Cucumber Murom 36 has a very early ripening period (which is 32-42 days from germination). Brought the variety at the Research Institute of Seed and Vegetable Breeding in Russia. It is recommended for cultivation in the North, Central, North-West, Volga-Vyatka, West Siberian, East Siberian and Far Eastern regions of Russia.
Bee pollinating grade. It grows both indoors and outdoors. Suitable for commodity production.
The plant has abundant foliage. The central lash can reach 1-1.6 m. The leaves are green in color, large in size.
The shape of the fruit is ovate or oval-elongated, with small and rare tubercles. Zelentsy 6-8 cm long, weighing 50-70 g. Light green skin, with bright white stripes. It has mixed pubescence with black spikes. The yield is moderate, is 2-3 kg per 1 sq. M.
The variety is resistant to cold, and some cucumber diseases - powdery mildew, bacteriosis. Fruits until about mid-August. After, can get fungal diseases. If the fruits are not collected on time, they can quickly turn yellow. If the soil is not sufficiently fertilized, the fruits will grow small, folded in different directions. The fruits show themselves well in both salted and fresh.
Cucumber Murom 36 can be characterized only by one advantage - precocity.
This variety belongs to the ultra-fast, bee-pollinating, small-fruited varieties. Shoots grow up to 100-160 cm, richly covered with large, dark green foliage. The bushes are low-stranded, compact, they take not much space on the site. On the main shoot develop male flowers, on the side - female. The plant can be grown both in open ground and in greenhouses. The variety is excellent for growing in the northern regions with harsh climatic conditions: in different parts of Siberia, in the Urals and the Far East. The advantages of "Murom" cucumbers:
- very early ripening - fruits can be collected 5 weeks after germination, an average of 10 days earlier than other varieties,
- high taste of fruits,
- cold-resistant variety, it is possible to grow in very cold climates,
- resistant to powdery mildew, bacteriosis,
- relatively unpretentious in the care.
But you also need to know about the disadvantages of this variety:
- small fruits,
- relatively low yield,
- badly tolerates drought, fruits grow inferior on poor soils.
Fruit characteristics and yield
"Murom" cucumbers grow to 6-8 cm, in diameter - up to 4-5 cm, that is, they are rather small in comparison with the majority of hybrid species. However, their peculiarity is fully compensated by the ripening and taste characteristics: the fruit is very fragrant, juicy, with a pronounced pleasant taste. Fruits are suitable for the fresh use, best of all reveal the taste when salting. Cucumbers are painted in a light green shade, on the ribs they are supplemented with thin, light stripes, the peel is covered with dark spikes, pubescent. The surface of the cucumber is covered with small, barely visible tubercles. The shape of the fruit is oblong. The average weight of the fruit is 50-70 g, the yield from 1 square. m - up to 3 kg. You can collect the fruits after 35-40 days after germination, which is 2 weeks earlier than most other varieties. Fruiting continues until the third decade of August, after which the bushes become very vulnerable to fungal infections. The fruits begin to ripen en masse, so it is very important to hold a regular collection.
Selection of seedlings
For various reasons, it may not be possible to grow the seedlings of cucumbers on their own, and in fact from seedlings they manage to get the best harvest. In such cases, it is important to know the criteria for choosing purchase seedlings (criteria for 30-day plants):
- the main stem of the plant should be 6-10 mm in diameter,
- plants should have up to 5-6 true leaves,
- the root system must be developed, braid the soil ball,
- the length of the subfamily knee is not more than 5 cm
Soil and fertilizer
For cultivation of cucumbers are suitable neutral (pH 7), loose, fertile soil, preferably loam or sandstone. The soil should be sufficiently breathable. You can not plant this crop in the lowlands with the stagnation of water and the accumulation of cold air in too heavy, dense soils. Also poorly warmed, poor, acidic or alkaline soils are not suitable. Regarding crop rotation: it is best to plant cucumbers after white cabbage and cauliflower, tomatoes and beets, potatoes, peas and onions. But after pumpkin crops (zucchini, melon, pumpkin, watermelon) should avoid planting cucumber. Remember that growing cucumbers for more than 3-4 years in one place is undesirable.
The optimal composition of soil for culture:
- 20% of the soil
- 50% peat,
- 30% of humus.
- 3 kg of superphosphate,
- 2 kg of potassium sulfate
- 400 g of ammonium nitrate.
We dealt with the soil, but it is equally important to provide other conditions for the culture. Since tropical regions are home to cucumber, conditions should be as close as possible. The main requirement is heat and humidity.
- Lighting. This culture loves a lot of light, because it needs to be grown in well-lit and heated areas. It grows best and bears fruit in conditions of short daylight hours (up to 10-12 hours). With a lack of light, the ovaries fall off, male shoots grow more strongly, the plant weakens and becomes vulnerable to disease. In no case can not zagushchat cucumber planting!
- Temperature mode. The optimal temperature range for cucumber is +25. +28 ° C in the daytime and +16. +18 ° C at night. At the same time, the culture does not like sudden drops and frosts (even a short decrease in temperature to 0 ° C can ruin crops).
