No, it's not for nothing that this culture is called the second bread. What would we all do without it? In general, I believe that a person who did not plant potatoes with his own hands, did not fight for the harvest, did not count every dug up tuber, did not see real life. Well, the gardener does not have the right to be called. Potatoes are like a high school diploma. The one who received it, the king and god in his garden, does not embarrass him. My closest relatives (and there are five of them) usually begin to terrorize me in July with requests to treat them to young potatoes, despite the fact that last year’s crop was still in the cellar. How can you refuse?
The desire is usually satisfied, although so reluctant to undermine the bushes of mid-ripened varieties in Siberia Tuleevsky, Kolpashevsky, Nakra and Lina.
You can, of course, solve this problem by growing early ripening, such as Krasnoyarsk, Zhukovsky, Luck, Timo, but they yield a low crop, and their seed tubers are worse stored. Another point: under the potato, I can select only one and a half or two weave. And before the new harvest, you need to feed two families. How to be? Some readers, not knowing the weather conditions of Eastern Siberia, may say: "And we are undermining the bushes in June." They do not imagine that we only have shoots of potatoes at this time, because in May there is still snow sometimes, and the ground does not have time to completely thaw.
Here, even no ingenious jarovisation of tubers can contribute to the emergence of early potato shoots.
So I learned how to grow mid-early and mid-season varieties as early ones.
There is a cushion in the garden ... At first I made a small, elevated "dark" bed about 60 cm high and 210 cm wide.
Length -8 m. Earlier, berry bushes grew on this place. They cut the branches and the whole crone under the base, left the roots in the ground and covered them with thick cardboard, mowed grass and half-broken compost. It turned out to be a layer 18-20 cm thick. Then another 30 centimeters of fertile soil, taken from the garden, where I lived pumpkin, poured over centimeters.
As a result, I got a pillow that prevents the penetration of cold from below to the roots of potatoes.
Yes, I forgot to say that I placed the potato bed on the sunniest part of the vegetable garden so that a small layer of soil warms up as quickly as possible. I also take additional measures: from a watering can I spill the earth with hot water and immediately cover it with two layers of black plastic film. At first I tried to use ordinary white film from the economy (the farm had its stock), but soon I became convinced that it, of course, passes the sun's rays well, but it just as easily passes through it and all the heat leaves, especially at night.
Pot for potatoes in the room
Now I’ll tell you about the technique that helps rooting seed tubers planted in a permanent place. He built a box 5 meters long, 1 meter wide and 6 cm high from thin boards. For the strength of the structure, he nailed up the bars vertically.
In mid-May, I set this wooden frame right in the middle of one of the rooms in the garden house, putting it on stools (laying sheets of hardboard on the bottom) so that when casting magic over it, do not bend in three deaths. In the room I blind the windows and with the help of the stove I maintain in it a constant temperature of 14-16 °. I pour out garden soil (taken from the beds where garlic and onions grew) in a box with a continuous layer of 1-1.5 cm thickness.
Immediately I spread out leaked, sprouted seed tubers of potatoes of different faction - weighed in the light in the fall in the light - weighing from 30 to 60 g.
It is important to fold them apart at a distance of 2-3 cm, then when the tubers with a beard are removed from the box, the seedlings do not break.
Quite often it happens that 3-5% of seed tubers from the base of seedlings do not appear sucking root hairs. I suppose this happens in individuals affected by a viral disease. Such tubers without thinking burn in the furnace of the garden house.
Evenly laid out seed material I fall asleep with the same wet garden soil with a layer of 3-5 cm. I do not water the beds even when the top layer of the soil dries. After 18-20 days, the first white stalks of potatoes appear.
They signal that roots have appeared on the planting tubers, which absorb nutrients from the soil. Now, carefully, one plant out, take them out of the ground, put them in a basin with two handles, and immediately transplant them into the holes of a “warm” high bed. Agrotechnika landing ordinary. Deadline is May 20-25 (you can probably do this until the last numbers).
At the same time, I sow mustard seeds between holes, which grow faster than potatoes. In the stage of budding, I tear it out and lay it out between the rows of potatoes. I’m covering our second bread with a covering material. In mid-June, I take it off. The buds of the flowers of the potato tear off.
