cherries are extremely sensitive to drought, therefore, provide moisture to the marked crop.
The tall plant which is perfectly transferring severe winter, the champion on productivity. The harvest makes quite impressive size - 15 kg of claret, juicy and dessert fruits from one plant. In order for pollination to be performed in full, it is necessary to plant several bushes next to it - pollinators.
Felt cherry is a unique plant both in terms of appearance and in terms of harvest. If you choose the right variety, you can save on the territory, especially if your garden is not too big. Care of the bushes, as well as the collection of fruits is not difficult, as they are not large in their volume and height. Pleasant taste of berries like both adults and children, and collect them one sheer pleasure.
Tips and tricks
Take into account all the recommendations in the selection of varieties, because of how accurately you guess, will depend on your friendship with cherries and further relationships.
- Plant several bushes at once, then you will be sure that pollination will occur on time and as it should.
- Take care of plantings, form crowns, spray and feed your pets, then the effect of them will exceed all expectations.
- Place the cherry in a sunny area, away from drafts and gusts of wind, if groundwater is near, make an embankment, let the roots of the plant are in a dry place, otherwise they can rot, and this is fraught with loss of the bush.
- Loosening the soil and timely removal of weeds will help air exchange.
- Shelter for the winter will help to survive severe frosts, it is better to cover the crown with non-woven material, and cover the root system with a layer of peat or humus. Such measures will allow the cherry to winter safely, and get a dose of fertilizer in the spring after the snow melts.
Adding an article to a new collection
Felt cherry received popularity in Russia after its description by I.V. Michurin. A highly decorative, abundantly fruiting shrub with tasty, early-ripening and possessing healing properties of berries - why not plant one on your own?
Cherry felt (Cerasus tomentosa), despite the external similarity with the usual ordinary cherry, is quite far from the latter in genetic terms - they are even unable to interbreed with each other! Felt cherries belong to the genus Drain and are much closer to cherry plum and plum (even peach and apricot!) Than to the “like” distant relative.
It remains only to determine the variety of this "Asian". We offer you a detailed description of the popular varieties of felt cherries, and you choose.
Selection of varieties of felt cherries for regions with frequent spring thaws, alternating frosts requires special attention - even successfully hibernating plants can rot out under dense crust.
Middle-late self-fruited variety, ripens by the end of July.
Berries - very large (up to 4.5 g).
The height of the bush - srednerosly (about 1.5 m in height).
Productivity - average harvest (up to 7.5 kg from a bush).
Sort Summer - the ancestor of many varieties of felt cherries.
The variety is relatively resistant to pocket disease, it is not very susceptible to moniliasis, but it is essential that it is damaged by codling moth. Winter hardiness of the bush is satisfactory, but fruit buds are highly resistant to spring frosting. Shrubs are relatively resistant to lack of moisture.
The bush is compact, erect, with rare branching. In the first two years, Tumor growing, however, grows normally on strong rootstocks. The shoots are thick, greyish-brownish, with noticeable pubescence. Leaves are green, tough, malevrirovanny, with a strong felt pubescence. Flower buds are formed at the ends of annual shoots and shortened bouquet sprigs. Flowering in late May - early June, not abundant. The flowers are large, pale pink.
The berries are light red, non-uniformly colored, irregular rounded cylindrical shape with intensely colored suture and a noticeable "beak". The flesh is juicy, thick, sweet-sour, slightly fresh, the skin is thin with intense pubescence. The fruits are kept on the tree for at least a month since ripening. Suitable for fresh consumption and for preservation. Peculiar to the transportability of the fruit. The variety is suitable for mechanized harvesting.
Middle-late self-infertile variety, ripens by the end of July.
Berries - large (2.5-4 g).
The height of the bush - tall (about 2 m in height).
Productivity - average (up to 8 kg from a bush).
Relatively resistant to asteriasis, the bushes damage aphid and moth. Winter hardiness and drought resistance - satisfactory. During the period of severe lack of moisture, the ovary does not lose, the fruits do not noticeably shrink.
The bush is round, fairly compact, durable (up to 14 years), medium branchy. With age, shoots change color from dark brown to dark gray, bark flakes off. The leaves are medium in size, strongly corrugated, with felt pubes. Flower buds are formed from the very beginning of the growth of the shoot along the entire length. Flowering - in the third decade of May. Flowers pale pink, medium size, with oval petals.
The berries are light red, aligned, slightly pubescent, rounded flat shape with a distinct seam. The flesh is thick, red, sour-sweet, the skin is thin. Stone is not separated. The berries on the plant are kept until the pulp dries. Suitable for fresh consumption and for preservation. Fruits have poor keeping quality and poor transportability.
