Among the flowering shrubs of interest is the almond, which in addition to decorative has useful properties. The value of the plant in the nuts, which are eaten, is used for the preparation of medicines. Grow an almond tree on your site - the dream of every summer resident.
Almond is associated with bliss, the fragrance of the East. In the Middle Ages, traveling with caravans from Asia to the Mediterranean, almonds conquered all new territories. Now it is distributed in European countries and in the Americas as a nut-bearing culture. For the growth of the tree is important heat, it is difficult to grow in areas with a temperate climate. Successfully cultivated plant in southern Russia, California.
Biological features of almond
Almond tree belongs to the Rosaceae family, reaches a height of four to six meters. The powerful root system of the plant exceeds the size of the tree crown. The trunk of almond branches abundantly, giving shoots of two types - long and short. Grayish-green leaves of a bush narrow and long. Before blooming their almonds bloom. The flowers have white or pink beaters with a large number of stamens. In place of flowers, fruits of gray-green color are formed, inside the pulp of which there are bones, or nuts.
When the fruit ripens, the outer inedible part of them dries out, and it is easily separated from the seed.
Oval shaped nuts have a length of two to three centimeters. On the shell visible grooves or small dimples. Depending on the type of almond, the shell has strong walls or thin, similar to paper. Two types of almond kernels have been identified - bitter and sweet. They differ in taste and composition. The pulp of seeds consists of half of fatty oil and 30 percent of protein, which indicates the high nutritional value of almond nuts.
walnut species are eaten raw, and butter is used to prepare confectionery products. It is used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industry. The bitter fruit of the tree contains substances useful for the human body. It has valuable qualities and reddish almond wood. Furniture and souvenirs are made of it.
During flowering almond attracts insects with its fragrance. Bees collect early nectar bribes from a tree, which is especially important to them. And the beauty of a shrub covered with a pink, fragrant cloud in early spring was celebrated by many poets and artists.
Types of almonds, the description of the best varieties
Grow almonds more often in order to get nuts. Gives their almonds ordinary, which has a huge variety of varieties:
- The Nikitsky Botanical Garden in the Crimea bred varieties of almond Alushta early ripening, late-ripening Sevastopol. They give up to forty kilograms of nuts from one shrub. Flower buds endure them with spring frosts. Trees tolerate drought and heat. Kernels nuts dense, sweet. The only drawback of varieties is their inability to self-pollination.
- Victoria is a frost resistant variety. Already in the fourth year of life sweetish nuts weighing four to nine grams are harvested from the tree. Shrub resistant to fungal infections.
- The main difference between low or steppe almonds is its small height of half to one and a half meters. Large flowers of rich pink tones appear simultaneously with the leaves in May. Shrubs are not afraid of frost, resistant to drought.
- The northern provinces of China are considered the birthplace of three-lobed almonds. A small tree blooms in early spring, covered with a thick pink cloud. On each large flower there are up to twenty petals, in the middle of them there is a greenish spot with yellow edges. This kind of almond is used in landscape design. The magnificence of the plant is combined with the effeminate appearance. He often dies from the cold, poorly tolerate drought. Among the popular varieties of ornamental shrubs can be distinguished Captivity and Joy with terry flowers.
- Almond petiole is found in the steppes of Buryatia. The trunk of the tree reaches a height of not more than a meter. Its elliptical leaves and bright pink flowers adorn the slopes of the mountains.
All kinds of almonds are interesting for their appearance, who are useful fruits.
Reproduction and planting shrubs
Almond reproduction takes place in different ways:
- If a tree is taken for planting a bone, then it is very difficult to maintain varietal features. In early spring, prepare a landing site, protected from the winds. Twenty days before planting, the bone is dipped into a container with sand and placed in a room with air temperature from one to ten degrees Celsius. Germinated seeds are ready for transplanting to a permanent place in the garden. In the fertile layer, the sprouts are buried by pinching the roots to stimulate their growth.
- Successfully passes grafting varietal species of almonds on the stocks of bird cherry, plum. The graft for a graft is grown from a nut or taken from an adult tree. On the branch of the Scion must be developed eyes, fully formed. Before the procedure, remove all leaves from the cutting. Reproduction is carried out in the period of active sap flow - May or August. On the stock makes a T-shaped incision just above the root collar. Insert the shield of the cutting into the hole, pressing it with the bark and fixing the place of inoculation with scotch tape or plaster.