Terms of planting potatoes
The time of planting potatoes in Siberia is an order of magnitude later than, for example, in the central zone of Russia. Earlier all work begins in the western regions. Here potatoes can be planted in early May. Residents of the eastern regions start planting only after two weeks, i.e. in mid-May.
Planting potatoes in Siberia is made only when the soil temperature reaches 7-8 degrees Celsius. If you do this earlier, it is likely that the roots will develop poorly.
Choosing a potato variety
Seed potatoes are commonly used for planting in Siberia. The main thing is to choose the right variety - not everyone will be able to grow in a harsh climate. In this section we will talk about the most popular varieties. So, here is the main list:
- Timo "- Dutch early variety. Tastes quite high. Well kept.
- "Lugovskoy" - a variety bred Ukrainian breeders. Root crops are large, weighing 100-165 g. Resistant to many diseases, for example, late blight, black leg, scab.
- "Adretta" - the most common variety among gardeners of Siberia. Root crops are large, yellow. Under appropriate conditions, the variety is very well kept.
- "Early Priekulsky" - very early. In this regard, the people of this variety called forty-day. As a rule, such potatoes are grown for eating in the summer, because they are poorly stored.
- “September” is a medium early variety. The pulp is more white than white. It grows well in all conditions. Beautifully stored
- "Svitanok Kiev" - is a favorite with many gardeners. The variety shows good yield, for example, about 1 kg can be harvested from about 300 kg. Plus, such a potato is resistant to many diseases, and also noted that it is less damaged by the Colorado potato beetle.
In fact, there are a lot of varieties that are suitable for cultivation in Siberia. Each year, breeders create something new. Choose for yourself the appropriate option is not difficult.
We are determined with a place to land
When the gardener has decided on the desired grade, you need to take care of where the planting will be located. Just say, potatoes - light-loving plant. Therefore, it is most expedient for a given culture to choose an area that is not shaded by trees or shrubs. The soil should be light and loose. A good harvest can be harvested if manure is brought under digging in the autumn.
In the spring it is impossible to make manure in any case - the potato will simply perish.
The main methods of planting potatoes
Today there are several ways of planting potatoes in Siberia. We will tell about the main ones:
This planting allows you to harvest about two weeks earlier. However, it is worth remembering that this method is suitable for wet soil, if the site is located on a hillock, then the root crops may not have enough moisture and they will develop poorly or completely die. As for the seeding rate of potatoes, it is different. If we talk about small areas, for one weave will need about 300 tubers.
Dates of potato harvest
Some people think that the sooner sprouts appear, the faster they will harvest. In fact, it is not. It does not matter how many days the potato springs. The main thing which grade was chosen. Early ripening varieties, which are intended for early consumption, can be collected in the middle of July (again, all depends on the timing of planting). For digging used scoops. They hook the ground near the bush. Usually large root vegetables are immediately on the surface. Mid-season varieties ripen much longer. The optimal time for harvesting potatoes is the end of August and the beginning of September.
Beginning gardeners do not know how to determine whether the potatoes are ripe or not. Make it pretty easy. Yellowed and drooping bushes are the first signal indicating that it is time to begin harvesting. Summing up, I would like to say that you can grow a good harvest of potatoes in the harsh conditions of Siberia. The main thing is not to be mistaken with the choice of varieties.
The best potato varieties for cultivation in Siberia
More than 400 varieties of potatoes are grown in Russia, and each of them has both advantages and disadvantages. However, not all varieties can grow in the conditions of the harsh Siberian cold. To solve this problem, scientists have done a great job of removing frost-resistant varieties of culture. Ideal potato varieties for cultivation in Siberia should be as hardy as possible while fruitful:
- "Alyona": a fruitful potato variety, distinguished by resistance to scab, potato carcinoma and rhizoctoniosis. It is characterized by large oval tubers, covered with smooth pink peel, tolerates drought and transportation.
"Priekule Early": popularly called "forty days" for the speed of aging. It is a round-oval root vegetable covered with a smooth light skin. The variety is interesting in that it ripens before the onset of a disease with its possible diseases.
"Luck": tolerates any weather, perfectly stored, not prone to disease. A large variety of early ripening, has a rounded shape and a thin light skin.