Felt cherry description
The name of the felt cherry received because of the characteristic, resembling felt, down, which covered the young growth, leaves and even the skin of the fruit. The height of an adult tree is usually 2–2.5 meters. The maximum height the plant reaches even under the most favorable conditions is 3 meters. This circumstance greatly facilitates the collection of fruits and the formation of the bush.
Felt cherries have small wrinkled leaves, pink flowers on a short stalk that become almost white after 10–15 days from the beginning of flowering. Fruits are more often pink or red, but can be both white and almost black. The taste of felt cherries is liked by everyone without exception, and because of their sweetness of its fruits, it is sometimes even called a nursery. Ripened felt cherries in less than 2 weeks. The flesh is usually thick and tender, but there are also varieties with dense flesh that resembles cherry. It is much more difficult to prepare jam from the felt cherry of her bone - although it is very small, it is very difficult to separate it from the pulp.
Felt cherries have large genetic differences with ordinary and steppe cherries, therefore, it can be called a cherry quite arbitrarily: it belongs to a special kind of “micro cherry” and in its origin is close to plum, peach and apricot.
Несмотря на этот факт, многие садоводы отмечают благоприятное влияние соседства китайской и обычной вишни: при одновременном цветении кустарников ягоды войлочной вишни становятся ещё более сладкими и крупными.
Войлочная вишня самобесплодна, то есть ей нужны опылители — причём они могут быть как другого сорта, так и выращенными из косточек этого же дерева.
Войлочная вишня широко распространена в странах Востока. Родиной её является Центральный Китай, поэтому часто её называют также китайской вишней.
The plant is quite unpretentious, so it can be grown not only in the Far East, but also in the Moscow region and Leningrad region, as well as in the harsh climatic conditions of the Urals and Siberia. Felt cherries tolerate severe frosts (up to -25–30 degrees), but do not like winter-spring thaws, so in early spring it is advisable to sketch snow under the trees and trample it tightly, and put sawdust or straw on top.
In addition, felt cherries have a decorative appearance both during flowering and during the ripening period of the berries: framing branches, like sea buckthorn, white and pink flowers, and later - tightly fitting juicy oval fruits make it one of the most beautiful garden trees .
Photo gallery: flowering and ripening of felt cherry fruits
Fruits ripen on felt cherry around mid-July. In addition to frost resistance, another distinctive feature of felt cherries is the presence of immunity to coccomycosis, a widespread fungal disease of stone fruit. But, unfortunately, felted cherry often suffers from moniliosis.
Famous breeder I.V. Michurin noted a high yield of felt cherries, as well as the sweetness and juiciness of its fruits.
A steady yield is characteristic of felt cherries: depending on the variety, from 5 to 10 kg of fruits are picked from a bush from year to year. Cultivating felt cherries and for decorative purposes is practiced. In addition, it makes an excellent hedge.
Steppe and felt cherries should not be confused: steppe cherry fruits are more acidic and tart, and their bones are very sharp and can cause cuts in the mouth area. In addition, felt cherries, unlike steppe cherries, do not give root shoots.
Popular varieties and their features
This variety is considered one of the most durable among the felt: the life of the tree - up to 18 years. Cherry has a wide oval shape and a medium degree of thickening of the branches. Cherry large and medium weight - 4 g, with a dark red skin color, sweet and sour taste. It blossoms on May 10–18, the fruits ripen amicably in mid-July. The stone is small, is not more than 5% of the mass of the fetus.
Low-growing, durable variety with a wide oval shape of the plant. The use of fruits with light red flesh is universal. The yield of the bush - 10 kg. Collect the fruit in late July. When the crop surplus is observed, the fruits are crushed: under normal conditions, their average weight is 3.6 g. Due to the increased winter hardiness of the variety, Tsarevna felt felts are mainly grown in the northern regions.
Attention! By analogy with the popular variety of felt cherries, Belle is sometimes mistakenly called the Queen.
Alice variety is characterized by an average growth rate, has an oval-shaped bush, whose height is not more than 1.5 meters. Flowering occurs in the last weeks of May, fruit ripening occurs at 3-4 weeks of July. Dark maroon cherries have red juicy flesh. Alice plants not only tolerate extremely cold temperatures and drought, but also do not suffer from coccomycosis and nodule. The average yield - 8.5 kg per bush. The disadvantages of the variety include low transportability of fruits and their susceptibility to monilia at high humidity.
One of the best varieties bred for the Far East back in 1955. It has signs of both felt and sand cherries. In the first 2 years it grows rather slowly, it blooms a little later than other varieties. Fruits ripen by July 25, remain on the tree without dropping for about a month. Cherries of this variety have an unusual shape, resembling a rounded cylinder, and reach a mass of more than 3 g. The fruits have an average transportability, have table purpose, and can be stored for up to 4 days in room conditions. The maximum yield - 8 kg per bush.
