The best varieties of onions for Siberia
List of the best varieties of onion sets for Siberia:
- "Strigunovsky" - this variety is early ripening. The bulbs are round, can weigh from 100 to 200 g. Taste is not sharp. This variety is well kept. If when growing onions moisture is not enough, the fruits are small and bitter.
- "Arzamas local" - This is a mid-season variety. From the germination of sevka to bending in 80–100 days. Dense onions grow from 30 to 60 g. This variety has a sharp taste.
- Onion "Siberian annual" - refers to the early ripening varieties. Bulbs rounded flat. The outer scales are dry, yellow with a pinkish tinge. Bulbs of this variety can reach 200 g. Annual Siberian variety is considered to be a salad.
- "Bessonovsky local" - fruitful, early ripening variety. The bulbs grow with a mass of about 30 g. The shape can be both round-flat and flat.
Several ways to prepare sevka:
- In 5 l of water pour 2 tbsp. l salt. In this solution, soaked the bulbs for a day. After that, it is necessary to sustain them for 15 minutes. in a light solution of potassium permanganate. Put them in the ground without drying.
- Sevok is heated for 10 hours in water at a temperature of 40 ° C. It is necessary to constantly add hot water. After that, it is treated with growth promoters. To prevent powdery mildew, sevok is dipped in a solution of copper sulfate or manganese.
- If there is no time to warm up the bulbs, then you can immerse them in water at a temperature of 55 ° C for 15 minutes and then immediately in cold water for the same time. Further disinfect with potassium permanganate.
- Onions are dried for 10–20 days at 25 ° C to prevent fungal infections.
Scheme and depth of landing
Before planting sorts sevki sorted by size.
- Sevok diameter less than 1 cm planted at a distance of about 5 cm,
- if the bulbs are 1.5 cm, then the distance increases 8 cm,
- if the onion diameter exceeds 2 cm, then it is planted at a distance of 10 cm.
If you have sevok more often, it is poorly ventilated and there is a risk of disease. When sevok plunged and densely compressed it with earth, it is necessary to mulch the beds with straw, peat, sawdust.
Caring for onions does not require special skills.
At the initial stages need regular watering. Depending on the weather, water the plants once a week, using 7 liters of water per 1 square meter. m. During the maturation of the bulbs watering should be reduced. Observe the appearance of the plants: bluish-white feathers bent at the ends indicate a lack of moisture, and pale green leaves indicate overmoistening. 2 weeks before harvesting, watering should be stopped.
Family onions - a type of onions
It has long been grown onion family in the villages, considering it beautiful, tasty and fruitful. In different areas, it was called in different ways: family, forty-toothed, tiller, quiver, nesting. Allium ascalonicum, as the name sounds in Latin.
From one bulb nest is formed, which consists on average up to ten onion. Sometimes you can count a family of 20 onions. Their weight varies, ranging from 15 to 60 grams. The form is also different, onions can be oblong, cuboid, rounded, pitcher-shaped, elongated. May be golden, purple, reddish, maroon bulbs. On the cut bulb pinkish-lilac or white. The greens of this type of onion branch well, the leaves are tender, thin, less pungent in taste. Feather height up to 50 cm.
The leaves of the onion are not rough during the season. Bulbs ripen in 50-80 days. Already in June, you can get a new crop. On nutritional value, this type of onion overtakes the turnip.
Family Onion Varieties
Currently, many varieties of family onions are bred. When choosing, preference should be given to local varieties, they are most adapted to the growing conditions in a particular region. You also need to consider when the family onion will be planted.
The following varieties are recommended for sub-winter landing:
- Albik. Round-flat onions with a yellow shirt are obtained. The average weight is 30-50 grams, the taste is semi-sharp. There are many leaves, they are juicy, tender. Perfect for growing in the open field.
- Ear ring. In small families of this variety grows up to 7 bulbs, their weight is 60-70 grams. Scales are yellow. The taste is very sharp.
- Snowball This is an early ripe variety, the bulbs are ovoid, up to 32 grams. White scales. Differs in high keeping quality, is stored up to 7 months.
- Sprint. In each nest grows up to 10 bulbs. The variety is early ripe, resistant to diseases. The best variety for early harvest. The growing season is up to 67 days.