"Adretta": it is considered the most “tenacious” variety of seed potatoes and is ideal for planting in Siberia. It has a rounded oblong shape with a rich yellow flesh. Ripens root vegetable for 70 days, has good taste and is suitable for all types of heat treatment.
"Zhukovsky Early": unpretentious, precocious variety of long storage. It has excellent taste, does not boil soft during cooking. Tubers are covered with light pink smooth skinned, large, with perfectly white flesh.
Planting time of potatoes in Siberia
According to the agrotechnology of potato cultivation, the root planting period in Siberia begins much later than in other, more southern regions of the country. but there is no average landing time, since Siberia is located in three time zones. In the western regions, planting of potatoes begins as early as the beginning of May; in the eastern regions of Siberia, they start planting two weeks later.
Choosing a place to grow potatoes
Potato - photophilous planttherefore it is important to prepare for its disembarkation a plot not shaded by trees or shrubs. Plant tubers need to light, loose soil, well fertilized with manure.
Potatoes cannot be planted after plants of solanaceous plants of similar origin, they may have similar pests or diseases. No need to plant a crop where last year the land was infected with a nematode, scab, and other diseases. Potatoes grow well after cabbage, beets, carrots, lettuce or cucumber.
Preparatory work on the site
In order for the winter to rid the soil of weeds and pests, it is necessary to dig her fall. Dig deep to the full bayonet shovels. In the process it is desirable to remove all the rhizomes of weeds, to find and destroy the larvae of the May beetle, the wireworm.
After digging, there should be no depressions in the area, so that during the rain the water does not accumulate in them, causing potato rot. Manure brought under the digging should not remain at the top, otherwise it will dry out and lose its properties.
Organic fertilizers promote the growth of potatoes, but they slowly decompose, so they are not used at the beginning of the growth of potatoes. To provide the culture with useful substances at the beginning of its growth, mineral fertilizers are used, such as superphosphate, potassium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and wood ash.
Preparation of planting material
From the end of March, seed potatoes can be prepared for planting. When about 30-35 days remain before planting the tubers, potatoes can be taken from the cellar for germination in Siberia.
Medium sized tubers are necessary for planting. If the tubers are too large, they can be divided into 2-3 parts immediately before planting.
Before planting potatoes in the ground, planting material is necessary to disinfect. Tubers can be disinfected with boric acid, potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) or garlic infusion.
In the future, it will protect the plant from pests and serve as a stimulator of its growth. Tubers can be treated either by soaking them in a disinfecting solution for two hours, or by spraying.
For active germination of the culture throughout its tubers are made additional cuts. They are made in two ways - transverse and annular.
A transverse deep incision is made perpendicular to the tuber axis. A small part remains uncut, no more than one centimeter thick.
An annular incision is more effective and is performed in a shingles manner to the depth of the phloem layer, up to 1 cm.
Stimulating incisions are made about two months before the tubers are planted, until the eyes begin to germinate.
The process and scheme of planting potatoes in Siberia
It is known that in order to plant potatoes in Siberia correctly, straw, leaf litter or hay is used as mulch after mowing grass. There is at least three ways plant potatoes in this region.
Single line - the most common method. Planting material is planted in rows at a distance of about 25 cm from each other. The row spacing is 60-70 cm. The depth of planting potatoes with this method is most suitable for the harsh climate in Siberia - only 7 cm.
Belt - landing method used on an industrial scale. Planting is done in two rows with a distance of 30 cm between them. Further furrows are placed at a distance of 110 cm. When the tractor is hilling potatoes planted in this way, the roots of the crop are not damaged.
The ridge is similar to the method of planting in furrows (ridges are made at a distance of 70 cm). The difference is only in the artificially created height of the row, reaching 20 cm. This method of planting is used on overwetted "heavy" soil; it allows you to harvest a crop earlier than two weeks.
The thickness of the straw blanket (mulch) depends on its quality - foliage should cover the ground by 15 cm, cereal up to 40 cm.
Growing and caring for potatoes in Siberia
Caring for potatoes in Siberia begin before germination. Caring for the crop is divided into several stages: watering, weeding and loosening, hilling bushes, fertilization and protection from pests.
One of most important factors affecting the yield of the crop. The first watering is carried out in half a month after emergence of shoots.