Salute (samoplodny grade)
A felt bush with a height of no more than one and a half, and a width of 1 to 2 meters, is characteristic of felt varieties of cherry salute. Unlike other varieties, felt cherry Salute is self-fruited. Up to 10.7 kg can be harvested from the cherry bush of this variety. On large cherries of a dark pink color of a round shape there is a hollowed strip - an abdominal seam. The flesh is juicy, the bone is very small. Great taste.
One of the new varieties of felted cherries with good winter hardiness, resistant to cholesterol and pests. Typical for felt cherries, pubescence in plants of this variety is mild. Morning cherries have a rounded-angular form and juicy pulp with dense fibers. Stone pointed form. The average weight of the fruit - 3 g. Felt cherry Morning is not exposed to such a common pest, like the plum moth.
The height of the bush of felted cherries of this variety is only 1.3 m. The plant has an oval shape and an average degree of thickening. Fruits are large, with dark burgundy peels and red flesh. Productivity corresponds to the name of a grade - more than 10 kg from a bush.
The dense bush of a cherry of this variety grows at an average speed and reaches a height of 1.5 m, has a broad crown. The variety was obtained in the late 70s of the last century by pollination of the Ogilek variety plant with a mixture of pollen from Red Sweet, Leto and Damanka. It is popular with middleland gardeners. Fruits of sweet-sour taste have fibrous pulp, large size, outstanding seam-strip, fibrous pulp and universal purpose. Ripens at the end of July, yield - 9 kg from a bush.
The cherry tree of this variety is characterized by strong growth with preservation of compact dimensions. There are also high yields - 9 kg per bush. The fruits are large (from 3 to 3.6 g), oval-shaped, burgundy in color, juicy, with a sweet-sour taste and a bright cherry aroma. The abdominal suture on Ocean Virovskaya cherries is almost imperceptible. Flowering occurs in the period from 15 to 25 May, ripening fruits - from 21 to 27 July.
This variety of large-fruited felt cherries with almost black color is considered to be one of the most delicious. The yield of one bush - 8-10 kg of brilliant berries weighing up to 3 g. Another indisputable advantage of this variety is the low susceptibility to moniliosis. Despite the fact that the fruits ripen later than other varieties, extremely popular among gardeners. Removed from the State Registry, although it is a relatively new variety.
For cultivation in the Moscow region, the felted cherry varieties Natalie, Tsarevna, Alice, Damanka and Ogonek are ideal.
The height of the trees in this class does not exceed two meters. It is grown mainly in the Far East. A bush with a wide oval crown of medium thickening is characterized by high durability. Up to 10 kg of large sweet-sour fruits are collected from one plant, which will appeal to both children and adults. Self-infested.
The undersized variety with a widely spreading crown is obtained by crossing Sandstone Cherry and Felt Summer Cherry. The average weight of the fruit is about 2.5 g. The fruits have tender and juicy flesh, have excellent aroma. Productivity grows from year to year and is up to 7 kg per plant.
The variety is obtained as a result of pollination of Daman woman with a mixture of pollen varieties Summer, Red Sweet and Light. Jubilee cherry bush has an oval shape, a high growth rate and medium thickening. Ripening occurs at the end of July. Productivity reaches 9 kg from a bush.
Mid-season variety, which is unusual for felt cherries white color of fruits, along with the traditionally juicy sour-sweet pulp. Fruits are small, medium height shrub. In gardens it is quite rare, since it has no advantages over varieties with fruits of traditional color.
White Felt Cherry
The variety has a record yield (up to 11 kg from a bush) with a small height of the plant (not more than one and a half meters), which is achieved by a wide oval shape and density of the bush. The fruit is sweet and sour, the flesh is juicy and dense. Skoroplodny grade, well propagated by green cuttings.
For this variety, obtained as a result of the crossing of Leto and Peschanovoyllochnaya varieties, the average growth rate is characteristic, it is distinguished by compactness of the bush and large fruits with dense flesh. Ripens in the middle of July, differs in durability. Productivity - an average of 8.7 kg per plant.
Features of planting and care
Since the bushes of felted cherries do not give root shoots, it is especially convenient to grow it from seed. The seedlings grown by planting seedlings retain most of the qualities of the mother plant, and are even better adapted to local characteristics.
After planting a bone of felt cherries to a depth of 4–5 centimeters in September, in the spring you will see the first shoots, and after 3 years - remove the first crop from the grown bushes.
The best place for the constant growth of felt cherries is an elevated well-lit area, not characterized by high humidity. When transplanting seedlings should not be too deeply buried in the ground, and between the plants leave a distance of 2 to 2.5 meters.