- Ural purple. You can get large bulbs of a semi-sharp taste. The scales are red-purple onions. The grade does not arrow, is not subject to rot. Gardeners recommend this onion as a salad.
Also popular varieties: "Siberian yellow", "Garant", "Bonilla", "Fortress", "Grasshopper", intended for cultivation in the middle zone of the country.
In the southern regions a good harvest can be achieved if you plant the varieties “Kunak”, “Rostovsky”, “Kushchevka Kharkovskaya”, “Bargalinsky”.
Planting dates for family onions
In the fall, before winter, you can plant onions to get the first green leaves for salad in early spring. This will significantly increase the yield of culture. In the spring, when the snow begins to melt, the onions are stored in moisture, all nutrients are distributed rationally. Because of this, the yield increases by 15-20%, the weight of each fruit increases.
The family onion matures on average in three months, but the plant is at rest for a long time before activating its growth. If you plant a family onion in winter, you can harvest two harvests in one season, subject to cultivation in the southern regions, where the summer period is quite long.
When planting a family onion before winter, planting dates are very important. When referring to winter varieties, when to plant onions? It is recommended to make a landing 45 days before stable frosts. This can be done when the temperature during the day is kept from 0 to +5 degrees, and at night the thermometer falls slightly below zero. Usually, the temperature of the soil is still positive, the onions have time to take root. Choosing a podzimnuyu landing, it should be remembered that the onion is able to survive the winter frosts only when the root system has time to develop well.
Preparation of planting material
For planting in the fall traditionally used sevke or seeds. When planting seeds, you must check the expiration date. When properly stored in the middle of autumn, the seeds will sprout, take root, successfully winter.
Sevok need to choose more carefully:
The use of small onion diameter 1-2 cm - the most profitable solution. In the future he will be able to give 10 full-fledged large bulbs.
Large bulbs, larger than 5-7 cm in diameter, are arrowheads. They form a nest with many small onions. This indicates a low product quality.
Planting material should be free from damage, infection. On its surface there should not be even signs of diseases and parasitism of pests. You can carry out material disinfection by heating at 40 degrees. For greater yields, in order to prevent arrows, it is better to use hybrids and varieties "Ear ring", "Sprint", "Fortress", "Garant".
Preparation of beds
Family onions should be grown in areas with maximum access to the sun. The accumulation of moisture is not allowed, therefore it is necessary to make high beds.
You can not plant onions in the place where you previously grew garlic or onions. Crop rotation is imperative in order to get a strong and healthy crop. Planting early cabbage, beets, peas, cucumber, legumes is the best way to prepare the soil for the subsequent planting of family onions.
The soil needs to be plowed a month before planting. Then fertilizers are applied, for this purpose 70 g of double superphosphate and 5-6 kg of humus per 1 sq. M are used. meter of soil. Wood ash can be used to saturate the soil with potassium and phosphorus.
Fertilizers should be evenly distributed over the entire area of the bed, the root system should independently take the minerals in the development process. If fertilizer is not enough, you can lay them nested method, it is also effective. High humidity levels are very important. In case of drought, irrigate the soil before and after sowing. This will help the culture to strengthen the root system.
It is necessary to prepare sevok, landing then will pass without problems. For this purpose, a light solution of potassium permanganate is used, and then a growth stimulator. These preparations will allow disinfecting the surface of the bulbs, speeding up the germination process by two weeks. The use of humic agents helps to increase the resistance of onions to pests and diseases.
Onions are grown in open ground, sevok planted in rows. The distance between the rows is 25 cm. Onions are planted to a depth of 3-4 cm. Since the bulbs need a place to form a nest, do not place sevok close to each other in the same row. The optimal distance is 25-30 cm.
To prevent the plant from freezing, onions require mulching. It is best to use humus and straw. In the cold northern regions, it is recommended to use additional protection against freezing. On the beds throw caps of snow. With the advent of heat, the mulch is removed from the beds so that the soil warms up faster. To keep more snow on the garden, you need to install special shields.
Is it possible to plant a family onion before winter with seeds? It is possible, but the onion seeds must first be soaked in water, where growth stimulants have been added. Seeds are sown in rows at a distance of about 20 cm from each other. The depth of placement into the ground is -1,5 cm. Planting material is carefully planted in the prepared grooves.
