Magnolias in our country are grown not so long ago, but very successfully. Increasingly, privately owned houses in the courtyards can see medium-sized bushes covered with balls of fragrant snow-white or pale pink flowers. In this article we will learn how to make this beauty even more, that is, let's deal with the methods of reproduction.
Breeding magnolia cuttings is best practiced in the first year of life of the plant, so new seedlings will grow better. The phase of active growth of magnolia occurs at the end of July and it is then that it is better to separate the cuttings. At the tops of the cut cuttings, two or three leaflets should be left, and the lower part should be treated with any means intended to stimulate root formation.
After that, the cuttings are planted in a clean or half-mixed substrate with peat. Cover the pot and make sure that the sand all the time was moderately wet. It is important to maintain the air temperature in the range of 19–22 ° C. At lower temperatures and a lack of moisture, zhivets do not take root and die. Most magnolia species grow roots up to 8 weeks, only the large-flowered magnolia takes root for up to 4 months.
The rooted plant continues to grow in a pot and only after a year it can be planted in open ground.
Reproduction of magnolia seeds
For those who like to start the process of growing plants from the very beginning and have a large amount of time and patience, the method of propagation of magnolia seeds is suitable.
It is necessary to sow the seeds in the fall, immediately after their collection, by the spring their ability to germinate will significantly decrease. Before sowing, it is necessary to scarify the seeds, that is, to break or cut the casing with which they are covered. The oil layer, which covered the seeds, is removed after scarification by rinsing the seeds with a soap solution and further rinsing in clean water.
For planting need boxes and universal substrate. Seeds go deeper into the soil by 3 centimeters and boxes until spring are taken to the cellar.
In early March, the boxes are rearranged on the window sill, make sure that the earth does not dry out in any way, and wait for the first shoots to appear. It is worth being prepared for the fact that in the first year they will grow very slowly and reach a maximum of 50 centimeters in height. A year later, the plants can be dived and planted in open peat ground.
Seed preparation for planting
Growing magnolia from seeds at home is a rather complicated process. It requires an individual approach. Therefore, growers - amateurs try to find out as much as possible about the sowing of seeds.
Before you germinate the seeds of magnolia, you need to prepare them in advance and properly handle. You can buy planting material in specialized stores. It is recommended to sow grains directly into open soil. This is done in the fall from September to November. If you want to plant a flower in the winter in the greenhouse, before that time they need to freeze.
Stratification refers to special modeling of the effects of climate and environmental conditions on a plant (for example, cold and moisture). This is a very important process for the plant. It affects the successful outcome of reproduction and the further cultivation of magnolia. The most optimal temperature for stratification of magnolia seeds is + 5˚C.
Hardening is not yet 100% success. Without compliance with all temperature standards and basic rules of care (temperature ranging from + 1˚C to + 5˚C with constant soil moisture), the seeds will simply die.
Freeze the seeds by a special technique. They need to put in a well-wet substrate. It consists of foliage, husks from cereals, sawdust, hay and other components. Then the container with planting material is transferred to the refrigerator for 21 days. After this time, they are thawed at room temperature, and sown in the prepared and fertilized soil.
The first grains germinate 4 months after stratification. This means that it is time to plant them in open soil (use a pot or box). Magnolia, grown from grains, has a very powerful root stem. Therefore, it is recommended to select the capacity for breeding and transplanting with the height of the sides from 30 cm and more. If this is not done, the root will constantly rest against the bottom, from which the magnolia stops growing and dies. If all the rules are observed, by the beginning of autumn the height of seedlings should be around 15 - 20 cm.
The health of your plant depends on the care you provide to the seedlings. The most important will be the first 20 days. During this period, try to create the most comfortable conditions for germination.
In order for the magnolia to multiply by seeds, the desired result must be followed by simple rules:
- Make sure that in a room where the seedlings are standing, there is always a stable humidity and temperature.
- Do not allow drafts. The air in the room should be supplied evenly.
- Shoots need 4 to 6 hours of light daily (natural sunlight or from fluorescent lamps).
- While the seedlings are not planted in open soil, constantly monitor the soil moisture. To maintain it at the right level will help regular watering.
- You can fertilize the soil a little with small doses of mineral fertilizers.
- After 7-10 days, the first shoots will appear. Get rid of unviable shoots so that strong shoots have enough room to grow.
An important link in the process of introduction is to obtain plants from seeds of local reproduction. At the same time, the adaptation process is activated, seed reproduction enhances the resistance of the next generation to adverse environmental factors (Avrorin, 1956, Gursky, 1957, Nekrasov, 1973, 1980, Lapin, 1974, Petukhova, 1981, Minchenko, Korshuk, 1987), which for heat-loving magnolias especially important. Without a doubt, plants grown from seeds of local reproduction, allow to identify the most promising samples for culture at the place of introduction. However, the introduction of sowing foreign seeds is much more promising than the transfer of plants by seedlings and seedlings. Optimal methods of breeding plants in a new habitat determine the success of the introduction.