How to trim and shape a bush
Already in the first years of dynamic growth of cherries (up to half a meter over the summer), the bush should not be thickened, and starting from the sixth year of its cultivation, rejuvenation pruning should be carried out, which consists in shortening 2–3 old branches.
When growing felted cherries, one should be aware that most of its varieties require replacement every 10 years - after 6–8 years, the branches start to die off, and its yield drops sharply. It should be noted that for a number of varieties enough anti-aging circumcision.
40 years ago, felted cherry was a hit in the gardens of the Moscow region. The first 20 years since the beginning of its cultivation in this region, it was resistant to coccomycosis, did not require special care and was distinguished by high yields. With the ubiquitous spread of this disease, the harvest dropped to a handful from the bush, and the constant fussing with the removal of diseased branches caused many gardeners to get rid of the bushes of felt cherries.
Processing with special preparations and top dressing
To prevent infection by monilia during the flowering of felt cherries, the tree is twice processed with fungicides (Funadzol, Horus, Skor or Strobe): first, the buds are sprayed, then the flowers are sprayed before the fruits start to form.
For a better swelling of the buds in the spring and to protect against diseases after the end of flowering, felt cherries are treated with copper-containing preparations (Xom, Oxy).
Felt cherries are fed once a year: immediately after completion of flowering, a mixture consisting of 70 g of phosphoric, 30 g of nitrogen and 20 g of potash fertilizers, and also, depending on the capacity of the bush, from 5 to 7 kg of organic matter is introduced into the soil. It is recommended to chill the soil every 5 years.
I will share my opinion on 5 tested varieties (all the breeding of the Far Eastern Experimental Station VIR, were purchased in the Department of Green Cutting of TSCA). The sorceress - as soon as he waited for the fruit, re-grafted the bush with other varieties - the variety was unprofitable to differ from the others by very small fruits, while the taste didn’t stand out, giving way to everything except the Children's one. Children's - the taste is too sour (sugar / acid ratio 8.6), I would consider this variety only as a technical purpose. Ocean virovskaya - taste sweet-sour (SKI 10.2), saturated. Natalie has a slightly less rich and sweeter taste (SKI 11.5). The least acidic fruits of Alice (SKI 13.1), compared to other varieties are somewhat freshly, are good for fresh consumption.
I like cherry felted very much, because it reminds me of my childhood. And it seems to me that this cherry has a unique taste and appearance. We had a variety Belle. The variety has been known for over twenty years, as one of the most juicy and sweet. In addition, berries in weight are not quite small - up to three grams, the bone is optimal, there is a lot of pulp. Very interesting and tasty variety Amurka. In terms of weight, it is slightly inferior to Beauty, but in taste the varieties are very similar. Only I would say that the pulp is denser in this variety. Another variety of favorite Tsarevna. Very large - up to four grams (!), Incredibly tasty and juicy. The bone for such a weight is small. In my opinion, there is a better cherry fresh.
We have a northeast MO. I bought a variety Ogonek, as well as relatives gave seedlings of unknown varieties. If you decide, then for pollination is desirable to acquire several varieties. Last summer I uprooted 7 felted cherries. Gorgeous bloomed every year to the delight of us and all our neighbors, but after that, all the branches that had blossomed dried out. In the fall, we had to cut and cut heavily, after which the bushes lost all their attractiveness, although they were restored over the summer. Our fruit well only one summer. The relatives now have the same picture. Apparently, monilioz captured vast territories, it is almost impossible to fight it.
In order to get a bountiful harvest of unusually tasty and healthy berries, you need to choose the most suitable variety for your region, follow the rules of agrotechnology and fertilize felt cherries in time. The result will not keep you waiting long!
The best varieties of cherry felt
Let's talk directly about varieties. According to gardeners reviews the best are:
- Princess. It is winter-hardy, mid-season. The bush is miniature - only up to 1 meter in height, the crown is oval, wide. Despite its modest size, “Tsarevna” is very generous - you can collect up to 10 kilograms of crop from one plant. The berries are shiny, bright pink, weighing an average of 4 grams. The fruits are rich in vitamins, sweet, juicy.
- Tiana It is also a miniature frost-resistant, self-bearing bush. Productivity is high - up to 10 kilograms from one plant. The berries are dark pink, wide, oval, with an average weight of 4 grams.
- Children's Low shrub, early ripe variety. Fruits are bright red, sweet. The plant is resistant to fungal diseases, endures the winter period.
- Autumn Virovskaya. Winter-hardy and drought-resistant variety of medium ripening. Bush height up to 1.8 meters, abundant yield. Berries are sweet and sour, juicy, the color is bright red, can reach burgundy when fully ripe. Berry weight up to 3 grams. The plant is resistant to diseases.
