Features of the plant
Orchis spotted possesses leaves resembling tulip leaves. Since the motley flowers are spiked, they are very attractive to insects. Spots are nothing more than a signal to pollinators that there is something to eat here. All nectar is in the spur. Seeds are collected in a box. The orchid tubers, like the root, are renewed every year.The special requirements for the care of the orchid does not impose
Use in medicine
The root consists of two tubers. The most valuable of them is juicy and young. A special powder is prepared from the salep tubers at the pharmacy.
Salep mucus is used to cure:
- hyperacid gastritis,
- food poisoning
- gastric ulcer,
- respiratory diseases of the nasopharynx.
In case of intoxication or poisoning with poisons, it is recommended to use a spotted orchid, male or helmoniferous.It is best to grow orchids in the semi-wild part of the garden
Orchard tubers are used externally for boils. First, they are pushed to the state of the powder. Then mixed with pork fat or steamed on the milk. Also, tubers and salep are used to stimulate hair growth and as a way to get rid of toothache.
Among other things, the orchid is considered an excellent remedy for nervous exhaustion, sexual impotence, weakness caused by debilitating long illnesses. The use of salep is recommended for those who have suffered heavy bleeding, suffer from catarrh of the intestines, and have tuberculosis. Also, the plant can cure female uterine diseases and catarrh of the bladder.The plant is not subject to diseases and pests, it looks attractive and is widely used in medicine
Wild Orchid Care
Orchis spotted does not like waterlogged soils. During feeding, it is important to ensure that the plant does not get fresh manure. It is recommended to make soil mulching, the best option for this is needles.
If the orchid grows in a sunny area, it is worth watering. The rest of the plant is unpretentious, does not require special care, is not affected by pests and diseases. Loves the semi-wild parts of the garden.Place for planting should be light or semi-shaded
Propagated by dividing the root, seeds, sometimes self-seeding. Does not like weeds. Winter transfers without shelter.
Variety of species
At the moment, there are many species of orchards.
- Orchis is an ornamental plant, flowering from May to June. In the inflorescence are the flowers of bright purple-brownish, purple or pink shades. Five-petal perianth resembles a helmet.
- The Caspian orchid is a short plant with leaves of a linear-lanceolate form. The flowers are dark purple, sparsely arranged. Grows in Dagestan, the Caucasus and Iran.
- The sturgeon orchid has a specific smell resembling forest bugs. The shade of flowers - purple-brown. The plant is listed in the Red Book.
- Male Orchis is a herbaceous perennial plant with paired tubers. On the back of the leaves there are dark purple or purple spots. Inflorescence is collected from the flowers of purple or pale purple. It blooms from June to July. The plant is listed in the Red Book.
- The monkey orchid is a grassy perennial, reaching a height of 45 cm. It blooms from April to May. During flowering, numerous white or pink flowers with small specks of purple are formed. The plant is a rare species listed in the Red Book.
Use in landscape design
At the moment, several species of the represented plant have been obtained by crossing. You can choose for your garden as a standard variant - a spotted orchid, as well as original species - purple or monkey orchards.
Place for planting should be light or semi-shaded. But some species (for example, a helmet-bearing orchid) are better placed in the shade. The culture will grow best on moist, loose soil. Marsh requires very wet soil. Without exception, all types of plants love the soil enriched with minerals.Orchis is a unique plant growing on the meadows and fields of Russia
Orchis is perfect for creating a semi-wild part of the garden. It can be a good decoration for rock garden, but in this case it is worth preferring those varieties that do not make high demands on the soil. In a mixed flowerbed, the plant is best not to use, it will hide the dominant plants. But in monochrome gardens you can use the orchard.
You can read an article about a monochrome garden.
Orchis is an interesting orchid-like plant. Planting it in the garden will not cause difficulties even for a novice gardener. The plant has no special requirements for care. It is best to grow orchids in the semi-wild part of the garden. The plant is not susceptible to diseases and pests, it looks attractive and is widely used in medicine.
