The Aport tree is a vigorous, about 6 m high, up to 7 m wide. The crown is spreading and rounded. The number of skeletal branches is small. Apples are appreciated for the size of the fruit, pleasant aroma and taste of the pulp. The size of the first fruits reaches 600, or even 700 g. Gradually they become smaller, but their number increases. Fruits of adult trees reach 300 g. This is much more than many other varieties.
Fruits are slightly ribbed, shirokokonichesky form. They have a dense skin of yellow or yellow-green color, painted with red-brown blush. It is covered with a wax coating that protects the fetus from certain external influences and allows it to be stored for a long time in winter. The flesh is tender and crumbly, white or cream, fragrant. The smell of apples Aport is so strong that it clogs the aroma of fruits of any other variety.
The taste of apples are sweet and sour, slightly spicy.
Apple Aport has one major drawback. This is a cyclical fruiting, the period of which in an apple tree of this variety is 4 years. After it gives a full harvest (up to 180 kg), the next year the apple tree will bloom, but the harvest will not exceed 40 kg. In the third year, you can collect 60 kg of apples. The cycle is over, in the fourth year there will be a big harvest again.
The fruits ripen in September. They are well kept in the winter until the New Year. May lie longer, but then the flesh becomes overripe and tasteless. You can store apples in the cellar. But there should not be a potato next to them, otherwise they will incorporate its smell. Can be stored on the balcony, but in this case the boxes need to be well covered.
History of Aport
This is one of the oldest varieties. The first news about apples Aport dates from the second half of the twelfth century. Some sources associate the name of the variety with the fact that it was brought to Poland from the Port of the Ottoman Empire. Then he began to spread through the territory of Ukraine to Russia.
Widespread variety in the vicinity of Almaty (Kazakhstan). The trees there grew large, and the crop exceeded the figures for the neighboring regions. This is due to the fact that the most comfortable for the variety are mountainous areas of the middle climatic zone. Unfortunately, now this variety in Kazakhstan is on the verge of extinction. In Western Europe, the variety came in the XIX century, and then moved to America.
To date, about 40 clones and varieties of this variety have been created. Among them:
- Aport blood-red with yellow fruits of sweet taste.
- Aport of Alexandria with green fruit with a red blush and sourish taste.
- Aport Zailiysky is the sweetest, but the fruits are small.
The advantage of the Aport variety is its self-pollination. Aport does not need other pollinating varieties for fruiting. The disadvantage is the average resistance to frost. In regions where they exceed -25 ° C, the trees freeze slightly or do not bear fruit. Ukraine, the middle zone of Russia and mountainous areas with temperatures in winter above 25 degrees of frost, are considered suitable for growing Apple Aport. Fruit Apple fruit Aport begins at the age of 10 years and later. Can yield up to 40 years. But for this you need to properly care for her.
Reproduction and planting
Apple trees Aport receive, planting seedlings. At the age of two they are planted in a permanent place. It should be sunny, protected from cold winds area. The depth of groundwater should be at least one and a half meters. If they come closer, drainage from broken bricks and stones is laid at the bottom of the pit, and the tree is raised slightly above ground level.
Before buying carefully inspect the root system of the seedling.
The root neck should be well defined, the trunk should be straight, the roots intact. Otherwise, the seedlings will not take root or die in the first winter. The length of the roots should be at least 40 cm. The trunk is cut at a height of 80 cm. If the roots are less than 40 cm, the trunk is cut even lower.
Apple roots Aport soaked before planting for a day in the water. To stimulate the active formation of new roots, use solutions of Heteroauxin and Cornevin. A pit for planting an apple Aport is prepared six months before planting. The diameter and depth of the pit is 1 m. The soil is mixed with humus, compost, sand, wood ash, and mineral fertilizers are added.
But it happens that the decision to plant a tree comes unexpectedly, then:
- It is desirable that not less than 3 weeks have passed from preparing the pit to planting the tree. This is necessary in order to prepare the ground sat down.
- Seedlings are better to plant stasis after purchase. But sometimes you have to keep them for several days in a prikop.
- They dig a trench, plant seedlings and lightly dust them with earth. Moisturize the soil.
- Before planting prepare clay talker, in which they dip the roots of the tree before planting. After the procedure, they should dry for about 20 minutes.
- At the bottom of the pit piled mound harvested land. Put a peg for tying a tree.
- Carefully set the seedling in the pit, straightening the roots in different directions along the knoll.
- Sprinkle them with earth, watering each ball and compacting it. Carefully look to the root neck does not fall under the ground. This can lead to the development of fungal diseases.
- A cushion is formed along the perimeter of the rim of the circle; Water the tree. Mulch pristvolny circle with a layer of peat, straw or mowed grass with a thickness of not less than 5 cm.
Not all gardeners will agree to grow a large tree in the garden, bearing fruit every four years. It is enough for many to pinch several branches in the crown of any frost-resistant variety of late ripening.
Apple care Aport
Formation of the crown begin in the second year after planting a tree. You can form it in the form of a bowl, with 3 skeletal branches, or leave a conductor and 3-4 skeletal branches.