- Natalie. This is an early ripe variety of felt cherries. The plant brings to cheers all the hardships - frosts and droughts, which do not affect the quality and taste of the fruit. The height of the bush up to 1.8 meters, the average weight of the berries - 4 grams. The fruits are juicy, sweet.
- Ocean Virovskaya. This is a late ripening variety, drought and frost resistant. Bush rounded, low. Up to 10 kilograms of vinous berries can be harvested from a single plant. Tastes are good, fruits are juicy and sweet-sour.
- Damanka. This is one of the new varieties. Late-ripening, frost-resistant, fruits are large, burgundy, sour-sweet.
- White This is a one-of-a-kind albino variety. Fruits are white in color, this applies to the skin, and flesh, and bones. Taste is sweet-sour, juicy. The weight of the berry is small, only 2.5 grams, there are no special advantages. This cherry grows well in the Moscow region. the variety is mid-season. Gardeners plant this species not so much for food as for an exotic ornamental look.
- Alice. It is a mid-season, winter-hardy variety. The yield is high, the berries are large.
Unfortunately, we cannot provide all the photos of the varieties of felt cherries in the review. They are all very similar, only the color of the fruit and the size of the bush itself differ.
Choosing a place to land
It is possible to plant this species both in spring and in autumn. But it is still preferable to spring disembarkation before the buds bloom. In this case, the sapling will have time to get used to the new "place of residence", it will get stronger, it will overwinter more easily. Using our tips, you can easily find on your site the best place for it, where the bush will grow and bear fruit.
- The place should be open, sunny, with light fertile soil.
- The felted cherry, which photo is in the article, does not tolerate acidified soil. A year before the proposed planting, the soil needs to be propelled, so that the pH reading is 5.5-6.0.
- The place should be such that water does not stagnate, and the close passage of groundwater is simply unacceptable. Felt cherry does not like excess moisture, its aboveground part may simply die. There have been cases that new shoots have sprung from a preserved root.
- For a good harvest, it is recommended to plant up to three varieties of felt cherries. You can plant a plum, peach tree, cherry plum or apricot nearby. Varieties of ordinary cherries are not suitable for pollinating; this has already been written earlier. Some gardeners do not know this, and the yield of their bushes is lower than that of those who plant on the recommendation for pereopyleniya.
Having chosen a suitable site, it is necessary to plant a sapling correctly so that it would rather adapt, grow stronger, and the following year brought its first crop.
- In the designated area it is necessary to dig a hole half a meter deep. It should be about 80 centimeters wide.
- At the bottom you need to lay useful bait, these are: three buckets of humus or compost, a fertile layer of earth, 400 grams of dolomite flour or lime, a tablespoon of superphosphate.
- Саженец нужно поместить в яму вертикально, присыпать его землей, не закапывая корневую шейку.
- Обильный полив - первое, что нужно для хорошего приживления. После посадки поливаем водой в количестве от 20 до 40 литров.
- Мульчируем почву вокруг дерева, это поможет бороться с сорняками и сохранять влагу в засушливый период (хоть засухи дерево и не боится, мульчирование не помешает).
Высаживая несколько саженцев сразу, нельзя забывать про расстояние между ними, оно должно составлять не менее 2 метров. This will allow more evenly distributed sunlight, to avoid darkening and thickening.
Felted cherry care is necessary, as is the case with all cultivated plants. It is about him that we'll talk further.
The plant itself is not particularly fastidious, but if you want to get the maximum yield annually, you need to fertilize it every year. How to do it and what you need?
- After flowering, you need to add from 5 to 7 kilograms of organic matter, 40 grams of potash, 70 phosphate and 30 grams of nitrogen fertilizers along the edge of the tree circle. And so under each bush.
- Fertilizers will be much more efficient if you make a liming of the soil once every five years. To do this, take 200-300 grams of lime or dolomite flour per square meter of soil, and bring in the autumn digging.
To begin forming the crown of felt cherries, photos and reviews about which are available in this article, you need to immediately after planting. If the seedling is one-year-old, then it should be shortened, leaving about 40 centimeters above the ground.
If a sapling of two years old is acquired, it is cut off like this: leave only 5 or 6 main side branches, shorten them by a quarter. The remaining branches are cut without pity.
The following years, you need to regularly thin out the crown, removing old, weak and dead branches. From the seventh year of life, anti-aging scraps are needed. Even those old branches that bear fruit well are cleaned.
Often, felted cherry trees are planted and, as a decoration, as a hedge along paths. In this case, it is recommended to cut it up to 80 centimeters above the ground.
How to protect cherries from pests?