Orchis monkey - Monkey orchid
This species differs from the rest of the beginning of the flowering period. Orchis monkey has bulbs, which initially give shoots from the top of the stem and they go down instead of the usual development of flowers. In the center of the flower there are from three to four lobules and spotted petals. This variety is also known for its mild vanilla flavor, which is most noticeable in May and June.
Orchis originates from the plants of the Orchid family, with which its second name is “wild” or “northern orchid”. In nature, there is an abundant number of different types of "wild orchids", which differ in the appearance of the inflorescence, the number of flowers and their color, the size of the plant itself and the flowering period.
Types of Orchis:
- Orchis ornamental or Orchis man-bearing (Orchis anthropophora),
- Orchis male (Orchis mascula),
- Orchis helmets (Orchis militaris),
- Orchis pallens,
- Orchid Orchis (Orchis punctuata),
- Orchis purpurea (Orchis purpurea),
- Orchis monkey (Orchis simia),
- Orchis Spitzel (Orchis spitzelii),
- Orchis swamp (Orchis palustris),
- Orchis Dremlik (Orchis morio),
- Orchis (Orchis provincialis),
- Orchis is the largest (Orchis maxima),
- Burnt Orchis (Orchis ustulata),
- Orchis is odorous (Orchis fragrans Pollini),
- Orchis treyzubchaty (Orchis tridentate Scop),
- Orchis Shelkovnikov (Orchis schelkownikowii).
Common features of the appearance of the orchid
The growth and development of a “wild orchid” is very dependent on the environmental conditions, and the height to which this plant grows also depends on them. These figures range from 15 to 60 cm, but relatively low growth does not prevent it from effectively stand out among other colors.
The part of the plant that leads the underground lifestyle is formed by two tubers. Among them distinguish the older and younger, or as they are also called substitute and replaceable. The tuber is wide, has an egg-shaped appearance. A distinctive feature of the hawthorn are also leaves, painted by nature in a rich bright green color. They are straight, lanceolate-shaped, they tend to narrow in the stalk or smoothly cover the stem.
The inflorescences of this northern beauty, which can take the form of an ear about 15–20 cm in size, cannot be ignored. They are formed by small, exceptionally beautiful small flowers in diameter, which are densely placed next to each other. The variation of petal hues varies in a large range: from pale lilac to dark purple. Some sources say that in Russia you can meet and flowers, rich burgundy. In some species of orchid, the flowers are covered with small specks of dark color. Also one of the characteristics of this plant is the smell emitted by its buds: the rich, delicate aroma of vanilla. The period when the orchid pleases us with its flowers is most often the first two months of summer, but some species bloom in April and May.
"Northern Orchid" in the wild
It is rather difficult to meet the orchid in nature, since this plant belongs to endangered species, therefore it is listed in the Red Books of many countries in Europe, Asia and even North America. It is forbidden not only to dig out sprouts, but also to pick flowers. Making the trip around the world, the “northern orchid” can be found in many countries of Europe, Asia, Africa, it can be found on the Canary Islands and in the Caucasus. It is also conventionally distributed in mountainous areas (Carpathians, Crimea). As for Russia, the plant here is conventionally widespread, with the exception of the territory of the Far North.
Growing orchid at home
Today the orchid is a “VIP-plant” in the field of landscape design and for the craft of “avid” gardeners. Therefore, the question of the characteristics of growing and caring for him is very relevant.
“Northern Orchid” is not a fastidious plant, but there are still some nuances: soil and lighting, watering, fertilizers, preparation for wintering.
- Lighting. When choosing a location where the orchard will flaunt, you need to pay attention to the lighting of the selected area. This place should not be strictly in the shadows. The optimal location for him is a sunny playground with a light scattered shadow.
Substrate selection and orchard transplantation. As for the soil, the plant prefers well-moistened, but characterized by its friability of soil. They must pass enough moisture and oxygen. The coefficient of natural humidity is of particular importance, since the soil must be well-moistened, but in this case it must not be swamped in any way. There is a pattern: the more properly the land is selected, the less care the orchid requires to itself in the long summer heat. During planting, the substrate that you get out of the hole, there is an opportunity to improve by adding to it peat in a 1: 1 ratio, and river sand in a 1: 1/2 ratio.