Then the soil is compacted, mulch. If the seeds are planted in late August, you can already see onion greens in September. Seeds form a set at this time. He will take root naturally, winters and in the coming year will give a good harvest.
Sometimes novice gardeners can not grow on your site this type of onion the first time. The most common reasons for this are: excessive deepening of planting material, dense planting. Shallot heads too close interfere with each other. They can not get enough nutrients, moisture and sunlight. The harvest will turn out poor quality, the bulbs will be small. Family onions grown properly, will get up to 10 kg of vegetable per square meter of soil.
Family Bow Care
When sowing, planting family onions, care is needed after the seedlings are approximately 10 cm high. Before this time, the bow does not require special care. She doesn't need watering in the spring either. The roots tend to the depths in search of moisture, it is beneficial to the nutrition of the plant. Then you can mulch the soil. Mown weeds are quite suitable for this. They do not even need to be dried.
Laying a layer of grass with a layer of 10 centimeters, you can create a porous dense layer. A layer of mulch will not allow the soil to overheat in the sun, provide air access, and help retain moisture. Onions are recommended to be watered once a week. 20 liters of water are enough for one square meter.
Usually the culture does not require additional feeding. When the leaves wither, you can add a solution prepared from 10 liters of water, 15 g of potassium salt and 10 g of ammonium nitrate to the soil. Instead of potassium salt, you can take wood ash.
When choosing organic fertilizers, one can prefer bird droppings or manure aged for three years. Breeding bird droppings need 1 to 15, and manure to 1 to 10. If the soil is poor, you need to feed two times per season. The first time this is done during the period of active growth of greenery, the second, when the bulbs begin to form.
Pest and disease protection
Onions exposed to pests. If it was noticed that the leaves begin to turn yellow, you can talk about the appearance of the onion moth, onion weevil, stem nematode or aphid. It is noticed that the larger heads are more susceptible to diseases.
To cope with the aphids will help the infusion of hot pepper. You can use the infusion of wormwood or yarrow. Effective biological product "Verticillin".
Twigs of yarrow, wormwood or tansy, located on the garden with onions, will help scare the onion fly. You can water the beds with saline.
When processing plants Bordeaux liquid or other chemicals green onions can not be eaten. Ten days before the harvest, the processing stops.
As soon as half the leaves wither, it's time to start harvesting. The harvest period depends on the variety of onion planted. Do not delay with cleaning, as this may degrade the quality of the product, reduce shelf life. Onions are dug, he is given during the day to lie down on the garden under the sun. In the evening, clean in a dark place. Then the bulbs should dry, the degree of drying is determined by how dry the neck of the stem. For storage, select intact, intact bulbs.
Weeding and loosening
Loosen the beds with this crop before the shoots appeared. Deepen 3 cm into the soil. To a dense soil crust was not formed, spend loosening every 2 weeks. To get rid of weeds will help regular weeding beds.
Combating possible pests and diseases
The risk of plant damage is reduced if the proper preparation of the seeding was done. When diseases appear, it can be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, observing the interval of 2 weeks. Onions are usable only one week after processing. When onion flies appear, rows can be treated with a solution of sodium chloride (100 g per 10 liters of water). This is done when the plants reach a height of 7–10 cm. The procedure should be repeated after 4 days.
Harvesting and storage of the crop
They harvest when new feathers cease to grow, and old feathers dry out and begin to creep along the ground. Cleaning is carried out in dry weather.
The bulbs are dried in the sun, and then in the attic about a crescent. You can store the bulbs with a thin dried neck. The best storage space will be cellars and basements, where the air temperature will be about 0 ° C. Onions are usually put in wooden boxes, bags or nylon stockings.
The boxes should not be too deep. The height of the onion layer should be about 30 cm. So the vegetables will be stored longer.
Onions are very grateful: in response to your care, he will give a generous harvest even in the harsh climate of Siberia.
How to grow a large family onion?
Toto growlarge family bow, it must be prepared for planting. First of all, it must be cleaned of dry scales, to juicy. Different pathogens are often hidden under dry scales. Then the bulbs are etched in a solution of copper sulfate -1st. spoon for 10 liters of water. Etching time 20 min. Pickled onions rinsed with clean water.
During storage, the onion dries out slightly and loses nutrients. To restore the supply of moisture and nutrients, onions should be soaked in nutrient solutions of any complex fertilizers.