Plum and cherry aphids, as well as shityovka are very indifferent to this type of cherry. If your beautiful woman began to attack these pests, it will help Actellic and fufanon.
Birds also do not mind to taste the sweet, juicy fruits. Of course, we will not poison the birds, the blocking net will help us from their attacks.
Diseases to which felt cherries are subject: leaf spot, gray fruit rot, moniliosis. How to cope with the trouble? For the treatment and prevention of diseases will help the early spring spraying:
- The first is carried out immediately after the snow melted. Apply a three percent Bordeaux mixture.
- The second spraying is carried out before the tree begins to bloom. Here the mixture needs a weaker one percent Bordeaux or copper oxychloride.
After such prophylaxis, not a single "sore" will dare to stick to the bushes.
Felt cherries can be propagated by yourself, using your own shrubs, or by asking your neighbor to share a piece of your own. How to do it? There are several ways.
- Seed propagation. This breeding gives the most resistant offspring, preserving from the mother all the basic qualities. Only large, ripe berries are used. After removing a bone from a berry, it must be placed in wet sawdust or sand to avoid drying out. It is necessary to store the seed there before planting, which is done in the second half of October. To do this, you need to pick a bed, dig a hole 3 centimeters deep, bury a stone, and on top of it mulch the soil with peat. All subsequent season, you need to take care of the seeded bones: weed, water, feed. If the plants grow to 60 centimeters by autumn, you can transplant them to the main place. If not, you will have to wait another year.
- Reproduction green cuttings produced in the last days of July. It is necessary to select a strong escape, cut it off with three internodes. Remove the bottom sheet when landing. You need to land in river sand mixed in equal parts with peat. Cover with a film to create a greenhouse effect, constantly moisturize.
- Reproduction horizontal layering. It is possible to graft on native seedlings, and on other types of plants: plum, cherry plum, sloe. It is not possible to plant the felt cherries. The ideal deadline for budding is from mid-July to the first days of August.
As promised, at the end of the article we give examples of gardeners' reviews of felted cherry. People who have already landed her and learned well, write the following:
The berries sit well on the branches, even ripe, they do not fall off for about a month. Well removed from the branches without stem, so the berries do not need to be cleaned before processing. But this is bad, because the harvest is not stored even in the refrigerator, it needs to be processed as quickly as possible. For this reason, the berries of felt cherry can not be found on sale.
The bones in the berries are very small, they are quite difficult to move away from the pulp, it is difficult to peel at the jam. But the fruits are sweet, for preparation of blanks a smaller amount of sugar is required than for those produced from ordinary cherries.
The plant is unpretentious, it patiently waits until the owner copes with his important affairs and takes care of them. It does not dry out and does not shed its fruits during drought, which is pleasant to residents of the southern regions.
In general, in the reviews, basically, only positive comments, comments to the varieties are few, and those are not that serious.
Features of growing
To confuse felt cherries with the usual impossible. These cultures are completely different in appearance and taste. The felt variety is a short (1–2.5 m) shrub with thin twigs. In the spring, they are thickly covered with white flowers, and in the summer they are covered with red, very sweet fruits like sea buckthorn. Shoots, leaves and even the fruit of the plant are covered with a light felt patina, for which the cherry was called “felt”.
Before the usual garden cherry, it has several advantages. She does not need complex care, she is unpretentious, compact, decorative at any time of the year, tolerates drought and frost well, and her fruits are many times sweeter than traditional cherries. In addition, it is better against fungal diseases, and small dimensions simplify the procedure for pruning and harvesting.
Given the climate, in the suburbs planting felted cherries in the spring is more preferable than in the fall. Any piece of loose earth will do for her. The Moscow region, as well as the entire middle zone, is often “famous” for dense, acidic and not very fertile soils that need to be deoxidized and enriched with organic matter, otherwise the yield may be lower than expected.
Felt cherries bear fruit early (for 2-3 years), but they are incapable of self-pollination, so you shouldn’t believe the stories of seedlings sellers that the variety is self-fruited. To get the maximum yield, in the same garden it is recommended to plant 3-4 bushes of different varieties. And do not forget about thinning the crown 2-3 times a year. If you do not, the berries will be small.
The name of this variety is fully justified. The yield is really high - 9.5–10 kg / plant. Cherry bush spreading and voluminous. Small berries (on average 3 g), pinkish-red, ripen by mid-July. The taste is rich, with a predominance of sweetness. Plants do not tolerate excessive moisture.
It is no secret that the study of felt cherries as a new type of fruit shrubs originates in Khabarovsk, where a large number of the most diverse varieties of these plants were bred. They are perfect for the climatic conditions of Siberia, the Urals, the Moscow region and the middle belt.