- Apple trees Aport need constant hydration. They are watered, bringing in 15 liters of water in the near-stem circle. The tree responds well to irrigation. If the amount of moisture is insufficient, the taste and size of the fruit unpleasantly surprised. But in those years when the apple tree does not bear fruit, it does not need such abundant watering. Excess moisture will go on increasing the mass of leaves.
- Aport has no particular problems with thickened crown. But still, an adult tree should be cut every year. In early spring, before the start of sap flow, remove the branches that grow inside the crown, intersecting or broken. Cut off the branches that grow at an acute angle to the trunk.
- Fertilize the apple tree begin in the second or third year after planting. In the autumn they make organic fertilizers (humus, compost). The first 3 years after the introduction of superphosphate and potash fertilizers, they dig up the soil in the near-stem circle to a depth of 15 cm. Later, at a distance of 45 cm from the trunk, they dig a trench or separate pits and apply fertilizer there. Cover them with a layer of soil.
- Watering should also be on the perimeter of the crown. Poured as many buckets of water as an apple tree. The first time it is done in June, the second - in July. The third time watered in the fall, before the onset of frost. This will help the tree to transfer the winter frosts easier.
- In addition to watering, wrap the trunk of a young tree with spruce, sacking or other covering materials. Wrapping a straw is dangerous in that mice can start in it. Such protection will protect the trunk from frost and from hares who are not averse to gnaw the bark of the tree. The root system can be protected by placing a thick layer of mulch in a tree circle.
- In the spring, bright sun rays can burn the thin bark of a tree. If it is open, dye it with lime. In addition to protection from the sun, such treatment will help get rid of the causative agents of certain diseases and pests that winter on the trunk. Handle all thick branches with a diameter of 4 cm.
Diseases and pests
Common tree diseases:
- One of the most dangerous diseases of the apple tree is Aport - cancer. It is manifested in the fact that there are thickenings on the trunks. Then begins to decay the bark and wood. Wounds are open and closed. Indentations appear near the open, on closed ones, growths and rims of red color appear. The main cause of the disease are low temperatures. It makes sense to fight the disease only when the defeat does not cover a large territory. Cut off areas of damage. Take them out for the territory of the garden and burn them. Traces cut cut over with garden pitch. If the defeat has spread, the tree must be burned completely.
- Defeating a black cancer is a lot like an ordinary defeat. Causes a wound parasite disease, which falls under the cortex when pruning too early or damaging the cortex. With the defeat of black cancer bark on the trunk and branches crack, exfoliate. The disease affects the leaves and fruits. For the prevention of disease after trimming the cut surface is treated with disinfectants.
- Scab is not so dangerous disease, but can lead to the death of the tree. The disease appears as yellow oily spots on the leaves. which gradually dries out. Other parts of the plant are affected, including fruits that are covered with dark spots.
- Mealy dew is manifested by white bloom on the leaves. After a while it turns brown. Treatment is carried out using Bordeaux fluid, Scor and other fungicides.
Disease of fungal origin. It is necessary to treat and process for prophylaxis several times during the growing season with preparations containing copper. In early spring it can be Bordeaux liquid, later use Skor and other fungicides.
The main pests of apple Aport:
- Hawthorn eats leaves, buds and flowers.
- Apple weevil eats buds.
- Fruit mites feed on plant sap.
- Caterpillars moths destroy leaves.
You can fight them by spraying a solution of insecticides "Zircon", "Agravertin".
More information can be found in the video:
Description of apple varieties Aport
Aport can be called the most mysterious variety, old with deep roots and a great history, but now in the industry it is no longer in price - it has been extruded by more modern and quickly entering the adult period, resistant to our changing weather.
But in private gardening, few of the lovers of fruit growing will deny themselves the opportunity to grow an apple weighing half a kilo, therefore, it is worth talking about this variety, it is worth exploring, they should be admired. More detailed description, photo, see below.
Advantages and disadvantages
If you start immediately with a listing of the pros and cons, then you should take into account the following features:
- Huge beautiful fruits with excellent taste - undoubted dignity and even pride of the variety. The ability to keep the harvest for several months can also be called a worthy quality for the Aport,
- Weak resistance to scab, susceptibility to fruit rot - an undoubted minus of this apple tree,
- The average resistance to frost also creates a number of additional problems for gardeners.
Apple variety variety Aport and classification
An aport can be called a type of several varieties of apple trees, just as there is a type of Antonovka, for example, and its improved modified descendants.
As a type, Aport is called a souvenir fruit tree, legendary and unique.
Some scientists believe that in pure form Aport Alexander is now practically lost, you can find only its varieties, which, of course, have somewhat different characteristics on adaptation and regionalization and on the quality indicators of the harvest.
Now you can meet Aport Almaty, which is practically the calling card of the gardeners of this region, as well as Yabloni Aport blood-red, Aport is huge, Aport is white, Aport is brilliant, Aport is Ukrainian.