As a result of many years of research, experiments have been conducted with preplant seed preparation, different sowing dates, the growth rate of seedlings of various types of magnolia, the effect of sarcotests on seed germination and the growth rate of seedlings, the ratio of underground and aboveground parts of seedlings in the first years of their life.
In the scientific literature on the introduction of woody plants, it is noted that their resistance to adverse environmental factors in new culture conditions increases in generations during seed reproduction (Maurin, 1967). Therefore, in order to increase the stability of woody plants, they should be constantly updated at the expense of local reproduction plants. Naturally, the time of receipt of seed reproduction depends on the time of entry of plants into the generative phase and the transition to fruiting. In our conditions, 5 types of deciduous magnolias entered fruiting period.
Magnolia seeds are first harvested. To do this, the fruit heads are scattered on paper placed on a table or shelf. As the rash from the seeds grows, the seeds will gather in any container and flooded with water for 3 days. After that, the seeds are rubbed through a sieve or other device to free them from sarcotests. Once most of the shells are removed, the seeds can be rinsed in water with a small amount of soap to remove the oil layer. After that, the seeds are well rinsed with clean water several times. Now we need to make sure that the seeds were stored in a humid environment. In wet sphagnum moss (4 parts of sphagnum for 1 part of seeds) in a plastic bag they can be placed in a household refrigerator on the middle shelf. Do not store seeds dry. They quickly lose their germination. You can store seeds until spring sowing in the refrigerator and in another substrate (wet sawdust, sand, peat), but sphagnum moss is the best option. Seeds are well stored in the refrigerator and hermetically sealed in a glass or plastic container without a substrate. However, before laying the seeds need to produce some kind of fungicide to protect against fungal diseases. You can do without seed storage, if you prefer autumn sowing.
According to the works of MG. Nikolaeva (1967, 1988), magnolia seeds are a type of seed with a complex and deep physiological dormancy. Therefore, it proposes the long-term stratification of seeds at positive temperatures of about 0–3 ° C as an agrotechnical measure. Khvortskya (1982) states that stratified magnolia seeds in Abkhazia can be preserved without losing germination, up to 10 months.
Magnolia seeds are enclosed in a hard shell, consist of a powerful endosperm, an underdeveloped embryo and are characterized by a type of complex deep dormancy, as a result of which they do not germinate immediately after harvest. The attainment by the embryo of maximum development can occur only on a tree. Not sufficiently mature seeds remain nevskhozhimi with any stratification. Determining germination is the prevention of drying out, because seeds lose their germination very quickly. After harvesting, the seeds should be sown immediately or placed in a humid environment: best of all with sphagnum moss in a plastic bag (Korshuk, 1977, 1979). 4 - 4.5 months of cold treatment are considered the best time. Seeds should be reviewed weekly and, if fungal diseases appear, are treated with fungicides. In case of premature germination, they are placed in a refrigerator with a lower temperature (directly under the freezer).
Magnolia seeds are covered with a red fleshy seed coat - sarkotestoy. Juicy sarkotesta protects the seeds from drying out, leading to a complete loss of germination, protects during the rest period. Many researchers before sowing magnolia seeds recommend removing sarcotest (Minchenko, 1984, Minchenko, Korshuk, 1987). It is believed that pre-sowing seed cleaning from sarcotest promotes a certain reduction in the period before germination, an increase in the period of development and lignification of the shoots, which is one of the conditions for their successful wintering in open ground. Removing sarcotesty allegedly contributes to faster maturation of seeds. Therefore, in our experiments, we used seeds in sarcotest and purified from it. Were tested: autumn sowing of seeds in the ground, autumn sowing of seeds in sowing boxes with their subsequent preservation in an unheated film greenhouse until the end of January, after which the boxes were brought into a heated greenhouse, autumn sowing without stratification in the greenhouse in sowing boxes.
Autumn sowing in open ground is justified only if it is carried out in a deep furrow (10 cm.) With ground embedding at 4 cm. and with the subsequent mulching - with warming with sawdust 10 cm thick. The process is rather laborious, but only in this case the soil germination of seeds will be at least 60%. When sowing in autumn without mulching and warming, soil germination does not exceed 4%.