For this you need to cut the heel to clean white scales. Do not be afraid that you will cut off the excess. The rudiments themselves are deep. Even if you damage one or two, there are a lot of them in the bulb. If out of six rudiments damage two, then the remaining four will give a decent crop. Damaged buds do not grow. But it's better not to hurt much, cut only the heel to the bottom. Removing dry scales and trimming the heel of the bottom makes it easier for moisture to reach the roots, especially for the roots, so a strong root system develops first of all, ensuring strong plant growth.
I try to do without chemistry and use Gumistar or Biohumus for soaking onions - 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water. Soaking time is 8-10 hours.
Then put the onion in a bucket, close the lid and put it in any unheated room until the roots grow back (3 - 5mm).
Features of the family onion
The difference between family onions and ordinary onions, giving one large head, is the formation of a nest with several fruits. No wonder such a bow is called a family. In the nest from three to ten bulbs weighing 15-50 grams. The shape of onion heads are round, oval, cuboid, oblong. On top of the head are covered with thin scales of golden, purple, reddish hue, depending on the variety. And juicy tender flesh with a different color - from white to pinkish. The greens of the little family are thin, spicy in taste, and do not grow coarse for a long time. The height of the leaves of the plant reaches 30-50 cm. When satisfied with the taste of the vegetable, its advantages over other varieties of culture, we must learn the ability to grow a large family onion.
The family vegetable also produces seeds similar to the bulb variety, but smaller in size.
The features of the family include the fact that the plant:
- gives high yields
- reaches maturity after 50–80 days after planting,
- stored until spring,
- не стрелкуется даже при низких температурах воздуха,
- устойчиво к заболеваниям,
- нетребовательно к почвам и уходу.
Чтобы собрать урожай луковицами крупного размера, подбирают грамотно сорта семейного лука.
Cultivation and care
The family is easily cultivated, because growing and caring for vegetables is the same as for common bulb. Vegetable grows well, he needs to ensure:
- low air temperature ranging from +2 to 15 degrees
- wet soil
- additional watering during dry summer
- competent preparation for planting.
Care for the family onions in the open field is simple. With proper care for the plant, creating favorable conditions in any region can get a harvest of large heads of vegetable culture.
For planting families build a bed, having made grooves in it. Many gardeners prefer planting seed to be staggered. If the variety produces large onion heads, then they plant planted sevines 25–30 centimeters apart. Small onion need to be planted at a distance of 15 centimeters.
The depth of the planting material in the ground should be 5-8 centimeters. The shallow location of the set will cause the roots to dry.
How to grow a large family onion in the middle lane? It is necessary to correctly determine the time of planting, choose a variety that gives large bulbs. It is important to place planting material on the bed so that medium sized heads are formed.
Planting family bow
Onions can be planted in early spring and winter, in October.
Plots for family onions are suitable for those that are located in the sun and are well ventilated. For vegetables, air and water permeable soils are needed. If the soil is clay, it is diluted to coarse sand.
Acidity of soil for the onion family is suitable neutral. On acid soils, work is being done on the introduction of dolomite flour or hydrated lime.
Crops, beans, and peas are considered the forerunners of the crop plantings. Planting a vegetable at the same place every year is not recommended.
Bulbs placed before planting in a solution of potassium permanganate or fungicidal. The beds planted in spring are covered with special material, removing after emergence. In the winter planting mulch peat or humus.
Multiculum beds retain moisture for a long time, and the bulbs develop without watering and fertilizing. Fertilizers are applied to the family onions in the open field, when the leaves grow by ten centimeters. Here the soil will require watering, and feeding the vegetable is required.
It is better to water a small family once a week plentifully. As soon as the bulbs are insulated, the excess ones are removed, leaving 3-5 pieces in the nest.
In early July, watering the beds stopped. From the bulbs scoop the earth, leaving the vegetable heads in the sun. So they ripen faster and give greater yields.
In addition, the care of the family bow includes:
- soil loosening 1-2 times a week,
- weed removal
- feeding manure in a ratio of 1:10 or bird droppings - 1:15,
- mineral fertilizers.
Fertilizer contributes to the growth of green mass, so before cleaning for a month stop feeding the onion beds. Then all the forces will go to the formation of large bulbs.