When the budding phase begins, it is recommended to control the soil moisture. If the earth dries to a depth of 7 cm due to dry weather, a second watering is necessary. It is desirable to water in the evening, spending up to 7 liters of water for each bush. If the season was dry, then you need to water the potatoes up to five times.
A day after watering the land must be loosened.
Weeding and loosening the soil
It is necessary to periodically loosen the soil, giving the tubers access to oxygen. At the same time you need to clean it from weeds. These procedures should be carried out systematically as the ground part of the plant grows.
The enrichment of the air roots contributes to an increase in potato tubers. Loosen the soil preferably after each rain or watering, removing weeds and breaking the crust. This makes it possible to reduce the pressure of the earth on the tubers.
June frosts often occur in the northern region, so you need to periodically place mulch from mowed weeds, hay and grass.
Inter-row treatment of tubers protects the young plant from frost, eliminates weeds, accumulates moisture and gives a good air flow to the roots.
The first hilling is done immediately after the emergence of young shoots of potatoes.
When the plant rises from the ground at 15-17 cm, it is necessary to spud a second time and weed weeds.
Potatoes need to be fed organic and mineral fertilizers.
For the season it is recommended to fertilize potatoes three times. The first feeding is made for the good development of young tops. Usually, urea is used for this.
The second time the potato is fertilized to speed up the flowering process at the time of budding. Used in this ash and potassium sulfate.
The third dressing during flowering speeds up the process of tuber formation. It is produced using superphosphate.
Прежде всего, нельзя высаживать картофель в одном и том же месте участка, лучше чередовать с участками под чеснок и тыкву, например. Так можно предотвратить раннее появление вредителей картофеля.
Существует большое количество химических препаратов, помогающих избавиться от вредителей и заболеваний картофеля. Некоторые огородники все же обходятся лояльными способами, такими как мыльный раствор и купорос. The main obstacles to the cultivation of a rich potato crop are the Medvedka, Colorado potato beetle, wireworm, scab and late blight.
Colorado potato beetle called a potato killer. Get rid of it by collecting and destroying insects from eggs to adults. Also use broths celandine for spraying planted areas and planted to the potato plants, frightening the pest with its smell (beans or coriander).
To protect against wireworm, larvae of the click beetle, use fertilizers containing ammonia. It is necessary to constantly loosen the soil and get rid of weeds. It is desirable to lower the acidity of the earth by adding lime mortar or dolomite flour to it.
Medvedka - It is a pest that eats tubers and potato roots. They get rid of it by deep digging the ground in the fall, scaring off sharp coniferous or garlic odors, and obligatory timely harvesting. Sometimes salt solution, salt blue solution, copper sulfate solution or poison from insects is poured into the holes.
Scab - This is a fungal disease, it affects the potato tubers. The treatment of the culture with manganese compounds or boric acid will help get rid of it. Scab infected tubers should be dug along with the ground and burned. This will prevent the spread of the disease to neighboring bushes and plants of the next season.
Late blightor potato rot is a fungal disease that develops in wet and warm weather.
To get rid of the fungus, you can use fungicides or brilliant green solution.
To prevent the occurrence of late blight, you can avoid the accumulation of moisture on the ground and planting potatoes next to other solanaceous crops, fertilizing the soil with potassium and phosphorus.
Harvesting and storage of the crop
Harvesting takes place after the tops begin to dry. Early varieties of potatoes are harvested in Siberia from mid-August, while others, depending on the weather, are harvested from mid-September to the first decade of October.
A couple of weeks before harvesting the tops should be mowed. This prevents the occurrence of fungal diseases, contributes to a better ripening of root crops and compaction of their skin. Digging potatoes with a shovel or pitchfork must be very careful not to damage it, since during storage damaged tubers are affected by diseases.
A suitable temperature for storing potatoes in Siberia is 2-4 ° С, air humidity is 90-92%. Potatoes are usually stored in cellars, closets or underground. Long-term savings of potatoes will ensure their preliminary drying, cleansing from the remnants of the earth and the elimination of diseased or injured root crops.
Grow a good potato crop in Siberia is quite realistic. The main thing is to follow certain rules of cultivation and choose the appropriate variety.
Terms of planting potatoes in Siberia
Siberia occupies a fairly vast area: from the territory of the whole of Russia, it will be about 57%. The whole of Siberia can be divided into the Western and Eastern regions. Climatic conditions in them are slightly different, and, therefore, the timing of planting of potatoes is different.