The cold stratification of magnolia seeds before spring sowing stimulates their germination. Seeds can be stored in a closed plastic bag in the refrigerator. The best substrate for stratification is sphagnum moss. Seeds were placed in wet sphagnum moss in a home refrigerator under the freezer, where they were frozen for 20 days. After that, the seeds were removed from the refrigerator and kept in the laboratory at a positive temperature of + 16-20 ° C. After 20-25 days, the seeds pecked. 50% of the total number was with seedlings, 8% were nodded, but without seedlings, 19% were swollen, 22% were not swollen. According to literary data, it is recommended to store magnolia seeds in a cellar at t + 4-6 ° for 3 months in sowing boxes with a mixture of leafy soil, peat and sand (3: 1: 1) (Minchenko, 1984), in a refrigerator at positive temperatures (Minchenko, Korshuk, 1987), and Z.K. Kostevich (1968) considers the best breeding method for magnolia in Bukovina conditions: sowing freshly harvested seeds into boxes in a greenhouse.
After seed treatment with negative temperatures, we sowed on May 7-10 in two ways (with shallow and deep seed embedding). For shallow seeding, seeds were sown in furrows 2 cm deep and buried with a layer of earth 1 cm. In the second method, seeds were sown in furrows 6 cm deep and buried with a layer of earth 3 to 4 cm. With deep seeding germination processes slowed down and height seedlings until mid-July significantly lagged behind the height of seedlings grown from seeds sown with a small embedment. However, by the end of July and, moreover, by the autumn revision (October), there were no differences between the seedlings obtained by sowing with different seed embedding.
Sowing in closed ground was carried out in boxes on December 10-12, 1992. Seeds were previously placed in wet sphagnum moss in a household refrigerator under a freezer on October 21, where they were frozen for 20 days. After that, the seeds were removed from the refrigerator and they were unified in laboratory conditions by December 5-7, after which they were sown in a greenhouse. Seedlings obtained in this way, in May, had a height of 5-10 cm and on May 18 were smashed into open ground.
Of the three variants of seed reproduction considered by us, spring sowing with stratified seeds gave the best results. Soil germination in this case was 80% whereas, in autumn sowing with mulching and warming, it was 60%, and without warming it was 4%. Picking seedlings grown in the greenhouse in the open ground in the first year of life in the new conditions showed a lag in growth. During the autumn revision in October, the height of the seedlings was 32 cm during the autumn sowing, 45 cm during the spring sowing, and after the spring picking of the seedlings from the greenhouse into the open ground - 27 cm.
In the process of studying seed reproduction was conducted the following experiment. Siebold magnolia seeds, sown in sowing boxes, were kept for two months in an unheated greenhouse (until January). After that, the boxes were brought into a warm greenhouse with a temperature of + 18-22 oC. In such conditions, the seeds began to germinate on March 22, 50 days after the boxes were brought into a warm greenhouse. Before sowing, the seeds were kept in a solution of gibberellic acid (250 mg. / L.), As a control, the seeds were kept in water.
In the phase of the “subfruitsal knee” of Max seedlings for seeds untreated from sarcotest, seasoned in gibberellic acid, it was noted on March 24 and is 24%. For sarcotest-free seeds aged in gibberellic acid - 15%. For untreated sarcotest seeds, aged in water - 3%. For sarcotest-free seeds and aged in water - 0%. For seeds untreated from sarcotest and sustained in the water of Max the number of seedlings in the phase “semi-kernel knee” is significantly delayed and does not reach such a peak. It is marked on March 28 and is 18%.
In the cotyledon phase, the highest soil germination of seeds uncleaned from sarcotests and aged in gibberellic acid is 77% (March 31). In purified and aged in gibberellic acid - 55%. In the untreated and aged in water - 50%. In purified and aged in water - 26%. Max soil germination for cleaned and aged in gibberellic acid is noted 10 days later, compared with the first option (unpeeled, seasoned in gibberelic acid) - April 10th. For untreated seeds aged in water, 19 days later - April 19. For seeds cleaned, aged in water, 33 days later - May 3. And in the first case, the soil germination is 77%, and in the following - 75%, 72%, 60%.
In the phase of appearance of the first leaf (at the end of March) the growth energy manifests itself in the same sequence. In the variant with untreated seeds, kept in a solution of gibberellic acid - on April 10, 75% of plants had one true leaf, whereas in the variant with purified seeds, kept in a solution of gibberellic acid on April 10, only 70% of plants had one true leaf. Plants grown from seeds untreated and aged in water at this time had 62% of the plants with one true leaf. Plants grown from seeds purified and aged in water, on April 10, had only 43% of plants with a true leaf.
The maximum number of plants with one true leaf is also observed in all subsequent variants with a delay. If in the first case we mark this phase on April 10 (the maximum number of plants in the phase of appearance of one true leaf), then for the variant with seeds purified and seasoned in gibberellic acid, Max is marked on April 27, 17 days later and amounts to 71%. For untreated seeds aged in water, Max is observed on April 25, 15 days later and amounts to 72%, and for seeds that have been cleaned and aged in water, Max is marked only on May 3, 23 days later and makes up only 59%. In the phase of the appearance of the second true sheet, the pattern is not violated. 20 апреля мы отмечаем 80% растений для варианта с неочищенными семенами, выдержанными в гибберелловой кислоте, 70% растений для варианта с очищенными семенами, выдержанными в гибберелловой кислоте, 64% растений для варианта с неочищенными семенами, выдержанными в воде, 45% растений для варианта с очищенными семенами, выдержанными в воде.