I try to plant onions before May 5 (Luke's day). In Siberia at this time, snow can still lie along the fences and in the shade. I choose a place for landing where the sun has already warmed and the snow has melted. For planting take onion weighing approximately 70-80 g.
The larger the bulb, the more formed new bulbs, but they are small.
If you plant a whole bulb, then all the beginnings will sprout, and grow from 5 to 10, and even up to 11 small bulbs. To grow a large onion, I pre-cook it for planting.
Two weeks before planting, I warm up the onion at a temperature of 40 ° (near the furnace or battery) for 10 hours. This will protect it from neck rot, downy mildew and gunning. After all, the bow (any) throws out the arrow not because it is planted in cold soil and in cold weather, but because it was kept in winter at a low temperature.
I clean from the dry upper scales: various pathogenic bacteria can hide under them.
Slightly trim the heel and upper neck.
Soak it in warm water for 1-2 hours, adding a pink solution of potassium permanganate or a fungicide.
Water is drained, each bulb is cut lengthwise into two or three parts (depending on the number of sprouts). I make it so that in the nest grew less bulbs, but large. If they grow more than three to five, you have to pull: I hold three to five bulbs with my left hand (with my fingers slightly deeper in the ground), and with my right hand (again with my fingers into the ground) I separate the excess from the nest and pull it out.
The main thing is to be careful, otherwise you can break the root system and the onions will slow down in growth.
This procedure is carried out as soon as the number of bulbs in the nest is outlined and can be divided. Pulled the leaves together with the rudiments of the bulbs apply for blanks. I chop them finely, add dill, parsley, then dry or pack them in packages and freeze them, and in winter add them to any dishes. And I also add finely chopped cucumbers to the onions and dill, packaged in batches (in batches), and in winter okroshka is no worse than in summer!
Leaving and feeding family onions
When the leaves grow, the beds mulch with mowed grass or sawdust in a layer thickness of 5 cm. Under this mulch, moisture remains and the onion grows well. I pour cold water once or twice a week (depending on the weather). I add liquid ammonia to the irrigation water (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water) - this is both fertilizing and prevention of onion flies. After each watering or rain I will surely loose, so that the air reaches the roots.
Two weeks before harvesting (at the end of July) I stop watering. It would be nice if there was no rain at this time, but it does not depend on us.
Some gardeners cover film beds, but I do not, because I have a large area. I scoop the ground from the bulbs, as a result the onion warms up in the sun and the neck is dried, which prevents onion fly larvae from breeding.
As soon as the leaves are laid down, the onion is ready for harvest, if it is delayed, it will be poorly stored in winter. This is due to the fact that the bulbs continue to absorb moisture from the soil, which activates growth processes and shortens the rest period. Onions clean in dry sunny weather. I do not use the lunar calendar - I spend all my work depending on the time and weather. If, for example, the lunar calendar advises cleaning this day, and it is pouring rain on the street, will you pull out the onions, and then where to dry it? Plant bloom and rot.
After the onion has been pulled out, I lay it on the garden and immediately proceed to the treatment: clean it off the ground, cut the roots and take off the upper scales (undress naked). Why am I doing this? Together with the scales, the entire pathogenic microflora is removed, which can cause onion disease during storage.
I leave the leaves and, in this form, carry it into the attic, spread out one bulb at a time, I watch so that the leaves do not overlap the leaves. I arrange a draft for better drying.
It usually takes three to four weeks, it is important to ensure that the leaves do not dry out, otherwise they will fall off and will not weave him for anything, and if they do not dry out, then after weaving in the winter, the onions will rot. So it is necessary to find, as they say, the golden middle.
When the onions dries up, I scour the braids, hang them up, and they continue to hang until the cold. Then I put onions in the apartment, and in this form it is kept by me at a temperature of 24-25 ° on the wall behind the door until spring and even until the new harvest. My onion always pleases me: the bulbs grow by 150-180 g (in the nest from 3 to 5 pcs.) The larger onion goes for food, and I take smaller seeds for seeds.
I am still growing seedling onion Exibichen, the bulbs grow up to 700 g without any fertilizers. But it’s a pity that it isn’t stored for a long time - it starts to deteriorate in December. But he is so delicious!
I am sure that many, having read, will not agree that without the use of chemistry you can grow a good crop. But I don't want to prove anything to anyone. I just share my experience.