- Watering mode. Moisten the soil should be 2-3 times a week, you need to water in the afternoon, towards evening. For irrigation, use only (!) Warm water.
- Feeding. Fertilization should be frequent. Firstly, due to the shallow location of the root system, the cucumber cannot extract enough substances from the soil. Secondly, the plant is greatly depleted in a short period of fruiting. When grown in a greenhouse, top dressing can be carried out more often.
Before planting, it is necessary to carefully select planting material and discard substandard quality. To do this, prepare a 3% salt solution and immerse the seeds in it - empty seeds float, and high-quality material will settle to the bottom. It also needs to be used further. It is best to use 2-year-old seeds, as they give the greatest number of fruits.
After rejection, they are disinfected in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes. After this, the seeds need to be washed, wrapped in a damp cloth and left for 2-3 days at a temperature of +20. +25 ° C for germination. It is very important not to miss the moment when the roots will appear 3-4 mm long - this is the optimal time for planting seeds for seedlings.
Content and location
For growing seedlings, you can choose peat or plastic cups with holes, peat tablets, special cassettes. Cucumbers do not respond well to picks, so it is not recommended to grow them in total capacity with subsequent transplantation. It is necessary to immediately prepare individual containers.
The substrate can be purchased at the store (special for seedlings) or cook yourself from the following components:
- Mix peat, sand, sod land and vermiculite in the same ratio.
- Mix 4 parts of peat and sod land, 1 part sawdust and manure.
- Mix 6 parts of manure, 3 parts of peat and 1 part of sand.
For fertilizer such substances are applied per 10 kg of the mixture:
- 6 g of urea,
- 10 g of superphosphate,
- 6 g of potassium sulfate,
- 2 g of magnesium sulfate.
Seed planting process
Seedlings are planted on seedlings in early May. But this is the average time. For an accurate calculation of time, calculate the date when the last frost occurs in your area, subtract 25-35 days from this number - this will be the approximate period for planting seeds and then growing in open ground. For planting seeds need to perform a few simple steps:
- Select containers, prepare the soil. Fill the containers with the mixture so that 1-1.5 cm remains to the edge, make holes 2 cm deep.
- Carefully lay in the wells for 1-2 seeds, try to injure the roots as little as possible. Cover the wells with substrate.
- Moisten the soil with a spray bottle.
- Containers should be covered with film or glass, placed on a pallet and put on a windowsill or other lighted place.
After planting the seedlings emerge 3-4 days later (under the condition of normal temperature conditions). The seedlings need good, long-lasting illumination (at least 13-15 hours), therefore, in its absence, it will be necessary to arrange additional lighting. For seed germination, a temperature of +25 ° C is needed, after emergence it can be lowered to +20 ° C during the day and +16. +18 ° C at night.
When the temperature outside will reach +15 ° C, the seedlings can be taken out for airing and hardening. At first 20 minutes will be enough, time can be gradually increased. It is very important to regularly rotate the containers with seedlings for the normal formation of the stem and leaves. Watering should be regular and moderate. Do not allow drought or stagnant fluids in containers. For irrigation, separated water is used +22 ° С. If the room has low air humidity, it is possible to additionally moisten the seedlings from the sprayer. You can also conduct several dressings: the first after the formation of one true leaf, the next - after 10-14 days. You can use complex commercial fertilizers in accordance with the instructions or superphosphate (20 g per 10 liters of water). It is necessary to make fertilizer only in wet soil, for example, in the morning you can water the seedlings, and in the evening add fertilizing. At the age of 28-32 days, when 3 true leaves have formed on the stems, the seedlings are ready for transplantation into the ground.
Transplanting seedlings to ground
The seedlings are transplanted to the open ground in the last days of May, but you should always focus on the climatic conditions in your area. At the time of landing, the ground should warm up to +15. +20 ° C. Seedlings are planted on an overcast day, in the afternoon (late afternoon).
The transplant technique is as follows:
- Dig holes with a depth of 20 cm, the distance between plants is 40 * 40 cm. Manure is poured into the wells, covered with soil.
- Carefully remove the seedlings from the containers, taking care not to damage the root system.
- The seedlings are placed in the wells, covered with soil.
- Next, the seedlings need to be watered with warm water, 1.5 liters per plant.
- After watering the soil is mulched.
This variety is suitable for cultivation both in open ground and under film covers. There is no significant difference between the methods, but in the second case, the harvest can be obtained even earlier, since the earlier will be planting seeds for seedlings. We have already mentioned the choice of places in the open field: it must be well warmed and illuminated by the sun, a windless place, with fertile, light soil where moisture and cold air do not stagnate. At high acidity of the soil, wood ash is introduced. The composition of the soil for cultivation in open ground is identical to the above. It is also important to follow the rules of crop rotation and select a site for cultivation in accordance with them.