The morphology of the tree and crown
The apple tree of this variety can be attributed to medium growth, it can reach a maximum height of 5 - 6 m, the crown is powerful, branched, but not thickened, with a diameter of up to 10 m, composed of the average power of the branches with a small amount of lentils.
The leaves are located at the ends of small twigs, rounded, slightly flattened, medium-sized emerald green.
Fruits are very large, round-flattened form, by weight can reach up to 0.6 kg, on average - 270 - 300 g. The skin is glossy, slightly oily, rough, medium density and thickness, red-green with yellow spots on the barrels, very fragrant, with well distinguishable pale green subcutaneous patches.
The flesh is fine-grained, white casting weak greens, crispy, medium density, crumbly. The taste is sweet and sour, with a wine aftertaste, tasting score of 4.6 - 5 points.
An average of 150 kg of fruit can be harvested at the height of the fruiting apple tree, but it should be said that this type of fruit periodically, despite some sources prescribing the possibility of annual harvest, in practice, a full-fledged crop can be taken every two years.
Important! If the apple tree begins to bear fruit less and less often and the quantitative indicators of the yield fall, reconsider the fertilizer application scheme, such an effect can be with an excess of nitrogen fertilizers.
Winter hardiness and disease resistance
The main problem in the cultivation of this variety of apple trees is its poor tolerance of frosts, severe wintering, for this reason, in the harsh winters of the Russian regions, its cultivation is possible on rootstocks of winter-hardy varieties or clones with increased viability.
Approximately the same situation is in terms of resistance to scab and other diseases. A clean variety needs constant monitoring of gardeners and regular preventive care.
With proper adherence to the correct agrotechnical algorithm, an apple tree can bear fruit for up to 40 years by conducting a rejuvenating pruning of drooping shoots, this period can be extended.
- I tried to find the seedlings of Aporta, but I could not. And I really would like to try to grow these red giants with my little gardener and set a record for the weight of an apple. But I do not lose attempts to find this tree, I think, to order from Almaty.
- He took a graft of this variety in an abandoned garden, which in Soviet times was quite well-groomed. Now everything was born there, of course, by the way. Harvest while small, apple trees are only 8–9 years old, they are just beginning to gain strength, but the taste is excellent, the apples look like for an exhibition — everything is like a big bright one, glistening. In the second year after the start of fruiting, there was no harvest, despite all the assurances that everyone should expect it. Last year, the tree rested. Now I wait. I cannot say anything about keeping quality, there was still nothing to lie on.
- Yes, now his day with fire you will not find. Earlier in the village grew similar, and then, now can not be said, it was the Aport or not. But in general, the grade is very worthy, it would be resistant to frost and scab and all - no new products would be needed. This is what scientists should do - to return the lost variety!
Terms and ways of landing
Apple Aport is best planted in the spring (see photo and description of the variety above), starting in the second half of April, depending on weather conditions. In the fall, planting is also allowed, but given the poor winter hardiness, it would be better to do it in the spring, to wait for the seedlings to get stronger and gain strength for the winter.
When choosing a site, you need to pay attention to its illumination and the occurrence of groundwater: they should not be located close to the surface, otherwise you will not avoid the appearance of root rot, which leads to the death of the plant as a whole.
Before planting, it is necessary to prepare a landing pit 60–70 cm deep, drainage is scattered to the bottom (fragments of bricks and medium-sized stones can be used for this purpose). Next, a peg is placed in the center of the pit, and a seedling is placed next to it. The soil removed from the pit is mixed with organic fertilizer, and this mixture is poured over the tree, leaving the root neck 5 cm on the surface.
Important! In no case should the root neck of fruit be buried, in order to avoid baking the bark and its further rotting.
Having condensed the top layer, landing is well spilled. To enhance immunity, it is possible to spray with Zircon or Epin once a week for green mass.
Watering should be done regularly, especially carefully it is necessary to monitor the humidity of the tree trunk from the fruiting period to fruit ripening - this is a very important point in the care, because with a lack of water, the quality of the crop will suffer first and foremost.
Fertilizers begin to be applied in the third year after planting, in the fall - organic (they scatter in the near-stem circle and slightly loosen them), in spring - mineral: urea in the frozen soil, then phosphorus-potassium - before budding and during fruit setting.
Cropping and crown formation
At the Aport, the crown begins to form for 2 - 3 years after landing. Pruning of the Aport is carried out in the spring, after the establishment of warm weather: shoots growing inside the crown, old branches, on which the ovary will no longer form, diseased and damaged during the winter, are cut.
Important! Обрезку можно производить и осенью, но некоторые специалисты выступают против этого: резкие перепады температур днем и ночью могут создать неблагоприятные условия для заживания срезов.
Сортами-опылителями для апорта могут выступать такие яблони как Щит, Память Есаула, Прикубанское.
Important! Посадка сортов-опылителей – залог регулярного обильного урожая.If you do not have space for another apple tree, it is allowed to grow without a pollinator, but you must be prepared for the fact that in this case, much fewer ovaries will form on the tree.