Family onions with tarnished reputation
I once wanted to outsmart Mother Nature. Last year's summer in our area was cool and rainy.
Bow pulled out of the ridges, as if from a swamp. Never in my life I washed the bulbs after harvesting, and then I had to literally scrub away the dirt. Then I dried them for a very long time: in the shed, laid out on the floor, and at home, in cardboard boxes. But in the end I realized that this onion would not be stored.
Already, tears welled up from such a thought, because it was the very same spring shallot (it is also called family).
Valuable thing! Not the first year I grow it. I even remember from whom I acquired the first planting material, thanks to that kind woman. And so…
Part of the bulbs, the largest and most unreliable, immediately started up for autumn harvesting. Those that were smaller and more reliable - for food.
There is a trifle (less chicken yolk), which is suitable for landing in late April - early May. But you can't stay! And then I planted it together with a winter onion-set in mid-October. Only one and it turned out.
She covered it with fallen leaves only. By the way, I never cover winter garlic at all, it never froze before, except once (10 years ago it was), when terrible frosts descended, and the snow had not yet fallen.
But I will return to my bow.
Last autumn, in the third decade, it began to freeze, it began to snow. And I was already looking forward to the start of the new season. I thought about how clever I am, that I planted a seed onion in the fall. But spring stood out as the most disgusting one - the cold and continuous rains (looking ahead, I would say that the first half of summer was no better, in the end my tomatoes and potatoes ate phytophtora, and cucumbers (even in the greenhouse) were tied, but fell off). But the onion was great! It was strong, green.
A week, another month - everything is fine! A shallot planted in the spring (bought a little on the seeds), barely ascended - weak, yellowing (there is plenty of water in the garden). And suddenly I see my shallot covered with arrows all over the week. My sorrow knew no bounds! Well, we ate it green in the spring, my seeds were gone. There is hope for that deadly, purchased. I protect him as much as I can. So, dear gardeners! So, every vegetable is your time, this is not a wintering sevion! Now I know. Negative experience is also an experience.
Lyudmila Fedorovna SAVKINA
Family bow for a large family
I want to share with readers the secrets of growing family onions.
Not all gardeners cultivate this species, considering the hassle with him rather complicated. In fact, the family onion is less whimsical than the usual one; it is unpretentious in relation to the soil, has precocity and is more resistant to diseases, especially to various types of rot.
In the people, onions with more than 4 rudiments (their number can reach 20) are called family, and also kuschevka because of the ability to bush. It is more juicy, fragrant and not as bitter as regular onions. The property of forming several rudiments has shallots, which are very common in Europe. Often this variety due to the fact that the head produces several bundles of leaves at once, is grown to produce greenery. Some experts consider both of these onions to be one species, although botanists find significant differences in them.
Since autumn, I have selected for planting onions the size of a walnut, not more. As soon as the earth warms up and the bayonet spade freely enters the soil (it usually happens in mid-April), I soak them in warm rain water for a day with the addition of potassium permanganate — the potassium permanganate solution should be slightly lighter than the beetroot juice.
I remove the husks from the bulbs beforehand, cut off the top a little at the place where the greens make their way, and cut the bottom very slightly. After putting the peeled onion in the pelvis for a day on a damp cloth, it also covers the bow from above.
After the small roots are visible on the bulbs, they can be planted. I plant a bow on a high bed, which I pre-fill with humus. Its width is about 80 cm. I make grooves with an onion depth across the ridge, sprinkle each superphosphate, wood ash (all - 1 tbsp), water well, place 3 onions at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other and slightly pour ground (not much buried).
In the process of growth, I necessarily loosen and water the plantings. In the drought I do it every day, because it is known that onions love water. If it is not watered, the root system stops growing, the feather turns yellow and the heads are formed small. So the main care is loosening and watering. I do not feed anything, since I already have everything in the soil. Due to this, I get several turnips from 40-50 g from one head. By the way, this size is very convenient when cooking dishes: one head is fully used, say, for soup. So, do not worry about the safety of residues, as is often the case when using large heads.
From onion flies well ammonia - 1 tbsp. l 10 liters of cold water. But you can pour planting solution "Aktara" or sprinkle with dry powder of the insecticide on top.
© Author: Ekaterina Nikolaevna GRIGORIEVA, Kaluga