Moisturizing. The “wild orchid” does not need constant watering if it is planted in the right soil and in the right place. An exception is a prolonged drought, during this period the plant should be fed with a sufficient amount of water. Many who grow this flower are watered with rainwater, which in itself is not quite safe. Rainwater is the source of many chemicals, including acids that can harm our northern queen if they come to her in abundance.
Feeding for the orchid. Fertilizers for this magic flower should be chosen organic, mineral he does not like. The best option would be compost and needles - this couple will provide a beautiful bright flowering. It is good to introduce them when sowing, and later on twice a year to mulch the soil with a layer of 5 cm. A good time for this is the middle of spring and the beginning of autumn, after the winter cold and frost and immediately before they start.
These conditions consist of room temperature and a good location for our seedlings. Temperature indicators will be suitable if their range is from 18 to 24 degrees. A place for the future decoration of our garden site should be allocated where there is the most sunshine, it can be a balcony or windows located on the sunny side of the house.
Possible problems with the cultivation of orchards
As for pests and diseases, at least the orchid is a delicate and fragile plant, but its natural immunity is quite strong. It is resistant to fungi and pests, but also danger lurks at it - these are slugs, leaf beetles and snails. Only physical methods of protection, such as traps and straw circles near the orchards, help to avoid trouble with them.
Reproduction, transplantation and care of the orchid stemming plants
There is also a root (vegetative) reproduction of the “wild orchid”; it consists in the separation of the replacement root root. When planting the latter, it should be remembered that a little bit of its “native” soil should be added (from the previous place) to the new location; Orchid has already been adapted earlier.
Due to the fact that the timing of the appearance of the first leaves of a flower above the ground is very chaotic, this period varies from one month and can last up to a year, then they require certain care measures. This is the deposition of the "leading" stalks into separate containers to continue their growth. Planting young orchards will provide more comfortable and spacious conditions lagging in the growth of their brethren.
The most suitable period for planting seedlings in the ground of your garden will be the middle part of spring, when you are firmly convinced that the strong cold and frost will not disturb your garden treasure. It is also necessary to take into account the distance of the neighborhood between our plantings better, so that it is not less than 15–18 cm.
The use of orchid in medicine
The “northern orchid” in folk medicine has been used for a long time, the fame of its healing qualities has come to us. A wide spectrum of action has mucus, which occupies most of the chemical structure of the orchid and salep, a powder made from the tubers of the northern orchid. These components are popular helpers for treating conditions such as:
- inflammation of the bladder,
- fatigue, as in old age, also after long illness,
- tuberculosis and its consequences
- depressive states
- inflammation of the gallbladder,
- peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer,
- inflammation of the gastric mucosa,
- hyperacid states
- diseases of the respiratory apparatus (bronchitis, laryngitis, pneumonia),
- impotence, sexual dysfunction,
- vitamin deficiency, hypovitaminosis,
- inflammation of the prostate gland,
- prostate adenoma,
- inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs,
- inflammatory diseases of the skin and its appendages,
- herpes infections
- early gestosis pregnant.
Also wild orchid is a good contraceptive. In some countries, it was used as a means of adding vitality. It is necessary to mention that the spotted orchid is the most powerful aphrodisiac, of plant origin.
In many countries of our world, this healer from the north is an officially recognized medicine, with its own base of evidence of effectiveness. It can be found in the following pharmacological forms:
- alcohol tinctures,
- decoys based on salep,
- Orchis slime
- infusions on water
- patches for the treatment of prostatitis.
Contraindications and side effects
Preparations based on orchids from northern places are completely safe to use. They are safely accepted by both children and women during pregnancy. The only thing, it is necessary to remember that there is an individual intolerance of separate components of a plant. For this person, with a burdened allergological history, it should be used with care. The only side effect is excessive sexual arousal.
Use of Hawthorn in Landscape Design
This inhabitant of the meadows of the north is extremely rarely used as a component of mixed flower beds. In modern landscape design more often it can be found on remote half wild areas, the background of which is coniferous trees. Most often, designers use a group of orchards for decorating rock gardens.
The magical properties of the orchid
Among our ancestors, the “northern orchid” was a character of many legends, folk signs and attributes of magical rites. With the help of this enchanting flower, the rites of the spring were held.