Maксимальное количество растений с двумя настоящими листьями также наблюдается во всех последующих вариантах с запозданием. If in the first case we mark the April 20 phase - 80%, then for the variant with seeds purified and aged in gibberellic acid, Max is marked on April 24, 4 days later and amounts to 73%, for untreated seeds kept in water, Max is also observed April, but amounts to 70%, and for seeds that have been cleaned and aged in water, Max is marked only on May 3, 13 days later and makes up only 57%.
In the phase of the appearance of the third sheet, the pattern is preserved, but only slightly smoothed out. On May 3, in this phase, we note 72% of plants for the variant with untreated seeds aged in gibberellic acid, and 72% for the variant with purified seeds that were kept in gibberellic acid, 67.5% for the variant with untreated seeds, seasoned in water and only 52% for the variant with cleaned seeds aged in water.
After the storage of seeds recommended by us in a domestic refrigerator, the following experiment was carried out with sowing of Siebold magnolia seeds in open ground. Two options were laid: 1. Pecked-up seeds were placed in a deep furrow and sealed to a depth of 5-6 cm. 2. non-stoned seeds, but swollen, were placed in a shallow furrow and embedded them to a depth of no more than 2–3 cm. Sowing was carried out on April 22, 1991. The very beginning of the emergence of shoots was noted in version 1 on May 29 at 38 days after sowing. In version 2 - June 8, 48 days after sowing. Compared to Kiev, our cold soils in springtime impede the germination process very much. So, in Kiev, when sowing magnolias, in the second half of April, seeds begin to germinate in the first half of May, shoots appear from May 15 to 25 (Minchenko, Korshuk, 1987). Between the mass emergence of seedlings and the opening of the cotyledons, 10-15 days pass. By October, the length of the above-ground part of the seedlings in our experiments reached 12–18 cm, and the core part of the root is 22–25 cm. By this time, the seedlings of the 1 and 2 variants were almost equal, but the best results were still in 1 variant: 1 - the height of the seedlings 15.10.91 g - 18.8 cm ± 0.74, option 2 - the height of the seedlings 12.3 cm ± 0.60 . The maximum height of seedlings in 1 variant is 28 cm. The maximum height of seedlings in version 2 is 18 cm, which proves the sufficient need for special preparation of seeds for sowing.
The experiment was carried out autumn sowing without stratification in the sowing boxes in a heated greenhouse of seeds of different types of magnolia. Sowing was carried out on November 18, 1988. Before sowing, the seeds were kept for 24 hours in a solution of gibberellic acid (250 mg / l), and the seeds were kept in water as a control. Seeds began to germinate on February 15 (after 89 days). The first seeds began to germinate Magnolia Siebold, then Magnolia Kobus, then Magnolia Sulange. The slowest seeds germinate obovoid magnolia. The first shoots of this species appeared on May 5 (168 days after sowing). Germination energy was significantly stimulated and increased after treatment with gibberellic acid.
Magnolia seeds are believed to lose their germination very quickly, but this is only observed if they dry out. When sowing with freshly harvested seeds, emergence of sprouts can also be observed a year after sowing, which we have repeatedly noted for Siebold magnolia, cobus, obovoid. Between the mass emergence of seedlings and the opening of the cotyledons usually takes 10 - 12 days. The main condition for the survival and successful development of seedlings is a uniform and regular soil moisture. It is recommended to start picking up seedlings for thinning crops in the first year of their cultivation in June-July, choosing a cool overcast day for this (Minchenko, Korshuk, 1987). In our experiments, a picking in the first year did not justify itself. Good results were obtained when picking on the second year of life of seedlings. In this case, the pick is preferable to do in the spring. As a rule, seedlings perfectly tolerate transplantation and, with the observance of elementary agrotechnical rules, there is practically no loss. You can opt out of picking on the condition of marked sowing (10 cm in a row and 20-25 cm between rows) up to 3-4 years of age.
In different types of magnolia, the height of seedlings in the first year of their life varies considerably. In the autumn revision, the weakest growth was observed for Siebold Magnolia - 2.2 cm ± 0.245. In the three-leaf magnolia - 2.88 cm ± 0.35. Magnolia drug -3.68cm ± 0.47. Magnolia has a bus - 8.6 cm ± 0.587. Magnolia seedlings of Sulange have the highest height - 8.35 cm. ± 0.44 and 9.58 cm ± 0.48. The most aligned seedlings are in Magnolia Sulange, where the coefficient of variation of their growth is C = 16.65. For a magnolia bus, the coefficient of variation is C = 21.72. The highest coefficient of variation for Siebold magnolia seedlings, where C = 35.12. It is possible that such a high intraspecific variability provides this species with the highest winter hardiness and viability in local conditions.