Peculiarities of ripening and fruiting
Fruiting planting of the Aport begins at 4 - 5 years after planting a sapling, which, compared to other varieties, can be called quite soon. Bloom friendly: in June, the whole tree is covered with delicate white flowers.
Aport belongs to late varieties, the fruits begin to ripen in late September - early October, after removal, apples can be stored for about three months. In some sources, you can find data that a longer shelf life is likely, but it should be borne in mind that in this case the taste and texture of the pulp change. It becomes loose, loses its flavor and taste.
Grade on the clone stock 62-396 Aport Dubrovsky
Stock 62-396 is a common semi-dwarf stock (height up to 2.5 m), which is widely used in our country for apple trees. It has excellent winter hardiness, good adaptability. Of the minuses we can call the need for support, especially for such a large apple tree as Aport Dubrovsky.
Fruiting on this stock begins earlier at 2 years.
Sort aport Almaty
Aport Almatisky - the pride of Kazakhstan, an apple tree, awarded a place on the commemorative coin, is a variety with the largest fruits, their weight is 0.9 kg. The crop gets its best quality when grown in the mountains, at an altitude of 900 to 1200 m above sea level.
Its lightness is simply amazing - the fruits are able to preserve their unique taste qualities practically until May.
The fruits of this type of Aport ripen in mid-September and can be stored for up to 2 months. Apples are one-dimensional, rounded, large, light green with crimson blur throughout the fruit. It is recommended to grow on low-growth rootstocks. Aport Kuban is resistant to diseases, tolerates frost well.
Important! Subspecies and varieties of a variety are its clones, which endow with additional qualities necessary for growth in a particular climatic zone.
Aport in stanrant form for Siberia and the Urals
In areas with difficult harsh winters, large-fruited apple trees are advisable to grow in stanzale form. It is achieved by forming a crown in such a way that the main fruit-bearing branches in winter would be covered in snow in order to protect them from the influence of low temperatures.
At the same time, the seedling is placed in the planting hole at an angle of 45 °, later the central conductor is removed, and the skeletal branches (main) are attached to the soil with special devices (hooks) so that they grow in the desired direction during the growth.
This type of formation protects the tree not so much from frost as from sudden changes in night and daytime temperatures, which is especially dangerous for large fruit trees.
Ural and Siberia
The climate of the Urals and Siberia is difficult for large-fruited apple trees, in order to get a crop in this climatic zone, you can use winter-hard rootstocks or growing on stanza
Ukraine has successfully grown Aport blood red and Aport Dubrovsky. For this zone, the classic algorithm for the care of this tree is suitable.
For successful cultivation of the Aport in this zone, you can use dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks, which have better adaptation characteristics than the classic pure variety. Careful care is needed during the flowering and budding periods - at this time, the additional feeding scheme is of particular importance.
Aport is a very ancient variety, it embodies the history of fruit growing, is a part of it. Reviving it in its pure form is a great painstaking work that gardeners are still doing. We can meet varieties of the variety, but Alexander himself has been lost to Aport.
It remains for us to hope that in a few decades we will again be able to proudly say that the famous Aport has settled in our garden!
Variety "Arkadik" was bred by technological means. He became an improved form of varieties "Arcade" and "Antonovka." Its main differences are noticeable in a larger form of fruit, as well as in resistance to the harsh Russian winters. For this work, we are grateful to Viktor Kichin, a scientist and doctor of biological sciences, who was engaged not only in apple cultivation, but also in general in increasing the winter resistance of various fruit plants, their taste, breeding larger sizes, and also made successful attempts to increase the resistance of fruit to pests. and diseases.
Did you know?Victor Kichina devoted more than 30 years to the study of winter-hardy apple trees, organized about 12 expeditions to search for the most frost-resistant varieties and passed on his knowledge to next generations.
Description and varietal features
Will consider variety description and distinctive appearance apple "Arkadik."
The tree grows rather quickly, reaching a height of 2 to 4 m, even the decorative types of “Arkadika” are quite high. The crown of this tree has a round shape, a little bit tapering at the top, and in itself grows strongly in breadth. The variety does not have a special pomp, has thick branches with frosted rounded and pointed at the ends of the leaves, located sparsely. Color of foliage - bright green, juicy. Such features of the appearance of the tree allow the apple to be resistant to weather conditions.
As already noted, the variety has rather large fruits weighing from 120 to 210 g.
Did you know?"Arkadik" can bear fruit weighing up to 340 g.
The shape of the apples is slightly oblong, flat. Color "Arkadika" light, slightly greenish, but has a beautiful blush with a strip. Often this blush becomes bright red, which makes the fruit very attractive in appearance. Very convenient and the fact that the peel of the fruit is quite thin, and the taste of this variety is sweet with a light, barely perceptible acidity. Inside the apple is very juicy, oily, slightly soft with a fine grain. Having bitten off "Arkadik", it is necessary to note this pronounced aroma. Variety begins to bear fruit in the third year after planting. Collect with one tree can be up to 220 kg of fruitand you have to do this every year in August. When the fruits ripen, they immediately fall to the ground, so you can not pull for a long time with the harvest. Store fruit can be no longer than 30 days. Did you know?Variety“Arkadik” is not afraid of frost at –25 ° C.