- For grafting, they prepare material in the first half of summer, cutting off half-woody shoots with two nodes and a length of twenty centimeters. Planted cuttings in nutrient pochvosmes, after holding the growth stimulator.
- After a strong pruning almonds gives a lot of young shoots. In the second year of life, it is separated along with the root system and transplanted to a permanent place.
- Similarly propagated by layering. Having bent a lateral offspring to the ground and fixing it with a pin, weed, loosen, water the earth around. In a year, the root will form a slider, and it can be separated from the mother bush.
Planting almond seedlings produced in a hole with a depth of thirty centimeters. Drainage is laid on its bottom, then sand is poured. Before planting, the seedling root is dipped into the clay talker. Down in the hole, the stem sprinkled with a substrate of humus, sand. See that the root neck is two centimeters above ground level.
Bush watered, tied to a support. To preserve moisture, it is possible to mulch the near-stem circle without falling asleep to the root neck. Almonds are unpretentious in the care, it does not cause difficulties its cultivation.
Recommendations for plant care
For the full development of ornamental shrubs need watering. Observing the condition of the soil near the stem of the plant, determine the frequency of its moisture. Usually it is enough once a week. Under each bush poured a bucket of water. Then the soil around the trunk of the tree is loosened to a depth of five centimeters to ten. The depth of loosening increases with the age of the tree.
The requirements for almond care are simple, it grows successfully not only in warm areas, but also in regions with a temperate climate.
From fertilizers used in fertilizing almond mullein, diluting it in a ratio of 1: 6. The mineral complex for almonds consists of urea in the amount of ten grams, ammonium nitrate twenty - on a bucket of water. In the autumn period, twenty grams of superphosphate and potassium sulphate are embedded in each square meter.
The care includes trimming ornamental shrubs. In the spring, at the beginning of sap flow they remove damaged, dried shoots. After the shrub has faded, they conduct crown formation. For rejuvenation, plants remove old branches from an adult tree. Since almonds do not tolerate frosts, especially young, it is covered with straw and material.
About diseases and pests of almonds, the fight against them
Fungal infections often affect almonds. They spread faster if the summer is wet:
- Zerkosporozy infected trees in early summer. The leaves are covered with gray bloom, round reddish spots. Developing pathology leads to drying of the leaves, their fall.
- Spores of scab fungus overwinter in plant debris, activating in spring. At the same time, the growth of young shoots slows down, and the fruits become unsuitable for human consumption. Rust is characterized by the appearance on the leaves of small brown specks that merge into one large spot.
- Moniliasis can infect all trees of the garden, if you do not fight the disease. Pathogens overwinter in vegetation residues. Symptoms of flatulence, or perforated spotting include the appearance of purple spots on the leaves, then on the fruits. Cracks appear on the trunk, gum protrudes. Spores of gray mold fungus hiding under fluffy islets located on the almond leaves.
Fight against fungal diseases can be spraying fungicides such as Topaz, Kuproksat. In order to prevent diseases, plant waste is removed in the fall, burning it and digging up the earth. Spring treatment Bordeaux liquid also saves from disease.
From pests like to feast on almond leaves for aphids, moths caterpillars, spider mites.
To combat aphids using folk remedies. Pepper tincture is prepared by taking twenty pieces of pods of bitter pepper in a bucket of water. Keeping the infusion over low heat for an hour, add three hundred grams of laundry soap. After a day of infusion, the bushes are sprayed in the early morning.
The spider mite is destroyed by onion peel extract, which is prepared by putting the onion peel in a bucket and filling it with hot water. After infusion for twelve hours, filter the solution and dilute with water 1: 1. Conducting timely weeding, loosening the soil will prevent the spread of diseases and pests.
Almond ordinaryAlmond ordinary is divided into two subspecies: wild almonds (bitter) and almonds are sweet.
Wild almonds contain prussic acid in the kernels, so it is grown exclusively for medicinal purposes.
For eating grown almonds are sweet.
There are varieties of almond, which grow by a shrub; there are varieties that grow with a tree. This species grows to six meters in height.