For gardeners, vegetatively grown plants are more desirable because they usually enter the flowering phase earlier than seed plants.
When carrying out the introduction work, the most interesting forms are always of the most appropriate local conditions (for winter hardiness, productivity, decoration and other qualities). Vegetative reproduction allows you to save valuable features and properties of the selected forms. Individual plant parts have the ability to differentiate a new root system, an aerial part, or both. Unseparated parts (eg, shoots, rhizomes) are also able to turn into a new plant. Vegetative reproduction of trees and shrubs in nature can be carried out at the expense of specialized (cuttings, lashes, rhizomes, root shoots) or unspecialized (unseparated shoots and branches or their separated parts, shoots) organs. The value of vegetative propagation consists, first of all, in that it enables accurate reproduction of all traits of the maternal plant in a new individual. Vegetatively propagated plants in the first years of their life are more rapid growth than seed plants, they in a short time reach the size required for planting on green areas. Vegetatively it makes sense to multiply even some plants, relatively easily propagated by seeds. In natural habitats, the magnolia is characterized by the rooting of the lower branches in contact with the soil. In our conditions, we are witnessing rooting of the lower branches of Siebold magnolias, cobus and Sulange. We did not carry out special pinning of the branches, their dropping, wire pulling and drawing a wound in the form of a ring. The rooting of the lower branches without any assistance from humans began in the Siebold magnolia plants at the age of 15 years. At about the same age, the rooting of the lower branches was also observed in the magnolia plants Kusbus and Sulange.
When rooting cuttings, roots are formed on shoots that are not yet separated from the parent plant. This is probably the oldest method of vegetative propagation and was used in ancient Greece. This is a more expensive method than seed multiplication or grafting, since large enough areas are required to produce a single material. However, by cuttings, rather large plants are obtained in a shorter time than during seed propagation or grafting. In the spring, a low branch, spread over the ground, is bent to the soil and pinned with wooden or metal pins. Here, usually, an incision is made in the form of a ring or tongue or hauling wire. The wounded part can be wrapped with sphagnum to protect it from drying. The upper part of the layering output and tied to a peg. It is better if you make a recess under the cuttings and fill it with soil mixture. This may be peat + sand, perlite or other options. The bed should not dry out, and regular watering is required. For the formation of sufficiently strong roots will take 1 - 3 years. After that, the branches are separated from the mother plant and placed in the nursery for rearing.
The method of air layouts has been known for a long time and is carried out by various methods, but it usually comes down to the fact that a part of the stems or branches that are not separated from the mother plant, where it is desirable to cause root formation, is cut, notched or escaped to cause accumulation of nutrients. The most effective is the removal of a solid ring of stem bark 2.6-3.0 cm wide. The bark is removed entirely, but it is impossible to damage the wood, so as not to weaken the shoot or cause the air layer to be broken. The part of a stalk released from bark and located slightly above is treated with physiologically active substances. The use of physiologically active substances to stimulate root formation has a wide practical application, since they attract nutrients, water, phytoharmones to the place of processing, thereby accelerating the formation of roots. The treated part is lined with a hygroscopic material that retains moisture well and is wrapped with plastic wrap to reduce evaporation. The edges of the resulting cartridge firmly tied and secured to the neighboring branch to protect against breakage. The most suitable time for this reception in the southern Primorye is the period from the beginning of May to the end of June. After 6–10 weeks, the roots develop well on the shoot and the layers are separated from the mother plant and planted in a greenhouse, greenhouse or soil for further material growth for 1 year, after which it can be planted in open ground in a permanent place. By the end of the first growing season before hibernation, planted in open ground or greenhouse cuttings, must be insulated, otherwise they will die from low temperatures. Leave the layers until the next growing season on the parent plant is impossible, since they will die in the winter.
For the effective application of the method of air layouts in the southern Primorye, you need to know that the best terms are the earliest (in the beginning, in the middle of May). Separate the same cuttings need to be no later than August 10 and put them in rearing. In the autumn, be sure to close the winter with insulating material (Petukhova, Vaskovskaya, Turkenya, Starodubtsev, 1987). If the layers are separated from the parent plant in late August or early September, then they can only be grown in a greenhouse.
The aerial sampling experiment was conducted during four growing seasons (1982-1985). The object of the study were taken difficult to magnolia (Siebold, Kobus, Sulanzha). A ringed shoot or young branch was quickly treated with a concentrated solution of heteroauxin. Two concentrations of the alcohol solution of the growth substance were tested: a 50% solution of ethyl alcohol containing 1 mg and 20 mg of heteroauxin per ml of solution. Peat and boiled sawdust were used as a hygroscopic material, and sawdust was preferred.