What to look for when choosing seedlings
The selection of seedlings is a rather important procedure. Therefore, it is better to arm yourself with useful knowledge in this matter. On the market you can find seedlings of different ages: from 1 to 3 years.
Which is better to take? Stop at a younger plant and do not pay attention to its appearance, because you will not be intimidated by the fact that the one-year-old will look much smaller and not so powerful compared to a three-year-old plant. Therefore, the ideal option would be a one-year or two-year-old apple tree. When transporting a seedling, be sure to wrap its roots in a wet rag, and leave it in water for a few hours before planting. Important pay attention to the roots: they should look healthy, without any bulges in different places. Do not be afraid to ask the seller to check and bark. Cutting it in one place, you should see a healthy green inside, without brown stripes. These bands suggest that the plant was frozen over last winter.
And the last tip is choosing a place to buy. Saplings of different varieties are difficult to distinguish from each other even by an experienced gardener. Therefore, you should give preference to proven specialized points or shops. Today there are entire departments for gardeners in hypermarkets of building materials. In such places, you just will not be deceived. In addition, technologies allow you to find Internet resources where you can place an order with the delivery of seedlings to your city.
Check out the description and cultivation of varieties “Wonderful”, “Starkrimson”, “Aport”, “Red Chief”, “Rozhdestvennoe”, “Orlinka”, “Zvezdochka”, “Papirovka”, “Screen”, “Pepin saffron”, “ Champion ”,“ Sunny ”,“ Candy ”,“ Melba ”.
Choosing a place on the site
The apple tree, although not fastidious to the soil, still cannot be fed from the soil already “squeezed” by other plants. So you need to select a place based on its past: the ideal will be the soil on which nothing has grown for several years. Also, make sure that the tree receives enough sunlight and is not in a constant draft.
Your sapling - as a baby, should come to an already prepared location, where he can settle down, grow and delight you with his fruits. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the choice of the place and its preparation for the arrival of the seedling.
Land for planting an apple tree is better to choose in advance. Best fit lighted location, no drafts, spacious and clean. Recall that you should choose the soil on which nothing has grown for a long time, so the apple tree can be fed with nutrients from rich soil. Pre-clean the area from weeds, mow the grass, remove debris.
Step-by-step process of planting seedlings
Planted this variety can be the same as other varieties of apple trees. Therefore, if you already have such experience, then there will be no particular difficulties with the landing pattern.
One of the advantages of this type is in the choice of soil, since absolutely any soil composition will suit it. Of course, with good fertilizer, the plant will feel even better, giving its harvest on time.
The first step is to mark the place where you are going to plant the Arkadik apple tree, especially if you have several seedlings prepared at once. Remember that the distance between trees should be at least 5 m. The dimensions of the square holes are as follows:
- depth 70 cm
- sides of 80 cm
The upper layers of the earth, which you dug out of the pit, you will need when planting, the lower is better not to use. Now make a small mound in the hole, preferably from fertile soil, and place a strong peg exactly in its center. Place the seedling in the hole, focusing on the peg, and spread its roots along the made embankment, and also tie it to the peg. Now it is necessary to mix the upper layers of earth from the pit and humus or compost. This mixture is necessary to fill our pit.
Important!If you decide to fertilize and the bottom of the fossa, then fertilizer (nutshell, compost, wood ash) must be left in it for a week before planting.
Now, when the plant is already sitting in the soil, in a circle you need to make a low ditch and pour abundantly on the seedling with clean water. When the earth shows its shrinkage, it is necessary to fill this difference. Now, so that the moisture does not evaporate quickly, around the seedling the soil is mulched with peat.
The most important point is landing dates. The ideal time of the year will be early autumn (September, early October) and spring (April) periods.
In the first year of his life, the sapling must be watered. 2 times a month. An adult plant in the hot season is watered every 3 or 4 weeks. Water volume - 3 buckets. Frequent watering up to 2 times a month is necessary in the presence of light soils. After watering the soil is mulched with peat. As already noted, this will provide low and weak evaporation of moisture and keep it in the roots of the tree longer. An adult tree is also watered according to the standard scheme: the first time they do it at a time when the buds begin to swell, then - after the apple tree blooms after 3 weeks, and the last time should fall 3 weeks before harvest.
Important!If you do watering while the fruit is ripening, you can get cracks in the apples and a bad harvest.
To loosen the soil should be as needed, but quite often. This process will allow the earth to absorb more moisture and transfer it to the roots.
In the necessary order, it is important to remove the weeds and cut too high grass around the tree, as well as to remove fallen leaves.
If the apple tree ceased to grow rapidly in the first 3 years, its leaves change color to yellow, and the fruits do not begin to form - then you have all the signs that the tree lacks nutrients. They can be brought in the form of fertilizers.