Among the cultures represented today, the variety stands out, which is named “Khabarovchanka”. He has large (weighing up to 3 g), round berries, which are slightly flattened at the edges. They differ in pink color and sweet taste, for which many gardeners love them so much. Already in the second year of scion growth, abundant fruiting is noted, although from the moment of planting the seedling until the first fruits appear, it usually takes longer.
"Pioneer" - one of the first varieties of felt cherries, which was created by scientists of the Far Eastern Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture. The height of this shrub plant reaches 1.5-2 m. The branches are thin, but have elastic wood, which makes it easy to cope with abundant crops. The leaves are characterized by medium size, leathery dense structure and a brilliant, dull green color. The crown is dense, broadly ovate and covered with greyish bark. Due to the oval, pointed at the top of the leaves, this variety has good decorative properties, especially since the arrival of autumn leaves change color to yellow or slightly reddish. Also, the period of fruiting, when the branches are densely covered with bright fruits, is also particularly decorative. "Pioneer" organically looks both in single, and in group landing.
Almost round fruits are pink in color, have a thin and elastic skin that is difficult to tear, although at the same time it is easily stripped from the pulp. The flesh itself is characterized by a light fawn color, high juiciness and sweet-sour taste. It should be noted that the juice of "Pioneer" is completely transparent, and the bone is well behind the pulp. The berries of this variety reach a mass of 5 g. The flowering of the shrub does not last longer than 7-10 days, and it begins to bear fruit in the third or fourth year (harvest occurs at the end of July).
The best varieties of felt cherries.
There are many varieties of felt cherry varieties, but this section contains the best and most popular ones.
One of the best varieties of felt cherries, a tree of low 1.2 - 1.5 meters, with dense vegetation, the branches are thick, straight, the leaf has an oval shape. Berries are poorly separated from the stone, large, oblong, juicy, sweet, they can be preserved and consumed fresh. It is best propagated by young cuttings, begins to give a harvest for 3 years. At high soil moisture may be affected by monilia.
Productivity: 8 - 9 kg. with 1 bush.
Weight: 3.5 grams.
Maturation: July 20 - 25
Advantages: fruits are large, tolerates frost.
Disadvantages: over time, the fruits become smaller, poor transportability.
Compared with other varieties of felt cherries, slow growth is observed, especially in the first couple of years after planting. This shrub is also called sandy-webbed, it was developed in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories. The plant is compact, straight, the branches are not thick, the leaves are oval-shaped, the fruits are quite large in size. The pulp is fleshy has a sweet and sour taste. The color of the cherries is non-uniform, from pale red to red. After the berries ripen for a long time remain on the branches without showered.
Productivity: 6 - 7 kg. from 1 bush
Weight: 3.3 gr.
Maturation: July 20 - 25
Advantages: small bush, large berries
Disadvantages: average transportability, does not tolerate harsh winters
The tree is about one and a half meters tall with a rather dense vegetation, it is not recommended to water it often. The fruits are round, quickly and simultaneously ripen, reach a mass of about 4 grams, have a dark pink color. The flesh of rich red color is sour - sweet. The tree begins to bear fruit literally 3 years after planting. It is considered a durable grade. With the right care gives a high yield, up to 11 kg from one bush. This grade of felt cherry tolerates frost well enough to -35 degrees and drought. It can be used fresh, dried, canned, cooked jams and preserves.
Productivity: 9-11 kg. from 1 bush
Weight: 3.5 grams.
Maturation: July 20 - 25
Advantages: high yields, simultaneous ripening of berries, frost resistance.
Disadvantages: the flesh falls short of bone.
In the photo, the Tsarevna variety.
The bush is not high about 1.2 meters, with a rare crown. The branches are straight, the buds on them are small, the leaf is small oval in shape, the fruit reaches a mass of 4 grams, ovoid. If you plant already grafted seedlings, then you can wait for the harvest in 2 years. Begins to bloom in mid-May, sown by mid-July. After harvesting, it is recommended to recycle as quickly as possible, because cherries do not tolerate transportation. If you overdo it with watering, it increases the likelihood of infection Monilia.
Productivity: 9.5 kg. with 1 bush.
Mass: 3-4 gr.
Maturation: July 15 - 20.
Advantages: winter hardiness, large-fruited, pleasant to the taste.
disadvantages: high probability of infection with Monilia, poor transportability.
A tall tree is about 1.8 m, but it can reach up to 2 meters, with an oval wide crown. This sort of felt cherry has large fruits weighing up to 4 grams, the skin is covered with hair almost invisible to the eye, the color is richly red, the flesh is dense and juicy. Poor transfers transportation. The tree is able to bear fruit for about 16 years. It tolerates the harsh Russian winters. This sort of felt cherries produces some of the best juices, desserts and wines.