The eastern regions are distinguished by their harsh long winter and short, but very hot summer. It is in these regions that the weather has a capricious character: frost, uneven precipitation, most of which falls at the end of summer or early autumn. Considering all these factors, the planting dates for potatoes in this region begin in mid-May, when the weather stabilizes slightly.
But the western regions are lucky a little more. Their climate is slightly milder, so planting potatoes in Western Siberia is possible in early May.
It is possible to plant potatoes on these national landmarks only after the first buds begin to blossom on the birch tree.
Potato varieties for Siberia
Despite this harsh climate, you can grow quite a lot of potato varieties in Siberia. The State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation allows for planting 53 different potato varieties in the Siberian climate. In addition to these varieties of Russian breeding, in the climatic conditions of Siberia can be planted and some Dutch, Ukrainian and German varieties. Below we will come a description of the best of them, grouping them by:
These varieties for several years occupy a leading position in growing in the expanses of Siberia.
This German potato variety is perfect for growing in our Siberia. It has an average ripening time, so it does not make sense to dig in potatoes before 60 days. The bushes of Adretta's potatoes are more compact than those of our breeding varieties, but they are often not worth planting.
This table variety with smooth yellow tubers has earned its popularity due to excellent taste. Small potatoes with an average weight of 100-150 grams are perfect for cooking and roasting. Their light yellow flesh keeps its shape perfectly, and the starch content in it will not exceed 17%.
But Adretta is famous not only for its taste. Her bushes and roots are not afraid of potato potato and stem nematode. In addition, they are not subject to late blight.
Potatoes of this variety will ripen quite early - within 70–75 days from the moment of emergence. Alena's potato bushes are rather sprawling, so when planting it is worth adhering to the 60x35 cm scheme.
Allen potato has a smooth red surface with small eyes. It is not very large. Most often, its weight will be no more than 150 grams. She has good product and taste qualities. The white pulp of this variety contains 15–17% starch. Alena is perfect not only for frying and mashing, but also for cooking french fries.
This potato variety is distinguished by its high and stable yield. In addition, it is immune to the most common diseases of the potato and has excellent resistance to drought. It is also important that the potato Alena can be mechanically collected, and, therefore, it is suitable for cultivation on an industrial scale.
This early table variety can be started undermining on the 50th day after the emergence of shoots. It has quite large strongly branched bushes. The smooth surface of the early Zhukovsky potato can be colored pink or red. The weight characteristic of the variety will be between 122 and 167 grams.
Many gardeners fell in love with the early Zhukovsky potato because of its white flesh, which does not darken after cutting. The starch content in it will be from 10 to 15%. Fine taste and commodity qualities of potatoes of this variety are complemented by good resistance to potato cancer and nematode.
This early variety of table potatoes has earned its popularity due to excellent taste. Its tubers, which can be undermined already after 55 days from the first shoots, have a thin and very smooth skin. Small and sparse eyes will be visible on its light beige rounded surface. The weight parameters of potatoes will be 100–130 grams. Starch in white flesh Good luck will not exceed 15%.
Fortune potato is extremely resistant to drought, so it is often used for growing in large areas. In addition, the variety has good resistance to viruses and late blight, but may be attacked by scab.
The most fruitful
In severe weather conditions of Siberia, not many varieties can boast of high yields, even if they are built into them at the level of selection. Below we will consider 5 varieties whose yield is not afraid of even the harsh Siberian climate.
This Dutch potato variety in the vast expanses of Siberia shows incredible results: up to 360 quintals per hectare of land. The first harvest of tubers under the high and dense bushes of the Impala will ripen within six weeks from the moment of planting.
Like all early varieties, the Impala cannot boast of the large size of tubers. Their weight will be between 80 and 150 grams. But this does not affect its taste and commodity qualities. The surface of the potato Impala is smooth and yellow. It shows small eyes, and beneath it is hidden a light yellow flesh. Starch in the pulp will be about 15%.
Impala refers to those varieties that are resistant to all types of nematodes. But at the same time, it can be affected by late blight and rhizoctoniosis.
Lugovskiy variety of table potatoes is the pearl of Ukraine selection. It is actively grown throughout Russia, including in Siberia.