The bark on the trunk of almond has a brown tint, on branches with a gray tint, in young stems is reddish. The leaves are narrow, with a long petiole and a sharp tip, along the edge of the leaf plate - teeth. The shape of the leaves is an elongated oval.
Almonds, depending on the variety, bloom from February to April, which is interesting - before the leaves bloom. He has large white or light pink flowers growing singly.
The fruits of the plant ripen in June - July. The drupes are trimmed with a pile of gray or green color, the seed is a nut in a thin shell. The shape of the bone is similar to the nail: on the one hand - rounded, on the other - smoothly pointed. Nuts are large, up to 2 cm long.
Almond low (steppe, cobbler)Low almond almond grows up to one and a half meters high. This species is a deciduous shrub. It has a dense crown, forming a ball, with thick straight branches. The bark is gray with a reddish tinge. Leaves dense, fleshy, oblong, lanceolate forms. Leaf length up to 6 cm, color - dark green on the top plate and lighter on the bottom.
At bobovnika lush, but short flowering. Almond blossoms low in late March - early April. Small buds of burgundy hue are located on sessile short shoots. Blooming flowers in diameter up to 3 cm, rich pink color with a bitter aroma.
This type of almond is dissolved simultaneously with the leaves. Flowering lasts less than two weeks. Dried fruit in the shape of an egg up to 2 cm long, flattened and pubescent. Fruit ripening occurs in July. The seed is dense, with longitudinal stripes, edible. This species is represented by varieties with white and pink flowers.
Almond bush White Sail - This is an almond tree blooming in snow-white color. The flowers on the shrub bloom a lot, it is literally strewn with them. The diameter of the flowers is about 10 mm. "White sail" for a long time can do without irrigation: this southern plant is resistant to drought.
"Annie" blooms in early April, covering the crown with bright pink flowers up to 2.5 cm in diameter. Fruit ripening begins at the beginning of autumn, towards the end of September. Nuts are large - up to 6 cm in length, a seed with a delicate aroma and a pleasant sweetish taste.
Almond bush "Dream" likes to grow in open areas, lit most of the day in direct sunlight. Feels good in the penumbra. The plant is afraid of drafts and sudden changes in temperature. "Dream" blooms with delicate pink flowers just over 2 cm in diameter.
"Pink flamingo" - This is an early variety of low leaves, it blooms almost a week earlier than other varieties. The flowering plants terry, small, up to a centimeter in diameter, pink flowers. This variety is often used in landscape design, also beauticians love it.
Variety "Pink Mist" longer bloom in the shade, and more magnificently in full sunlight. This variety has large, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, bright pink flowers.
Almond Georgian - view with a limited area of distribution, it grows in the Caucasus. It grows a bush, similar in appearance to bauber. The species has few branches, but many root processes.
Leaves, depending on the variety, can be wide and oblong, up to 8 cm in length. Large flowers, mostly pink, bloom in May. The variety does not bear fruit abundantly, fruits are pubescent, green with a gray tint.
This almond is frost-resistant, drought-resistant and undemanding to the ground. These qualities make the plant valuable in terms of breeding. In addition to the above characteristics, the plant is resistant to diseases and pests. With good and proper care retains decorative characteristics up to thirty years.
Distribution area Almond Ledebour - Altai. It grows in the foothills, meadows and steppes. The plant prefers moderate soil moisture, well pollinated by insects.
Almond Ledebura frost-resistant, light-loving and blooming. In nature, the almond of this species forms whole thickets of bushes with large dark green leaves.
The plant blooms before other types of pink flowers, flowering lasts up to three weeks. Almond Ledebour fruits from the age of ten. The most popular variety is Fire Hill with reddish flowers up to 3 cm in diameter.
Almond Petunnikova - low shrub, not more than a meter. Area of distribution - Central Asia. More often erect branches form a dense crown in the shape of a ball. Bark branches painted gray with a brown tint or yellowish tinge.
Leaves with smooth notches on the edge, lanceolate form and a sharp tip. Flowering begins at the age of three, in the month of May. Almond blossoms in pink, bloom lasts two weeks. At the age of five almonds begin to bear fruit. Fruits are small, pubescent, orange or yellow-brown in color.