There are 2 types of feeding:
- organic - is made every year in the spring without fail (manure, compost),
- mineral - such substances can harm the plant if they are introduced in large quantities, which makes it necessary to be especially careful with them (nitrogen, potassium, phosphoric substances).
In the early years, the plant can be fertilized with minerals: in the spring it is done with ammonium nitrate, and in the fall you can add phosphorus and potash supplements. Also, mineral fertilizers are suitable for feeding in the period after harvest, to prepare for winter.
Important!Abundant fertilizer in the period before winter leads to the fact that the tree begins to activate its growth, and therefore its resistance to frost can greatly weaken. It is better not to make such a mistake, in order not to kill the tree.
It is important to remember that a plant, no matter how well you fertilize its underground part, may be affected by diseases and small pests. In order to protect the apple tree, you need to carry out preventive spraying. So you will get rid of problems with diseases and the harvest will get rather big. For this process, suitable chemical and biological substances, which contain copper sulphate. Spraying needs to be done several times.. The first approach is carried out at a time when the buds have not yet formed on the tree, the second - before the first flowers appear, the third time - after the flowers fall. The fourth spraying should be at the time when you proceed to the lubrication solution of the trunk of the tree. Here it is better to choose a drug containing phosphorus and potassium. The first and third spraying should be done using tools that can be found in a specialty store.
Learn how and how to handle an apple tree in spring and autumn.
Already one year after disembarkation apple trees can be made first pruning. But if the planted tree is still weak, then it is better to postpone the cutting and postpone the procedure for another 12 months, as there is a chance to cause great harm to the immature tree.
Important!Remove thin branches need pruners, and thick - file the file. It is important that the blade is clean and well sharpened, otherwise it can severely damage the bark of the tree, which will cause rotting or infection of diseases.
If everything is good with your seedling, then start pruning in early spring, when the frosts just fall. Remember that the tree should not yet fully wake up from a winter sleep and sap on the branches, otherwise pruning the tree will only bring illness in the future. The first thing you notice is the branches that grow and intertwine, thicken the crown, grow too close to each other, are directed downwards or towards the trunk. Also removed the top of the tree. Now look at the trunk and noticeably large branches departing from it - if young thin twigs appeared here, then they should also be carefully cut. Look further along the twigs and find a fork in their ends - the lower branch must be cut off. Pay attention to the frozen branches when pruning in the spring.
Important!Smear damaged areas can only be oily solutions. The treatment itself should be carried out only 24 hours after pruning of young branches, while, as the removal of old branches requires immediate disinfection.
In the fall, this procedure is carried out in order to get rid of dried branches, cracked and rotten. It is better to choose the period of late autumn, when the onset of the first frost is expected.
Many are concerned about how often such a procedure can be carried out. The first 2-3 years, the formation of the crown of an apple tree is just a necessary procedure, since during this period of time the tree grows very strongly. When the period of fruiting begins, active growth stops, and the tree gives all its strength to grow fruits. Now within 3-5 years it is necessary to suspend the process of abundant pruning of branches. Your task is only to maintain the crown of live and active branches, removing dried and rotten. Key pruning goal - to give the ground for the formation of a beautiful, beautiful crown, as well as to allow all branches, buds and fruits to obtain the necessary amount of solar heat and air. So you align the aboveground and underground parts of the tree, giving the roots an opportunity to sufficiently nourish the crown. Then the apple tree will abundantly bear fruit with large and sweet apples for many years.
Protection against cold and rodents
The trunks of the young "Arkadika" need coat with chalkand when the tree begins to bear fruit, change the solution to lime. It is also important to protect the bark from various large pests such as rodents. In this case, the trunk should be wrapped with some durable material (parchment, reed, spruce). Before the beginning of winter, the soil is mulched, and also a mound is made of snow. If the tree has suffered a disease, then in the frosty winter it will not be easy for it to survive. In this case, it is better to shelter a tree for the winter.
As you have already seen, Arkadik apple tree is a representative of the most common apple tree, it only has its advantages in pickiness to the soil, resistance to severe winter frosts, as well as in large fruits, which begin to appear as early as the third year after planting. Нельзя не отметить и вкус этого сорта — мягкая сочная мякоть и сладость без ярко выраженной кислинки понравятся и взрослым, и детям.
История сорта «Апорт» уходит далеко в старину, и по сей день не имеется стопроцентно подтвержденных сведений о его настоящем происхождении.
There are several nebulous versions:
- some believe that the original apple tree began to grow on the territory of present-day Ukraine, approximately in the XII century,
- others - that “Aport” is a Polish fruit, since similar apples mentioned in church diaries for 1175 were originally brought to Poland from the Ottoman Empire,
- and only a few adhere to the third version, which states that this species came to us from Turkey.
As early as the beginning of the 19th century, the variety was spotted in France, Belgium and Germany, only wearing different names in these countries.
For example, in Germany this apple tree was called “Russian Emperor Alexander”, in Belgium - “President of beauty”, and the French people called the type as “President Napoleon”.