Women believed that with the first rays of the sun they plunged into the lake, on the bank of which the orchid grows - this action will undoubtedly give them eternal youth, beauty and good health. Также, уже упомянутый ранее салеп, брали с собой на войны и сражения, так как напиток, приготовленный на его основе способен возместить суточную дозу веществ необходимых организму, чтобы обладать достаточным количеством силы и энергии.
Смесь, сваренная из клубней ятрышника и молока, предназначалась для младенцев, которым не хватало или не было вовсе материнского молока.
А вот листва и корневища «дикой орхидеи» широко использовались, как один из ингредиентов приворотного зелья. Также в «делах сердечных» это колдовское растение было талисманом от всех возможных бед и неурядиц. В народе говорили, что ятрышник единожды можно использовать, как «стебель правды», считалось, что если взять в карман корень растения, то никто вас не сможет одурачить.
Узнайте о лечебных свойствах ятрышника:
Использование в саду
Ятрышники редко высаживают на смешанную клумбу. They look better in solo group plantings in the middle of a lawn, stony masonry, or near coniferous plants and ferns. Sometimes wild orchid can be found on the alpine hill. With its help, you can make a variety in the wild corner of the flower garden or monochrome garden.
The height of the orchards will not exceed half a meter, but so catchy and bright that they easily outshine their competitors. The rhizomes are thickened, ovate, it is thanks to them that the orchter got its name. The leaves "embrace" numerous perfectly straight shoots, long, lanceolate, tapering in the stalk. The type of green is related to the orchards with cereals, but they are very different in their growth patterns, and the bright and saturated green color makes the plant stand out against the background of classical perennials.
The Latin name Orchis is derived from the ancient-Greek. ὄρχις (testicle) due to a pair of tubers resembling testicles. There are several versions of the origin of the Russian name in the etymological dictionaries: either because the orchid root was used as a love potion - a yatrovi flower, or from the dialect word yatro (egg), or according to V.I. Dahl, from the "jungle" ( core). Popularly, the tree orchard is also called "cuckoo's tears" or "tears".
Neotinea is charred, Neotinia is burnt (Neotinea ustulata), or Burnt Orchis (Orchis ustulata). © Juan Jose Sanchez
The most attractive plants during flowering. On high leafy peduncles, spike-shaped inflorescences of up to 15–20 cm long rise. In them, luxurious complex flowers sit quite tightly, their miniature size — only up to 2 cm — does not prevent comparing flowering with orchids. In orchids flowers, though not the largest, but spectacular.
The leaflets of the outer and inner circle are folded into a kind of “helmet”, the lip is tripartite, and the upper and lower leaflets differ in shape and size. In the wild orchid, the lip is most often decorated with specks, and the spur, which is equal in size to the ovary, attaches a surprising grace to the flower.
Hawks bloom long enough. The parade of wild orchids begins in April or May in stunted species and in June in large ones, and the duration of flowering ranges from 2 weeks to several months. The aroma of most species can not boast, but upon closer inspection of inflorescences subtle notes of vanilla, familiar to all who grow indoor orchids, appear quite clearly.
A variety of orchards
In the genus of wild orchids about a hundred species of orchid are combined, and all of them are similar in flowering type. Moreover, most orchards are extremely attractive and capable of becoming effective garden plants.
The most common in ornamental gardening is one species - orchid spotted (orchis maculata). But there are a lot of disputes with its classification and its belonging to the orchards. After all, this plant has palmate-separate roots, not ovoid, like most orchards.
Even today, gardeners and botanists classify it as dactylorhiza maculata, or the spotted finger stick. But since the difference between plants is only in wider leaves and a more representative palette of colors, and not in the practical nuances of cultivation, it is difficult to call essential differences. Moreover, this plant today is included in both genders at the same time.
However the spotted orchid is called, one thing is for sure - the plant is very spectacular. Herbaceous perennial with thickened, finger-shaped roots and shoots in height from 15 to 60 cm bright and impressive. Egg-lanceolate leaves, tapering into the petiole and embracing the stems, create a slender curtain.