When using a 20 mg / ml heteroauxin concentration for air layouts, it was not possible to obtain positive results. All the tested plants did not even have callus, whereas the treatment of plants with heteroauxin at a concentration of 1 mg / ml contributed to the formation of a good root system (90-100%).
In 1983, the layouts were made in the second decade of June. In early September, they were separated from the parent plant and planted in a greenhouse. Despite the late terms, all the layers had a good root system (the length of the roots varied from 8 to 12 cm.). In Siebold Magnolia, 23 cuttings were made, which were 100% rooted. The rooting of the magnolia of Sulange was also 100%. Magnolia cob layering is 90% off. In 1984, the layouts were made in the same time frame as in 1983, but the result was somewhat worse. This was probably due to the dryness of the air, which this year was much higher in June than in previous years. Ziebold Magnolia had 60% bruising out of 20 layers. In 1985, Siebold magnolia had 80% bruised layers of 20 pieces.
After one year of growing, seedlings obtained from the air layers can be planted in a permanent place. Planting should be done in spring, and the plants often bloom in the first year of planting, but flowers are not recommended to be left, as they weaken the plant. Regular flowering in plants derived from aerial layering usually begins at 3 years after planting.
Deciduous magnolias are believed to multiply by semi-lumber cuttings. However, horn rate is very low and usually does not exceed 10-15% (Kostevich, 1968), and 20% is considered good (Minchenko, Korshuk, 1987). A positive effect can be obtained only with the use of the greenhouse, the lower heating of the soil substrate, controlled temperature and humidity of the air, the use of rooting stimulants. In our experiments, positive results were obtained only when cuttings in the greenhouse on the rack under the film. The best period for the literary data is the middle and second half of June (Minchenko, Korshuk, 1987). In our experiment, the best time was the second half of July and the first half of August. These changes in calendar dates are explained by the delay in the passage of the phenological phases of development in our region. The optimal period for magnolia pruning is the period of active growth, when semi-woody shoots are already formed on the plant (the optimal degree of tissue lignification in the lower part of the shoot). The best substrate was sand. The success of cuttings largely depends on the temperature conditions during the procurement period, planting cuttings and the first weeks of their life in the place of cuttings. It was established that with an average daily temperature of + 19 + 21 ° C, a maximum of not more than + 26 ° C, a minimum of + 15 ° C and at a substrate temperature of + 22 + 14 ° C, satisfactory grafting results are ensured. Lowering the temperature below +15 ° C sharply violates the optimal temperature, as a result of which the death of the cuttings increases.
Reproduction of magnolia with green cuttings is rarely used because of their low root-bearing rate, as well as a significant outgrowth of rooted cuttings in the first winter and the second growing season (Bojarezuk, 1982, 1983). After bruising, it is recommended to maintain the cuttings at the cutting site until the spring of the following year.
The common position in cutting is that cuttings should be cut from young specimens or vegetative shoots, without touching those branches where there are many generative buds. It is preferable to graft young, intensively growing plants. The best time for harvesting cuttings and grafting itself is the end of June, the beginning of July, only during the very beginning of lignification of the lower part of the one-year shoot. Cuttings for green grafting better cut in the morning or evening. They must be protected from water loss (placed in p / e packages and placed in the refrigerator) or immediately prepared for planting. On the handle only 2 or 3 leaves are left on the top. If the leaves are large enough, only half of the leaf is left to reduce water loss from the large surface of the leaf. To stimulate root formation, increase the absorption of water and the root formation stimulator (if used), incisions are made on the lower part of the cutting from both sides. The upper part of the cambium is cut, but without damaging the wood. The incisions are made with a scissors knife or razor. Their length is 2–3 cm, and the width depends on the thickness of the cutting, but does not exceed 0.3–0.5 cm. After applying the cuts, the cuttings are processed by root formation stimulants.
And if, in spite of all the difficulties, you have decided to study magnolia by cutting, you can use the following substrates for root formation: sand, sand + peat, sand + perlite, peat + perlite, perlite, vermiculite, etc.
We must not forget about the treatment of fungicides in order to avoid the appearance of fungal diseases.
Magnolia cuttings usually begin to take root after 5 to 8 weeks, but for species such as large-flowered magnolia, the period is extended by half.
The cuttings usually remain in the greenhouse until the next year, when they are transferred to the open ground for growing. If cuttings were carried out in the open field, then a very good shelter is required to keep the cuttings in winter.