In addition to the above countries, the apple tree became widespread in English cities (1817), then came to the Kazakh Almaty (1865), where it became the subject of special observation and study. Alma-Ata breeders began to cross the "Aport" with local wild varieties, resulting in "Vernensky" and "Alma-Ata Aport", which were famous for the huge 500-gram fruits.
Today, a very unusual apple variety can be found in the southern and middle regions of Russia, but because of the capriciousness and unpredictability of the variety, trees are grown only in specially equipped greenhouses.
Description and Features
The trees and fruits of "Aport" are significantly different from other popular varieties, and therefore their description is very interesting.
Trees, as a rule, are vigorous, have a spreading, flat-rounded, non-crowded crown and a small number of skeletal shoots with a small number of brown lentils. The diameter of the trunk varies from 8 to 10 m.
The appearance of the fruit of this apple is striking in its beauty and gigantic size. The average weight of an apple is about 300–350 g, however, the weight of some fruits may well reach 600 and even reach 900 g. The shape of the apples is flattened-conical with a barely noticeable ribbing. In color, depending on the variety, a variety of bright shades are combined: yellow-green, with a dark red, pronounced, streaky blush, which occupies approximately half the area of the fruit.
The peel covering the apple has a moderately thick dense structure with a slight oily and glossy sheen.
Also present are a pronounced waxy coating and numerous large subcutaneous spots, which have a pale green or white color. The flesh of the fruit is white, of fine-grained structure, with a delicate greenish tinge and a sour-sweet, spicy and crumbly taste.
The sort “Aport” has existed for over 200 years, during which time a great number of varieties of these cultivated apple trees have been bred from different countries, of which the most popular are: “Blood red aport”, “Aport Dubrovsky”, “Zailiysky” and “Alexandria ". Today, in special markets, one can meet all the mentioned varieties, get to know their detailed description and the nuances of agricultural technology for proper cultivation and maintenance.
Rules for the selection and purchase of seedlings
If you chose the large-fruited “Aport” and are already going to purchase seedlings for planting an unusual varietal tree, before buying, first of all, make sure that the “material” chosen meets some important characteristics and criteria:
- It is necessary to buy seedlings only in specialized firms or proven garden organizations with a good reputation.
- The age of the seedling should not exceed 2 years. The he is younger, the better it will take root and grow. Determining the age of the plant is not difficult - just look at whether the seedling has developed branches (if not, the material is one-year). A biennial plant has 2 or 3 additional branches that stick out in different directions at an angle of 50–90 °.
- Inspect the "material" must be carefully: at the roots and the stem should not have any damage and growths, and under the crust the plant should be bright green.
- The root system should be moist to the touch, but not rotten, and the roots should also have an elastic and non-fragile structure.
- The length of the roots should be about 40 cm.
- It is not recommended to purchase seedlings on which several leaves have already sprouted.
Without periodic spraying of apple trees, complex care cannot be called complete. This must be done so that plants are as little as possible affected by various diseases and not attacked by pests.
For the first time, an apple tree should be treated in spring and preferably before bud break, then preventive spraying is periodically carried out during and after flowering.
Treatment of "Aport" is recommended to carry out only proven, high-quality means: urea, Bordeaux liquid, copper and iron vitriol.
Formative, sanitary and anti-aging pruning
Pruning apples of this class is carried out with sanitary, rejuvenating and, most importantly, formative purpose. The first manipulation is carried out on the 2nd or 3rd year after planting a tree, always in spring, in warm and dry weather: first of all, the shoots that grow inside the crown are cut, then the old branches, on which new ovaries will not form, and old processes.
Separate sanitary pruning is carried out in case of unexpected damage of trees by fungal diseases (withered branches, bark in some places, black dots on the trunks).
It is necessary to get rid of such diseased areas as soon as possible in a “surgical” way.
Anti-aging pruning is always aimed at improving the fruiting of the apple tree, as well as the extension of its life. It can be done only during periods of rest, but in no case in the spring, when the process of sap flow begins in the trunk. The procedure itself should begin with pruning the largest dead branches, then you should begin to cut the rest.
All broken, dried and improperly growing branches should be removed from the trunk itself, and be sure to follow the principle “it is better to remove a couple of large branches than many small ones”.
For better survival, it is desirable to plant in the middle of autumn. The place for planting is picked up well-lit, where drafts do not walk in the winter. Drained loam is most suitable for seedling. You can prepare the soil as follows: the composition of peat, compost and sand should be placed in a hole about 1 m in diameter. Such conditions will be comfortable for the seedling. The tree does not like closely located groundwater, so it is recommended to drain excess water with special recesses. After planting it is necessary to weed regularly and loosen the soil. Apple seedling needs to be systematically moistened. The mulch layer will allow moisture to not evaporate into drought.
Mineral dressing and nitrogen-containing fertilizers are recommended to be done in spring and autumn no later than September. The first pruning is done immediately after planting the seedling. For this, the side branches are cut, and the trunk is shortened to 80 cm. This measure will increase the growth of the tree. The crown should be thinned regularly, not allowing to thicken.