Peduncles crowned leafy shoots. Spiculate inflorescences with original flowers with a three-blade sponge, a cone-shaped spur and a strange color are blooming on them. Light lilac, white or rich purple flowers of the spotted hawthorn are always adorned with decorative dark spots. Patterns are often decorated with the leaves of this orchid. The plant blooms in the second half of May, flowering lasts from 2 weeks to a month depending on the conditions.
The species Orchis maculata (Spotted Orchus, or Hawthorus mottled) is currently included in the synonymy of the species Fingerpot Root or Spotted Frog (Dactylorhiza maculata). © Ericetorum
Of the actual orchards, basic plant species, in ornamental gardening bred:
- Orchis (Orchis mascula) - one of the brightest orchards with a purple-stained stem and leaves, spectacular lilac-pink buds and beautiful flowers, distinguished by a deep-notched lip and decorative white blur at its base, small dark spots (this hawthorn blooms in April-May easily gives in to hybridization and selection),
- very unusual Orchis purpurea (Orchis purpurea) with brown peduncles, very broad, villian-like bright leaves and a spike-like spikelet of a dense inflorescence (in this species, the lip is flattened, very large, deeply dissected, and snow-white flowers are studded with small dark dots),
- unusual, with pyramidal dense inflorescences and lace effect Orchis monkey (Orchis simia) up to half a meter with long leaves and honey aroma (flowers with elongated leaves are pale, almost white, with a beautiful speck and stripes on the edge, reminiscent of a monkey),
- Orchis (Orchis punctulata) with unusual yellow-green inflorescences and bright greens,
- the highest of Orchids are greatest (Orchis maxima) up to 70 cm high with powerful fragrant inflorescences covered with specks of helmet and lip, watercolor color transitions from purple to whitish, beautifully accentuated by a deep notch on the lip,
Currently not a separate species, it is considered a species of Orchis purpurea (Orchis purpurea)
- Orchis pale (Orchis pallens) - a modest plant up to 30 cm in height with obovoid, fairly wide leaves up to 11 cm long and a dense spikelet of inflorescence with large, bright yellow, pale orange or purple flowers, lanceolate bracts and an original elder-like fragrance,
- Orchis (Orchis provincialis) with spotty leaves and large flowers in a rare inflorescence, distinguished by a light, yellowish-white color and touching specks,
- medium sized but spectacular Orchis green-brown (Orchis viridifusca), a species of Orchis Spitzel (Orchis spitzelii), only up to 30 cm high with a swamp color of wide leaves, greenish-purple flowers with a large lip and a no less spectacular helmet, gathered into elongated narrow spikelets of the inflorescence and its sibling Orchis greenish yellow (Orchis chlorotica), which is a synonym for (Anacamptis collina), with yellow-green flowers,
- tiny rival violets Orchis dremlik (Orchis morio) only 15–20 cm tall with bluish leaves and sparse, short spikelets of inflorescences located at the bottom with very beautiful purple-violet flowers, the shape of which resembles a bull terrier's muzzle (the plant has lived for two years underground, and only the third leaves and tsvetonosa appear),
- Orchis helmets (Orchis militaris), whose flowers adorn a motley white-purple lip with very thin lobes and a light pink helmet exceeding it in size.