The first harvest of Lugovskogo potatoes can be harvested after 75 days from germination. Its tubers are not so large in size, and their weight will be about 85-125 grams. Peel Lugovskogo smooth to the touch. On its light pink surface there are small eyes.
The white flesh of these small potatoes has a high starch content - about 19%. Taste and consumer characteristics in this class at the height. In addition to the standard resistance to blackleg, scab and potato cancer, Lugovskoy has late blight resistance. But here before some viruses he can save.
When grown in the climatic conditions of Siberia, the potato variety Lyubava shows almost record values in terms of yield. When grown on an industrial scale, this variety will bring from 288 to 400 centners per hectare of land.
Lyubava potatoes can be attributed to the early ripening varieties, the fruiting of which occurs in 65–70 days. Tubers of this variety have a rather coarse peel of red color, on which eyes of medium depth are visible. The mass of one potato will be 109-210 grams.
Potato Lyubava has good taste and very high keeping quality. Starch in the composition of its pulp will be between 11 and 17%.
The table early ripe grade of potatoes which is perfectly showing itself at cultivation in Siberia. With the May disembarkation, it can be broken in late June - early July.
Scarlet tubers have a smooth red skin with small eyes. The average weight of potatoes will be 80-150 grams. Scarlet flesh is colored yellowish. The starch in it is at an average level not exceeding 15%.
Scarlet has good resistance to potato cancer and phytophthora of tubers.
Finnish high-yielding potato variety with early ripening periods - from 60 to 70 days. With the early harvesting of Timo's potatoes, you can get up to 240 centners per hectare, and with later and even more - about 320.
Timo has small, neat, round-shaped tubers. Most often, their weight does not exceed 100 grams, but potatoes with a weight of 120 grams can be found. On the smooth skin of Timo, the eyes of medium depth are distinct. The skin itself, like the pulp hidden behind it, has a light yellow color. The starch content in Timo's pulp will be about 12–14%.
The resistance of this potato variety to disease is not as good as its taste. Timo will not get cancer of potatoes, but can easily pick up blight and scab.
All considered varieties show excellent results when planting in this climatically difficult region. But when growing them, it is worth remembering that planting potatoes in Siberia is different from planting in more favorable areas. Therefore, before disembarking we recommend to familiarize yourself with the video:
Landing methods and modifications are many. If you consider that the potato loves fertilizer, lighted space and loose soil, a good harvest will be provided with any method of planting.
In the late seventies of the last century, information appeared about the family of hermit Old Believers who lived in the south of Siberia from the thirties. Lykovy did not know the bread. They planted turnips, onions, peas, rye and potatoes. Who knows, whether the variety was lucky or the land of Siberia is so generous that it can nourish root crops for more than forty years ...
First of all, we choose varieties, taking into account the region of growth and resistance to diseases. By maturity, potatoes are divided into early (80-90 days), medium early (100-115 days), medium late and late (120-135 days). We choose not one, but several varieties, firstly, varieties differ in taste, one variety is good in roast, the other is better to be used for mashed potatoes, secondly, it is noticed by many gardeners that not every year a certain variety brings a good harvest.
So the seeds, that is, the tubers purchased, or you have your own. Tubers for planting is better to choose medium size, if you have small planting material (anything can happen), then you can throw 2 potatoes per well. If the tubers are large, they can be cut into two or four parts, so that each part has 2-3 eyes. It is impossible to treat a cut of the tuber with ashes, this leads to decay of the pulp and the development of diseases. Tuber slices must be dried. They need to be checked for the presence of diseases, with stains or other signs of diseases should be rejected. A month before planting, the planting material needs to be warmed up so that the eyes wake up and go up. Potatoes laid out in a thin layer in the sun.
With a lack of sun sprouts stretched out, turn out thin and white. Such sprouts will not produce a well-developed shrub, therefore no good tubers are formed. If you have purchased potatoes somewhere from your hands, then it is better to treat them with a solution of copper sulfate, in order to avoid contamination of the soil and the development of diseases. Tubers can be treated with wood ash.