A prominent place among the various methods of vegetative propagation is occupied by grafting by bud (budding) and cuttings (Hess, 1953). This method of reproduction solves the difficult task of accelerating growth and achieving earlier fruiting, as well as increasing plant endurance and plant resistance through the use of special rootstocks. Those types of magnolia that, under the conditions of introduction, for some reason do not bear fruit and are difficult to propagate by cuttings, it is advisable to propagate by grafting. A great experience of reproduction of deciduous magnolias by grafting has been accumulated in the botanical garden of Kiev University (Korshuk, 1981, Minchenko, Korshuk, 1987). Vaccinations are carried out in early spring in a greenhouse or in the open field by methods of improved copulation, into the butt or side slit. Vaccinations of various species belonging to the same genus require careful study and selection of compatible species (Gortman, Kester, 1968, Korshuk, 1981). В Приморье культура ценных интродуцентов на устойчивых корнях определяется и тем, что почвы здесь промерзают на 1,2-1,4 м при минимуме снега. Прививка на устойчивых подвоях повышает зимостойкость. Размножение прививкой перспективно для усиления биологических свойств, повышающих жизнедеятельность растения в условиях интродукции. В качестве подвоя в южном Приморье, видимо, более всего подойдут саженцы магнолий Зибольда и кобус.American gardeners usually use a cobus and a pointed one as a magnolia stock.
However, vaccination requires a sufficiently large space and is more laborious than grafting. Plants to be grafted (graft) must be prepared in advance and planted in containers of at least 20 x 30 cm in size. For those who like gardeners, the grafting method is very convenient, and it can be used almost year-round (in spring, in the middle of summer - budding, at the end of winter - a cutting in the greenhouse). The plants used for grafting usually have a pencil thickness (both graft and stock). Adhesion ends after 2 - 3 weeks in a greenhouse or 3 - 6 weeks outdoors. After that you need to loosen the bandage so that it does not stick into the plant. When budding, carried out in mid-summer, the following year the stock above the budding site is cut. Pruning is carried out after the beginning of the growth of a grafted kidney 10-15 cm above the site of inoculation. Such pruning stimulates scion growth.
As you can see, there are many methods for breeding magnolias. How to use?
A gardener who wants to get a few plants for himself and his friends, should try and layering and vaccinations. These methods are inexpensive and they can quickly learn. They do not require expensive fogging equipment, special devices for heating the soil.
Magnolia Breeding Methods
As in the case of other noble ornamental shrubs, the main methods of magnolia breeding can be divided into 2 groups:
- Vegetative reproduction (by cuttings and layering)
- Seed propagation.
How to propagate magnolia seeds
Seed reproduction is a rather complicated process that requires a special approach, which is why every beginning florist seeks to learn how to plant magnolia by seed.. Prepared and pre-treated seeds (in this form, most often they are found on the shelves of specialized stores) can be sown directly in open ground (from September to November) or freeze seeds in advance and sow in a small greenhouse in winter.
Magnolia Seed StratificationStratification is a process of artificially imitating the influence of the environment and climatic conditions on a plant. Before temkak germinate magnolia seeds, they must be subjected to stratification. This process directly affects the final result of the multiplication and cultivation of magnolia. Magnolia seed stratification should be carried out at about + 5 ° С.
Seeds are frozen according to a special technology. They should be decomposed into a richly moistened substrate (sawdust, foliage, croup husks, hay, etc.) and placed in a freezer for 3 weeks. Immediately thereafter, the workpiece is removed, thawed at room temperature and sown in a prepared, fertilized open ground.
When to sow seeds
A few months after stratification (as a rule, no more than 4), the first seeds begin to hatch, which is a signal to plant them in open ground, a crate or a pot. When the magnolia is planted with seeds, it forms a fairly massive taproot, so the breeding and replanting capacity should be more than 30 cm in height - otherwise the root will rest against the bottom, and the magnolia will stop growing quickly or completely die. By early autumn, seedlings should be 15-20 cm in height.
Magnolia shrub is quite whimsical not only for the initial care, but also for the condition of the soil. The end result of cultivation and reproduction largely determine the fertility of the soil and its carbonate content. It is also extremely important that, before the first landing, a full-fledged drainage system should be organized on the site, capable of ensuring the constant maintenance of a given level of soil moisture.
Efficiency of growth can be improved by adding organic fertilizers and multicomponent mineral compounds to the soil, which are available and offered in almost every flower shop.
How to sow magnoliaGrowing magnolia from seeds must necessarily begin with stratification, which significantly increases the germination rate. Magnolia is sown to a depth of 4 to 10 cm (depending on the severity and looseness of the soil). Seed germination in this case rarely exceeds 70%, which means that seeds can be sown abundantly, retreating from each other a minimum distance. Growing up after 20-25 days can be planted directly in the garden (to do it better in the warm season). The distance should be chosen, taking into account the further growth of the magnolia shrub.