Soil loosening and weeding
Loosening is a compulsory cucumber care procedure that ensures the normal supply of oxygen and air circulation. If this procedure is ignored, the earthen room is compacted, the plant slows down in growth, the ovaries fall. This procedure is carried out with each watering, after a light drying of the soil. The depth of loosening is a maximum of 4 cm, in order to avoid damage to the roots. The most convenient way is to loosen the soil with the help of a fork: they are stuck between the beds and removed without making any movements. When loosening it is also worth carrying out weeding from weeds with the help of hoe.
Masking should be carried out to increase the fruiting and the correct shaping of the bush. Pysynok are removed when they reach a length of 3-6 cm, it is usually sufficient to remove shoots from the first 5-6 leaves. It is very important to carry out a stitchling in a timely manner, because the plant spends a lot of effort to form the green part instead of forming the fruit.
The “Murom” shoots are rather short, the plant branches weakly, so it can be grown in the simplest and most popular way - spread it out, that is, without using any supports and garters. With enough space, the stems will be able to properly unfold and develop.
This variety responds very well to the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers. Some rules for applying feedings:
- fertilization is carried out only in the afternoon,
- Substances can only be applied to moist soil,
- after fertilization, leaves are watered to prevent burns.
The number of dressings depends on the level of soil fertility in your area. On average, it is enough to carry out several dressings: 2 weeks after planting, at the beginning of flowering and during the harvest of the fruit.
- When you first feed, you can use organic matter (chicken litter at a concentration of 1:15, mullein at a concentration of 1: 6, often fresh grass in a ratio of 1: 5). Also suitable mineral fertilizers (for 10 liters of water 15 g of urea, 60 g of superphosphate).
- For the second feeding, mineral fertilizers will be more suitable (for example, dilute 1 ash of ash in 10 liters of water). Also a good effect gives foliar feeding (35 g of superphosphate diluted in 10 liters of water).
- In the third feeding, ash can be used in this proportion or other minerals (50 g of urea diluted in 10 liters of water).
Pests, diseases and prevention
This variety has a high resistance to bacteriosis and powdery mildew - one of the most common diseases in garden crops. However, at the end of fruiting (the second decade of August) plants begin to be massively affected by fungal infections. The reason is the decrease in night temperature in August, the process is aggravated when using cold water for irrigation.
In principle, you can try to save the plants and extend the fruiting somewhat when using fungicides ("Topaz", "Hom"). Also, with the onset of cold nights, bushes need to be protected with a covering material. All affected parts of plants are removed and burned.
Some other diseases of cucumbers that occur under adverse conditions:
- Perinosporosis. The leaves are covered with light yellow spots, dry as a result of fungal damage. When a disease is detected, remove all affected parts of the plant, stop watering, process the rest of the bushes with a fungicide and use covering material at night.
- Sclerotinia (white rot). The plant and fruits are covered with white bloom, rot. Low temperature aggravates the course of the disease. If a disease occurs, remove the affected parts, process the sections with charcoal.
- Cladosporiosis (brown spot). Brown ulcers result from low temperatures and excessive moisture. When a similar phenomenon is detected, it is necessary to stop watering, cover the bushes with a film, process the bushes with Bordeaux liquid or Oxyf.
- Root rot. It occurs as a result of a lack or excess of moisture when watering with cold water. Strongly affected plants to save does not make sense. If the plant is affected at the initial stage, you can remove the affected branches and process the cuts with ash. For prevention twice a month, you need to carry out spraying "Previkur."
Harvesting and Storage
When collecting "Murmansk" cucumbers, you need to remember the basic rule - regularity and frequency. Проверять наличие плодов нужно ежедневно, ведь огурцы данного сорта очень быстро созревают, после чего вскоре перерастают, желтеют, утрачивают презентабельный вид и пригодность к употреблению.
Правила сбора зеленцов:
- Снимать плод нужно так, чтобы плодоножка оставалась на стебле. В идеале плоды нужно срезать ножом.
- Для сбора подходит раннее утро или вечернее время.
- Ни в коем случае нельзя дёргать, крутить, переворачивать или ещё как-либо деформировать плети.
- The harvested greens should be in a shady, cool place.
- When collected in dry weather, the fruits will be stored longer.
Cucumbers cannot be stored for a long time, in most cases they are immediately allowed for processing. But if you want to stretch the period of delicacy with fresh fruits, they can be placed in a container with cool water and put in a cool place. Water needs to be changed daily. In such conditions, the fruits can lie for several weeks.
Possible problems and recommendations
Although the variety is distinguished by unpretentiousness, the following situations may arise with gross violations of conditions of detention:
- The bitterness of the fruit. Indicates a lack of moisture. It also occurs with sharp temperature drops.
- Deformation of the shape of the fruit, hooked form. This problem occurs when grown on very poor soil, while ignoring dressing. Most often lacking potassium.
- The small size of the fruit. The reason is also the poverty of the soil and the lack of nutrients.
- Thinning stems, small foliage size. Similar difficulties arise with a lack of nitrogen.