Potato culture is light-requiring, so it is important to choose a plot for planting that is not lined with trees or shrubs. The soil should be loose, light. It is impossible to plant a culture after the hairy, the plants with the same origin have the same pests and diseases. You can not just plant in the place where last year was infected with a nematode, scab, rhizoctonia and other diseases. It grows well after cabbage, cucumber, lettuce, carrots and beets. Not everyone, of course, has the opportunity to plant it every year in a new place, then the site must be well fertilized.
This culture loves organic. In the autumn, under the digging you can make fresh manure. In spring you can fertilize with compost, peat or humus. Good fertilizer for potatoes - chicken droppings, it can be applied in a dry form.
Digging and fertilizer for potatoes
Perekapavyt area better in the fall, to freeze out all the weeds and pests. Dig it up on a full bayonet shovel. When digging it is important to choose all the rhizomes of weeds, beetle larvae or wireworm immediately destroy. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that there are no cavities in the area. When heavy rains in them moisture will accumulate and the tubers will begin to rot. If you apply fertilizer for digging, then you need to make sure that the top layer of soil gets down. If manure or compost stays on top, it will dry quickly and lose its value.
On average, 5-10 kg of fertilizers are applied per 1 square meter of area. If there is not enough fertilizer for the entire plot, then it is better to apply fertilizer directly to the well when planting. Organic fertilizers contain all the substances that potatoes need for growth, but they slowly decompose and are used poorly at the beginning of growth. In order to provide the culture with useful substances, mineral fertilizers are needed from the very beginning of growth. In the spring under digging make 2 tbsp. spoons per 1 square meter of superphosphate, 1 scoop of potassium sulfate. It is also good to make wood ash, it affects the yield and taste of potatoes. Ashes are introduced at the rate of 1 cup per square meter.
One week after planting shoots appear. At this time, it is necessary to weed and loosen the soil. If at night there are still frosts, it is better to sprinkle the seedlings with earth, it will not hurt them. It is necessary to loosen the soil after each rain or watering so that a crust does not form and there is access to oxygen from the tubers. When the bushes stretch by 15 centimeters, you need to proceed to the first hilling. If the plants develop poorly, you need to feed them in the aisle. For each bush, 5-6 g of superphosphate, 3-4 g of sulfurous or potassium chloride, 2-3 g of ammonium nitrate, 8-12 nitrophos, and 10-12 g of wood ash. At the same time you need to be careful that the fertilizer does not fall on the tops. Then, when hilling or loosening, put everything into the soil.
Loves potatoes application of liquid feeding bird droppings. There is enough 50-100 g of dry litter per 1 square meter. Litter is diluted with water in a large tank, this fertilizer, unlike manure, should be used immediately after breeding, because the nitrogen contained in the litter evaporates very quickly. After each liquid feeding loosen or spud. Hilling or loosening should not be carried out immediately after rain or watering. You need to wait for the moisture to be well absorbed into the soil. After 2-3 weeks, spend the second hilling. When flowering begins, flowers and buds are better off, because they draw strength from the tubers.
Two weeks before harvesting, the potato tops should be cut to avoid mushroom diseases, leave the stalks 10-12 cm high, without leaves. In mid-September, you can begin harvesting potatoes. It is better to choose dry and warm weather. Tubers after digging need to decompose on the fabric or dry sawdust to dry. It is better to sort out the tubers for planting right away, select fines and chopped potatoes. After drying, it is ready for storage.
I hope you will find my tips on growing potatoes in Siberia useful. Write your comments. Ask questions, I will answer with pleasure.
У картофеля много вредителей, вы можете почитать как бороться с колорадским жуком, одним из самых опасных вредителей паслёновых, а так же о самой распространённой болезни картофеля — грибке фитофторе.
Лучшие сорта картофеля в Сибири
Сибирь — регион с резко континентальным климатом. Здесь долгая зима, короткое лето, весной — заморозки, в конце лета и в начале осени — обильные осадки. Не самые благоприятные условия для выращивания картофеля. Тем не менее это самый распространённый овощ у огородников. They constantly try new methods, look for all new varieties and achieve good results.
For cultivation in the Siberian conditions suitable zoned variety, with good resistance to adverse weather conditions.
Gardeners are guided primarily by the yield of potatoes.
Crop-Siberian varieties - photo
It should be understood that the maximum yields of these varieties can be achieved only if all technological processes are followed and good care is taken.