After magnolia seeds give the first shoots, the process of reproduction and growth should be taken more carefully and responsibly. The first shoots are a certain indicator of the correctness of actions at earlier stages. Seeds may not sprout at the same time, so you should continue to care for the shoots.
Magnolia seedlings grown from seeds, until full planting in open ground, are sensitive to changes in climatic conditions and soil conditions. Therefore, during the first 2-3 weeks it is recommended to recreate the most comfortable conditions for the growth and strengthening of the shoots of magnolia. Make it simple:
- The container with shoots should be in a room with a constant air temperature and humidity level,
- It is necessary to create conditions for a uniform supply of fresh air and to protect the seedlings from drafts,
- Daily shoots should receive light (artificial and / or solar) up to 4-6 hours,
- Before planting in open ground, soil moisture should be monitored, maintaining its regular irrigation,
- Additional soil fertilizer is allowed with a small amount of mineral fertilizers,
- After 1-1.5 weeks after the appearance of the first shoots, it is necessary to clear the container of painful and small shoots, thus freeing up space for the development and strengthening of the root system of strong Magnolia shoots.
How to propagate magnolia by layering
If for some reason the result of seed reproduction was unsatisfactory, it is worthwhile to use reproduction by layering. This method is most effective for growing shrubs magnolia. To do this, it is enough to bend the branches to the ground in early spring, pin them firmly (ensuring complete immobility), and from above pour a loose soil hill about 20 cm high. Acceleration of the formation and growth of the root system can be ensured by a small annular notch in the middle of the muzzle landing part. This way you can get up to 3 additional seedlings from each available shrub or tree. Reproduction by layering gives results much faster than seed cultivation or magnolia propagation by cuttings (from 1 to 3 years). It is also possible to create air bends, which can be prepared from May until the end of June. The branch on which it is necessary to cause rooting is neatly incised or completely cleared from the bark. A bare place should be abundantly treated with growth stimulants. Immediately after this, the treated area is covered with moss and wrapped tightly in a film.
When and how to prepare cuttings
Harvesting cuttings of magnolia does not differ from a similar process in relation to other trees or shrubs. The best reproduction is noted among the cuttings made from two-year-old twigs. Preparation of cuttings is best done in the spring. To prepare the cutting for rooting, the branches are cut directly under the bud (retracting 2-3 mm), after which 2 lower leaves are removed on the resulting cutting, leaving 2 leaves above them. Too large leaves are shortened by 2/3 of the length. The second undercut is 4-6 cm above the left leaves. The preparation of the cutting should be completed with its treatment in a root-stimulator solution or its accessible analogue.
You can make the workpiece and leaf cuttings. To do this, carefully cut off the leaf plate with a scape, on which a thin layer of bark should remain. In this case, it is important that the existing kidney is not affected. The final stage of harvesting is the processing of the cutting in the root formation stimulator.
How to choose the soil for planting cuttings
Equally important is the choice of soil for planting. Regardless of the breeding method chosen, it is recommended to choose open ground with a neutral reaction or with a slight acidity. This is due to the fact that the calcareous components quickly kill even the advanced root system of this shrub. The result of the landing of the cutting is also largely dependent on the presence of mineral components and fertilizers in the composition of the soil.
Among other things, magnolia is a tree, the reproduction of which is also possible from a cutting, in sandy and sandy soil will rapidly fade, until death. An ideal landing site is a bed with loose, light, fertilized soil and an organized drainage and irrigation system.
Planting and care for cuttingsIt is important to understand not only when to plant a magnolia in the ground, but also how to do it correctly in a particular case. Planting magnolia cuttings in open ground should be carried out only after the plant forms a sufficiently strong, self-sufficient root system, in view of which immediately after cutting and processing the cutting is better to plant and maintain in greenhouse conditions. The landing on the site, as a rule, is carried out after 2-3 months after the cut. The most favorable period for planting - the end of June - the middle of July. It is during this period that magnolia grows most actively.
Soil at the landing site should be loosened and fertilized, and also have a watering and drainage system installed. Based on the total length of the cutting, it is buried 5-10 centimeters, dropping loose, fertilized soil.
In order for the stalk to settle down better and begin active growth, it must be watered every 3-4 days, controlling a constant level of humidity. The plant should also be protected from drafts and pests. To form a vertical growth can be using the support stand, installed in close proximity to the handle. Further care for the magnolia is the same as for other seedlings - timely watering, fertilizing, treatment from pests.
A variety of methods and approaches to the cultivation and multiplication of magnolia is quite large and accessible to almost everyone. Achieving the result of magnolia breeding is simply following the recommendations presented above. It is important to remember that the application of minor efforts in the process of growing aristocratic magnolia shrubs will surely turn into a flower of unprecedented beauty, worthy of the pride of the owners and the envy of their neighbors.