Tip: in order for the sapling to settle well, it is necessary to prepare a drainage mixture of peat, sand and compost. The root system does not like excess moisture. In the first years it is necessary to carefully care for the sapling.
Protection against negative factors
Resistance varieties Aport to pests and diseases is average. Mushroom tinder, often affecting the trunk, has a detrimental effect on the growth and development of the tree. Cleaning the trunk of the fungus should be done regularly. The cleaned place must be treated with blue vitriol and put oil paint on top. This treatment is an excellent prevention against infections and pests.
Careful to be in the event of scab. For prophylactic treatment, a solution prepared in 10 liters of water with the addition of 700 g of urea and copper sulfate in the amount of 50 g is used.
In case of illness, it is recommended to spray the apple with a solution of urea. To do this, it is possible to prepare a 7% solution, add 40 grams. Homa and copper sulfate 100 gr.
Often affects Aport green aphid and moth. For the destruction of pests, it is recommended to treat the tree with 0.3% liquid from entobacterin, karbofos and chlorophos.
Tip: A gardener should carefully monitor the state of the apple tree in order not to lose precious time to protect against pests.
The presentation and taste are excellent. Fruits are ideal for making jam, marshmallow, confiture. When preparing the juice, the wine yield is large enough. The flesh does not darken, so dried fruits are excellent. It is recommended to remove the fruit from the trees at the end of September. Apples at a storage temperature of 6-10 degrees can remain fresh until February. The shelf life of fruits can reach 6 months. Well transported during transportation.
The unique apple variety Aport perfectly combines such qualities as yield, large fruit size, delicious taste. With proper care, apple trees delight gardeners with good fruiting. When buying a seedling, it is necessary to carefully consider the origin of the planting material, since it is rather difficult to find a true seedling.
What kind is it?
In gardening, depending on the period of fruit ripening, All garden crops, including apple trees, are divided into:
Aport, according to maturity, refers to late autumn and winter view. Is enough winter hardy variety.
Apple Aport has two clones: variety with the same name Aport Alexander, but with a striped color, as well as Aport blood-red.
Aport variety description
Apple Aport Alexander is usually above average, with a bright green crown and multi-colored fruits.
Often reach large sizes. Characterized by round, enough powerful crown, markedly branched, but sparse. Her diameter is from 7 to 10 meters.
The shoots are long, medium in thickness, brownish in color with a small amount of lentils. The branches are strong, placed at a large angle.
The leaves are mainly placed at the ends of small branches.
The leaf of the Aport Alexander is dark green, rounded, slightly flattened, of medium size (120 millimeters in length and 75 millimeters in width).
The leaf plate is slightly curved, the edges are slightly pubescent with a thick neural net. Petioles on average reach sizes up to 40 mm.
The fruits are truncated conical and very large.
Parameters of the average fetus:
But very often the fruits reach gigantic sizesby example in 500-600 g. The color of the fruit is red-yellow-green. Peel smells good, shiny, not thick, but not thin.
If you remove it, it is yellow-green with bright red patches, stripes and strokes, which in some places smoothly transform into each other. Subcutaneous points are clearly visible on the surface.
The fruit has a broad bulb heart placed in the upper part. Seed chambers are closed and fairly large.
The flesh is very fragrant, fine-grained, white-green in color and not very dense.
To taste apples Aport sweet and sour with a wine aftertaste, and how they look you will see in the photo.
The following varieties can also boast of excellent taste: Orlovsky Pioneer, Ekranny, Big Narodnoe, Orlinka and Aromatny.
The exact origin of the apple has not been established. But still in 1779 Bolotov A.T. mentioned it as a variety that has long been known and distributed under the name "Gusevskoe".
It is believed that in Poland and Ukraine a variety of apples Aport was already known in the twelfth century. The first time the name Aport was mentioned in Kazakhstan at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Due to the unidentified history of the appearance of the apple tree, Aport Alexander is rather difficult to assert about the zone of its natural growth, but it is grown in the greatest amount on the territory of Kazakhstan.
And, interestingly, there Alexandrov apple Aport gives the largest and sweet fruit.
But this apple tree is easily planted with gardens. all over the world, because she is able to take root in virtually any climatic conditions.
Planting and care
When planting a tree using classic fertilizer. In the care of the apple Aport is not whimsical.
Apple tree Aport Alexander is planted in two periods:
- autumn (end of September - beginning of October),
- spring (late April).
Aport Alexander - winter apple varietyand therefore advised to choose after all autumn period for planting. You need to choose seedlings with a developed root system.
Landing sites must be well drained. To make the tree grow strong and bring maximum yield, it is recommended use the soil loam.
Be sure to water the tree plentifully immediately after planting.
The next year after planting, in the spring, it is important to form the deciduous crown of an apple tree.
It is necessary to trim the ends of each branch.
In April you MUST irrigate trees with pest control compounds.
This procedure should be performed twice:
- when buds began to swell on branches,
- before the buds bloom.
After that, the tree no longer needs to be fertilized for a year. It is very important to water the tree heavily, especially in the summer.