Productivity: 8 kg. with 1 bush.
Weight: 3.5 - 4 gr.
Maturation: July 15 - 20.
Virtues: winter hardiness, high palatability, semi dry berry, large size cherries.
Disadvantages: when the crop is overloaded, the cherry starts to grow smaller.
On a photo a fairy tale
The tree is of average thickening, about 1.3 meters high, the leaves are elongated and saturated green, the fruits have burgundy tint, the cherry ripens amicably, the taste is pleasantly sweet and sour. One of the best varieties of felt cherries according to tasters. The variety is self-bearing, drought-resistant, tolerates frost well. With frequent watering, the fruit may be affected by the fungus. Grafted seedlings begin to bear fruit after 2 years.
Productivity: 8 - 10 kg. with 1 bush.
Weight: 3.3 - 3.5 grams.
Maturation: July 15 - 20.
Advantages: high winter hardiness, semi-dry separation of fruits, high yield.
Disadvantages: high risk of monilia.
The tree is slim, compact in size. The berries are round, bright red in color, of medium size, the average weight is 3 grams, the pulp is sour - sweet, juicy, fibrous. The stone in this sort of felt cherry is small and poorly separated from the pulp. The bush is a little subject to infection by a fungus.
Productivity: 6 kg. with 1 bush.
Weight: 3 gr.
Maturation: Medium Early
Advantages: good winter hardiness, almost not affected moths.
Disadvantages: the flesh is poorly separated from the bone.
The bush is not thick, about two meters in height, the branches are strong, thick. The fruit is slightly oblate, attractive red, oval-shaped bone, the maximum weight of 1 cherry is 4 grams. The peel is covered with almost invisible hairs, the flesh is juicy, fleshy, sweet with a slight sourness. The seedlings that were vaccinated are beginning to yield in the second year. With proper care, the tree can bear fruit for about 18 years and produce a large crop, up to 9-11 kg per bush. The great advantage of this variety is that it does not need to be watered often, otherwise it can get sick and stop producing crops. Rashes several days earlier than other types of felt cherries.
Productivity: 10 kg. from 1 bush
Weight: 3.5 - 4 gr.
Maturation: July 10 - 15
Virtues: resistant to coccomycosis, high winter hardiness, very good yield.
Disadvantages: does not tolerate transportation.
The variety is bred by crossing the varieties Spark, Summer, Red is sweet and has received a high production rating. The tree is medium in size and 1.7 m tall. Cherry rich burgundy color. Own-rooted seedlings begin to yield for 3 years, grafted after 2 years. Blossoms Jubilee May 20 - 25, and ripens around July 18. Immediate processing is recommended after harvesting.
Productivity: 8 - 9 kg. with 1 bush.
Weight: 3.5 grams.
Maturation: July 16 - 20.
Advantages: semi-dry separation of fruits, precociousness, does not need frequent watering, tolerates frost, excellent taste, high yields.
Disadvantages: does not tolerate transportation.
The photo shows the felted cherry of Triana.
Bred by crossing pink and red varieties. From this variety of felt cherries it is easy to harvest, as its height is not more than 1.3 meters. The bush is elongated oval. Flowering begins in mid-May. Cherry large 3.7 - 4 gr, oblong, has a pink color. Considered one of the best varieties in yield. The flesh is tasty, wiry, poorly separated from the bone.
Productivity: 10.5 kg. with 1 bush.
Weight: 3.5 - 4 gr.
Maturation: July 20 - 26
Advantages: good yield, frost resistance
Disadvantages: does not tolerate long transport
Thick, undersized shrub 1.2 meters tall, oval leaf is not much concave. Cherry round, small 2.5 gr. have a subtle pleasant aroma. The color of the fruit is from red to dark burgundy. As with all varieties of felted cherry, poor transportability. With frequent rainfall rains can be subject to diseases of flowers and fruits. It is characterized by precocity, drought tolerance. It has a dry break.
Productivity: 7 kg from 1 bush.
Weight: 2.5 - 2.7 g.
Maturation: July 15 - 25.
Advantages: decorative look, sweet to the taste.
Disadvantages: low yield, small size of cherries.
Low tree about 1.3 m, with an oval wide crown. This sort of felt cherry has large fruits, weighing up to 3.5 grams, the skin is covered with hair almost invisible to the eye, the color is richly red, the flesh is dense and juicy. Poor transfers transportation. The tree is able to bear fruit for about 16 years. It tolerates the harsh Russian winters. This variety of felt cherries make delicious preparations for the winter.
Productivity: 10.5 kg with 1 bush.
Weight: 3.5 grams.
Maturation: July 20 - 30
Virtues: high yield, good taste.
Disadvantages: does not tolerate transportation.