Some species grown by florists like Orchis are now synonymous with independent genera such as Anacamptis (Anacamptis) and Neotinia (Neotinea) members of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae). In the literature, they can often be found under the old and new name. For example: Neotinia tridentary, or Orchis tridentary (Neotinea tridentata)
- spectacular Orchis clopus (Orchis coriophora) height from 20 to 40 cm with narrow lanceolate leaves, elongated cylindrical inflorescences and flowers with a pointed helmet and a deeply dissected lip, complex color transitions from greenish and white at the base to purple-brown with purple specks,
- similar to him, but more pleasant on the smell, narrow-leaved and decorated with dark veins Orchis habitat (Orchis nervulosa),
- smelling of vanilla Orchis is odorous (Orchis fragrans) up to half a meter with delicate spikelets of inflorescences and unusual purple flowers with a beautiful helmet and a very long average lobe on the lip,
- Orchis fluffy (Orchis laxiflora) with very rare, almost two-sided buds of purple color,
- early blooming Orchis subspecies of flowering Hawthorn orchid (Orchis pseudolaxiflora) with bright purple flowers, widely spaced in long inflorescences, reaching 60 cm in height,
- similar to him Marsh Orchis (Orchis palustris) up to 70 cm in height with long graceful leaves and sparse, lacy inflorescences of lilac flowers with a large lip like a skirt, blooming in May and June,
- miniature, with very dark purple flowers in an elongated loose inflorescence Caspian Orchis (Orchis caspia),
- dark violet Orchis point (Orchis picta) up to 30 cm,
- Orchid tree (Orchis tridentata) with light lilac, almost spherical dense inflorescences,
- Ornamented Orchis (Orchis ustulata) with mace-like dense spikelets of pale pink inflorescences up to 30 cm in height,
Despite the fact that the orchid is an orchid, it is perfectly adapted to growing in gardens. And even more: it is garden orchards that can boast of the most luxurious flowering. But in order to admire the royal inflorescences, you need to carefully select the lighting for wild orchids. After all, the orchid prefers penumbra, light, scattered, secluded. But if the natural species in the bright sun suffer from flowers, and in the shade the plant does not bloom at all, then for garden orchards it is absolutely necessary to avoid shadows only. But the cultivated species are not afraid of the solar location and are much more plastic. However, the more intense the illumination, the more difficult it will be to care for the hawthorn.
Soil for the Orchis
With the ground also need to be very attentive. Orchis prefer moist, fertile, but very loose soil texture. They should be as water and breathable as possible. The parameter of natural humidity is very important: in spite of the fact that the orchid does not tolerate waterlogging, it likes cool, wet and friable soils, whose characteristics remain stable even in the summer heat. Orchis do not like dense soil, as well as fresh manure. When planting the orchid, the soil removed from the fossa can be improved by adding to it the same amount of peat and half the amount of sand.
Watering for the Orchis
If your wild orchid grows in a sunny place, it will need to ensure systematic, regular watering. Without it, the orchid will be worse to bloom, and the duration of flowering will be significantly reduced. Also require irrigation and greens that grow on depleted soil.
If the wild orchid is planted on high-quality, moist soil, it does not need constant watering at all. It is enough only to control the weather and during the drowning droughts to feed the soil with moisture to compensate for high temperatures. Conducting watering for the orchid, you need to monitor the characteristics of the soil and its rate of drying. Excess moisture for wild orchids can not be tolerated, as well as droughts, procedures should maintain an average soil moisture.
Orchis italian (Orchis italica). © perillimatteo
Wild Orchid does not like mineral fertilizers. This plant will colorfully blossom only when organic matter is used to improve soil characteristics and compensate for nutrient losses. Best for the orchid stock up on compost and pine needles. They are applied during planting and twice a year they mulch the soil with a layer of 5 cm. Fertilizing mulch for the orchid should be created in the middle of spring and early autumn.
Preparing hawthorn for wintering
Despite its name, wild orchid is not at all a thermophilic, frost-dying plant. Orchis winters beautifully without a winter shelter, even in a midland setting. But so that the excess moisture does not affect the quality of wintering, and the plant has better tolerated temperature drops during periods of thaw, the bushes need to be prepared for cold weather.
As soon as the orchard begins to dry in anticipation of the first autumn cold, it is better to cut off all the ground parts of the plant to the ground. Do not wait until the shoots die off themselves, and feel free to spend the cardinal pruning. So the rhizome is better prepared for even the most unstable winters.
Pests and diseases
Despite their “orchid”, orchards are strikingly resistant plants. They are resistant to all types of fungal diseases and pests. But from the slugs they have no natural protection. Snails, slugs and other leaf beetles adore this exotic plant. And it is better to arrange special traps around the orchards, or to lay out circles of straw.
Propagation of the orchid seed
Sowing of the orchid seeds can be done at any time of the year, regardless of the planned date of seedling transportation to the soil. Sprouting in wild orchids can take 1 month and more than 3 months, so even planting in the summer will work fine for the plant. The orchid seeds are sown in a fertile, moist and loose substrate to a shallow depth. They will only be able to germinate in the heat, but not in the heat (the optimum temperature is the range from 18 to 24 degrees), in bright light.