Almond three-bladeAlmond three-blade - This is a tall shrub with a wide and spreading crown.
The name of the almond is derived from the shape of the leaves, forming three lobes-plates.
The leaves are covered with a pile on the underside of the leaf plate, fringed at the edge with teeth. Flowers of different shades and diameter, arranged in pairs on the shoot.
There are two decorative subspecies:
- "Captivity" - with double flowers, large - up to 4 cm in diameter. Pink petals bloom after the leaves. The shrub grows up to 3 m tall,
- "Kiev" - up to 3.5 m tall, lush flowering. Pink flowers bloom before the leaves, the flowers are large, terry.
"Svitlana" - variety bred by Ukrainian breeders. The variety is frost resistant, unpretentious. Flowers in "Svitlana" very pale shade. Blooms profusely, even with minimal care.
"Tanya" - Almonds with double large flowers with a diameter of up to 3.5 cm. Blossoming petals seem to be twisted. The variety is frost resistant, does not die at -25 ° C. Only long thaws and the lack of snow cover can pose a threat. At the same time almond buds die.
"In memory of Makhmet"
"In memory of Makhmet" - The variety blooms before the leaves bloom. He has double flowers of creamy pink color. Flowering lasts about two weeks. In the landscape often plant bulbous plants next to it.
"Chinese" - a variety with pale pink flowers, not terry. "Chinese woman" feels great in city parks, gardens and alleys.
"Snow Wimura" - Almond three-blade terry. Large flowers of pale pink color by the end of flowering, change color to cream. The plant feels best in open areas among coniferous ornamental shrubs and trees.
"Ruslana" - hybrid variety, changing shade. At the beginning of flowering, cream-colored petals turn white.
Almond is a popular and healthy plant. Its fruits are used not only in medicine and cosmetology, almond nuts help with the passage of medicinal or weight-reducing diets.
Миндаль также популярен в кулинарии, на его основе создано много вкусных, воздушных пирожных, тортов, муссов, кремов и прочих десертов. Широко используют миндаль и в изготовлении алкоголя. Кусты цветущего миндаля украшают парковые зоны, сады и аллеи.
Калифорнийский миндаль - орехоплодная культура
California almonds are widely distributed in California, where they are the most popular nut crop. There are a total of 25 varieties of it, each of which has its own distinctive features. The following are some of them.
"Nonpareil" early maturation. Nuts of a light yellow shade, with a smooth surface. The shell is soft, dark brown, easily separated from the core.
"Carmel" - ripens one month later of the Nonpareil variety. Nuts are medium in size, narrow, smooth, with a soft, whole shell.
"Butte" - variety of medium ripening period. Nuts are small, rounded, with a rough surface. The shell is soft, easily separated from the core.
"Padre" - average maturity. Nuts are short, wide, dark brown, with a wrinkled surface. The shell is hard, there is no disclosure of the seam.
“Mission” - late ripening. Nuts are wide, short, wrinkled, with a strong aroma. The shell is hard, smooth, there is no disclosure of the seam.
"Monterey" - late ripening. Nuts are large, long, narrow, with a surface dotted with deep wrinkles. The shell is hard, smooth, with a small opening of the seam.
"Sonora" - average maturity. Nuts are large, long, smooth. The shell is paper, with a bumpy surface and a good opening of the seam.
Almond pink and tricly and his photo
Pink almond (photo above) - sprawling shrub up to 5 m. In another it is called three-lobed almond or three-lobed Luiseania. Homeland of this culture is North China. The crown is wide, vertical, about 2 m wide. Shoots are dark brown. The leaves are broadly elliptical, alternate, sharp, three-lobed, dark green above, gray below, 6 cm long. The distinctive feature of this type of almond is dark pink, double flowers resembling roses, forming in pairs along the entire length of the shoot, which gives the tree an unusual, attractive view during the flowering period. Flowering occurs in May, lasts 14-20 days. Fruits - small drupes with a length of 1 cm, with a dry hard shell.
This culture, unlike other types of almonds, is quite whimsical. It prefers sandy, loamy, loose, light soils. During the flowering period it needs a lot of moisture. For the cultivation of this plant is suitable open sunny place, protected from wind and drafts. Pink almonds tolerate frost well, but flower buds can sometimes be damaged. In order for the tree to successfully winter, it is necessary to provide him with a layer of snow cover. In this case, it will withstand temperatures down to - 30 ° C.