For growing potatoes in Siberia, it is very important to get the harvest as early as possible, before the onset of cold weather. Therefore, preference is given to early (80–90 days) and medium-early (100–115 days) varieties. Late (120-135 days) in this region are not grown - they will not have time to mature.
Early - photo gallery
Early varieties are good in that they give a crop before the start of the development of various potato diseases. But a minus them that they are poorly stored, therefore for long storage it is necessary to choose middle late varieties. The longer a potato grows, the higher its yield and taste characteristics.
Some of the elite varieties of potatoes that stand out against the general background not only in color, but also in early maturity (60-75 days) and, very importantly, frost resistance can be categorized as the best for growing in Siberia.
Cranberry Red (Crenbury Red) - oval tubers of red color have a pleasant aroma and delicate taste. The flesh of the potato - with pink hues, does not change color during heat treatment. Tubers are smooth with almost no eyes. Used in any form. The variety is resistant to cold.
Krenbury Red is resistant to cold
Huckleberry Gold (Huckleberry Gold) is distinguished by lilac fruits with soft creamy pulp. The taste is peculiar. Suitable only for frying and mashed potatoes. Frost-resistant grade.
Hucklebury Gold - Frost-Resistant Potatoes
Huckleberry (Hucklebury) is an old known super elite variety of Canadian breeders, also known as the Red Cranberry. The dream of many gardeners with dark red smooth fruits that do not change color during heat treatment. Due to its cold resistance, it is grown in Siberia, the Moscow region and the Urals.
Hacklebury - the dream of gardeners of the Urals and Siberia
These varieties are bred for growing in Alaska, so for Siberia, they fit just right.
Planting potatoes in Siberia usually begins in May. In Western Siberia - at the beginning, and in Eastern Siberia - in the middle of the month. This is due to the fact that in the western part the climate is slightly milder. Here, pausing with planting potatoes for a week or two, you risk half the harvest. Therefore, you need to land on time. Someone focuses on national signs - waiting for the buds to bloom in the trees. Someone is checking with the lunar calendar. But the most important and correct reference point is the soil heated to a depth of 10 cm to +9 degrees.
Growing in a greenhouse
For cultivation in the greenhouse, the tubers begin to cook in November. When sprouts appear, potatoes are put in boxes with wet sawdust or peat, and they are taken out in a heated greenhouse. When the time of planting comes, the tubers will form already strong sprouts and roots. The holes are dug up according to the 70 * 25 cm scheme, 8 cm deep. A layer of peat or humus necessarily fits on the bottom, on top - the tubers and all this is covered with a layer of earth. Watering planting is not necessary, otherwise you will create an overabundance of moisture and tubers will rot. When shoots appear and the soil dries, then you can water the potatoes for the first time. During the period of growth, flowering and the formation of tubers, the humidity in the greenhouse should be at least 80-100 percent. The air temperature must be maintained around +23 degrees. During the mass formation of tubers, it should be slightly reduced to +19 degrees. The crop in the greenhouse reaches 350 kg per hundred, and it is not exposed to diseases and attacks of pests. Ideal for growing potatoes.
Greenhouse - the perfect place for growing potatoes
If your greenhouse is occupied by tomatoes, cucumbers or other crops, and there is absolutely no room for potatoes, a greenhouse will help you. Plant potatoes in the beds, set the arc, stretch the film, pressed to the ground and the greenhouse is ready. The film retains heat well, but does not allow air to pass through. Therefore, in good weather, it will need to be opened for airing, weeding, watering and feeding plants. At night, the greenhouse must be closed. Thanks to the created conditions, you will get a harvest ahead of time.
Greenhouse retains heat well
Since the soil in Siberia warms up for a very long time, you can apply the method of growing potatoes in high beds. Since autumn, they are formed with a height of about half a meter with the help of hay, soil and manure. In these beds, potatoes can be planted earlier than in open ground for two weeks. To speed up the warming up of the soil, the following method is often used: they are poured abundantly with hot water and covered with film. After the earth warms up, tubers are laid into it. Landing before frosts care better cover.
High beds allow you to plant potatoes before
Under the straw
Recently, the method of growing potatoes under straw is widely advertised. There are two options for planting: potatoes are buried in the ground or placed on the ground, and covered with a layer of straw or hay at 20 cm. It is believed that this method is suitable for lazy people, because it does not require special care.