Shoots appear unevenly, also develop at different rates. After the appearance of several leaves, young plants are better to be planted in new pots, trying not to damage the crops and neighboring seeds that have not yet hatch. Seedlings grow according to the standard scheme until the spring and the disappearance of the threat of strong return frost. Orchis, planted by seedlings at a distance of 10-15 cm between seedlings
Root separation, or rather the separation of the replacement of the tub root. This method is considered the most simple and reliable. In the autumn, after the onset of wilting and pruning, the plants of the rhizome can be dug out and the replacement root can be separated from it. When planting separated rhizomes together with a plant, a part of the old soil is added to the new well, because, like all orchids, the orchid is dependent on fungi and only with them can it take root in the new place. The more soil from the old growing area you can transfer, the better.
Orchis monkey(Orchis simia) - perennial herbaceous plant of the zozulintsevy (orchid) family. Listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.
Geophites. Tubers are oval or spherical. The stem is 20-45 cm tall. The leaves of the species are lance, obtuse, narrowed to the base. The flowers are bisexual, irregular, pale purple, collected in dense ovoid ear, scale bracts, much shorter than the ovary, middle lobe of the hinged lip, its lobes are long (up to 1 cm), narrowly linear or linear with the styloid tooth between them, the lateral lobes are linear, up to 7.5 cm long. The fruit is a box. Blossoms in April - May.
It grows on the edges and forest glades of juniper and puhnastodubovy forests, among shrubs, on mountain meadows and slopes. In the lower mountain belt of the southern macroslope of the Crimean Ridge, it is found in the coenoses of the unions Jasminio-Juniperion excelsae, Carpino orientalis-Quercion pubescentis, Elytrigio nodosae-Quercion pubescentis cl. Quercetea pubescenti-petraea. In the north, the macro slope of the Crimean Mountains grows in coenoza in the order QuercoCarpinetalia betuli (Cl. Querco-Fagetea). Xeromesophytes.
Atlantic and Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean, the Balkan Peninsula, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Small and Middle (Kopet-Dag mountain system) Asia.
In Ukraine, a rare plant. Occasionally happens in the Mountainous Crimea and on the outskirts of Feodosia through shrubs, forest glades, mountain meadows and on slopes.
Listed in the Red Book of Ukraine, status - vulnerable. Listed in Annex II of the CITES Convention. It is protected in the Crimea, "Cape Martyan", Yalta mountain-forest, Karadag nature reserve.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting in places of growth is strictly prohibited. For the purpose of treatment, bulboreni grown on the plantation are used, which are harvested immediately after flowering. Harvest only young, affiliated tubers, old tubers are thrown away. Collected tubers are well washed, immersed for 4-5 minutes in boiling water, and then dried in the open air, under a canopy or in a dryer at a temperature of 50-55 °. Полученная таким образом сырье называется «клубни салеп» (Tubera Salep). Из 10 кг сырых клубней получают 1 кг сухих. Хранят в невологих, хорошо проветриваемых помещениях. Срок годности — 6 лет. Аптеки салеп не отпускают.
Фармакологические свойства и использование
Салеп — хороший обволакивающий, противовоспалительное и общеукрепляющее средство. Он препятствует всасыванию вредных веществ из желудочно-кишечного тракта. Как обволакивающее и противовоспалительное средство салеп назначают при острых и хронических заболеваниях дыхательных путей и при воспалении желудочно-кишечного тракта. Эффективным является использование салепа при бронхитах, гастроэнтеритах, колитах и язвенной болезни. Salep mucus is drunk at poisoning to delay the absorption of poison. Apply in the form of mucus inside and in enemas. Salep is considered an effective remedy for the general depletion of the body caused by prolonged bleeding, physical and mental fatigue and tuberculosis, and impotence. The powder of old tubers was considered abortive and contraceptive, as well as means regulating the monthly. Infusion grass cute was considered a diuretic, diaphoretic and antihypertensive. Seeds used for epilepsy.