A photo of a three-bladed almond proves that this culture is a real decoration of the garden. Spectacular shrubs can be planted alone and in group plantings. During the flowering period it looks harmoniously against the background of coniferous plants. Flowering branches are long cut.
Low steppe shrub almonds wild
Wild almonds or steppe grows wild in the steppe belt and the European part of Russia, as well as in Central Asia. Often settles on ravines and beams. It is a short shrub with a height of 1-1.5 m. It has a dense, spherical crown with straight branches. Leaves linear-lanceolate, smooth, serrated on the edge, dark green above, lighter below. The flowers are small, pink, bloom simultaneously with the leaves. Abundant flowering occurs in May. Lasts 2-3 weeks.
Fruits are drupes of oval shape, 2 cm long, with a slight pubescence. Stone is flat with longitudinal grooves.
Shrub light-requiring, winter and drought-resistant. Lives up to 80 years.
Types and varieties of decorative almonds
Almond (Amygdalus) - a plant from the family Rosaceae. Among the highly decorative almonds can be called: low, Georgian, Petunnikova, Ledebour, but amateur gardeners stopped their attention on low almonds, or cobwebs, and three-lobed almonds, which have now been given the new name Luiseia (Louseania).
Almond Ledebura (L. ledebouriana). Shrub 1.2-2 m tall, crown diameter 0.8-1 m. The leaves are large, dark green.
Look at the photo - in the shrub of an almond of this species, the flowers are pink, slightly fragrant up to 4 cm in diameter, fruits up to 4 cm long:
It blooms before many almonds in early May. Duration of flowering - a week. The fruits ripen in September.
Almond low (A. papa). Other names - steppe almond, bauber. Small deciduous shrub 0.5-1.5 m tall. Crohn thick, spherical.
As seen in the photo, this type of almond flowers are up to 3 cm in diameter, bright pink, solitary, blooming simultaneously with the leaves:
Blossoms in May, abundantly, within 7-10 days. Grows well, gives abundant root shoots. Light-requiring Drought resistant Winter hardy
Among the varieties of this type of almond are the most interesting:
Belotsvetkovy, or "Albiflora" ("Albiflora"), - with white flowers,
"Gessler" ("Gessleriana") - the size of the bush, the leaves are smaller than the species, but the flowers are larger, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, bright pink.
Almond three-blade (D. triloba). Another name is louseania three-bladed (Louseania triloba). Shrub up to 3 m high, at home up to 5 m, with a spreading crown up to 1.5 m in diameter and dark gray shoots. The leaves are yellow-green on top, grayish below, autumn color is often mild. The flowers are pink, dark pink, crimson, double, up to 3.5 cm in diameter, paired, densely located along the entire length of last year's shoots. The diameter of the flowers is 1.5-3 cm. It blooms before the leaves bloom in the first half of May, for 2 weeks. The flowers are well preserved in the cut. Sometimes they are damaged by late spring frosts. Known terry form "Captivity" ("Plena") with pale pink flowers, about 3 cm in diameter, and similar to her variety "Joy."
Here are the photos of ornamental shrubs almonds of the above types:
Growing almonds: planting and caring for shrubs
Features landing. Prefers sunny places or light penumbra. The landing site should be protected from drafts and strong winds. For successful care when planting almonds, it is necessary to maintain a distance between plants of 1.0-1.5 m. The root neck is slightly above the level of the soil. Soil mixtures consist of leafy earth, humus, sand (3: 2: 1) with the addition of slaked lime or dolomite flour (half-liter jar per planting pit).
Top dressing. Almonds are very responsive to regular feeding. In the spring make a liter jar of mullein, 1 tablespoon of urea, 2 tablespoons of ammonium nitrate, which is diluted in 10 liters of water. In the autumn - 1 matchbox per 1 m2 of double superphosphate and potassium sulfate.
Crop. Plants tolerate shearing and pruning. Preparing for the winter. Sometimes pinching of the succulent ends of the shoots is done in order to weaken their growth and give them the opportunity to lumber, having finished growing in time. This is the best way to prepare plants for winter!