Temperature and humidity in the incubator is very important for good incubation of eggs and hatching. It is also very significant - airing the air in the incubator. Embryos in hatching eggs after 8 days begin to emit a lot of CO2 and breathe, as they release heat. The temperature in the incubator may be normal, and the egg itself will overheat. This can lead to the death of the embryo, if the temperature is for a long time above 39 C. What does this mean: if the air temperature is 38C during normal operation, this does not mean that the egg is comfortable.
Control incubation development
Control the process with regard to the incubation development of chickens. The incubation period is about 20 - 22 days after egg laying. In rare cases, for example, if the temperature is disturbed, chicks may hatch later for several days. But after 25 days spitting never happens.
The incubation period is conventionally divided into four stages, according to them the temperature regimes are established, as well as the humidity values. All manipulations are calculated taking into account incubation in the natural environment.
- In the first stage, frequent egg turns are necessary.as the hen makes this procedure every hour. At the end of the first stage, somewhere on the seventh day, the first translucency is performed. During this period the circulatory system of the embryo is already formed and the vessels are clearly visible. Normal is considered a uniform arrangement of vessels. If the vessels are centered, this is slightly worse, but acceptable. If the vessels are not visible, and the embryo looks like a stain, the egg is rejected.
- At the second stage, a skeleton is formed at the embryo and the turns of the eggs must be performed as accurately as possible.. At the third stage, the embryo masses grow intensively and grow, the formation of all internal organs ends. At this time, it is important to exclude the possibility of infection, but it is necessary to increase the humidity in the chamber, which means that regular airings become mandatory. In addition to daily ventilation, ventilation is increased from the 18th day.
- At the third stage, approximately on the 15th - 16th day, control on the ovoscope and repeated on the 19th day.. A fetus is considered healthy if it occupies ⅔ of the volume of the egg and is not translucent.
- The fourth stage is the final and shortest, the emergence of chicks. It’s absolutely impossible to pick up chickens one by one. It is necessary to wait, when all posterity will appear. Nestlings should dry off, and only after that they can be taken out in prepared brooders.
You can evaluate the health of the chick by pecking. If a chicken breaks off large pieces of shell and leaves quickly, it means that it is healthy. Otherwise, the chick is worth inspecting for deviations.
Types of thermometers
There are three main models of temperature meters, they need to be located inside the incubator:
- temperature monitoring is conducted through a special window, if a mercury or alcohol thermometer is selected,
- it is easier to adjust the parameters with the electronic version of the thermometer, because the scoreboard is installed outside, and inside the incubator there is a probe that does not touch the eggs - its data is displayed on the scoreboard with an accuracy of tenths.
Alcohol thermometers are distinguished by the parameters of security, ease of use (decimal scale) and low cost. A crashed device will not harm the environment and the embryos, it is only necessary to collect fragments of glass. However, it should be noted that the thermometer readings are not entirely accurate.Alcohol thermometer in Ryabushka 70 incubator
- Place several such meters at different points in the incubator to achieve accurate results.
- Do not buy too cheap copies, as their testimony can not be trusted.
Mercury thermometers also have a decimal scale division and a small price, but their accuracy is much higher than alcohol. However, a damaged device is dangerous not only by broken glass, but also by spilled mercury, whose vapors will harm the embryos and your well-being.
However, with careful use, this model should be used in incubators.
The simplest electronic model is a medical thermometer, which has an accuracy of reading up to a decimal value and a relatively low price. If the device is endowed with a special probe (sensor), then your work is simplified, because the sensor is located inside the incubator, and the board is outside.
Powered measuring instrument battery. Beware of fakes and cheap Chinese models of poor quality. Buy in specialized stores product not lower than the average price category.
- The thermometer is fixed so as to exclude the contact of its working area and the egg shell, because the readings of the temperature of the air in the incubator, and not the temperature of the egg, are needed.
- Try to fix the thermometer away from heating and ventilation elements. Watching the temperature at the specified point, you will be calm for the safety of all offspring (masonry).
- Indications of temperature, humidity and other data at different stages of incubation differ and depend on the natural processes of the development of the embryo. Monitor the temperature data every two to three hours.
- The most accurate measurements of the incubation temperature are carried out by applying a mercury ball close to the nougat, where the embryo is located. Overheating or overcooling of the embryo requires urgent temperature control.
The complex process of incubation is divided into 4 time stages:
- the first lasts 7 days from the time of laying eggs,
- second - the next 4 days (from 8 to 11),
- third It starts from the 12th day until the first squeak of the non-ejected chicken,
- fourth the final one ends with a speckling of the shell and the appearance of a chicken in the light.
Strict adherence to the normative indicators of temperature and wet conditions ensures a high survival rate and proper development of the offspring:
- High temperature accelerates the maturation of embryos, which is fraught with the appearance of "overheated" small chickens with an underdeveloped umbilical cord.
- Low temperature lengthens the chickens appearance process for a day and significantly reduces their mobility (maneuverability).
- Significant temperature deviations the chick (embryo) survival rates will be zero.
A similar problem occurs with non-compliance with humidity parameters:
- Low humidity threatens the loss of mass by future chickens and their early nibble shell, as there comes an increase in the size of the air chamber.
- High humidity delays the growth of offspring, leads to the likelihood of skin and beak sticking to the shell.
Before being placed in the incubator trays, the eggs are warmed up to +25 ° C, the mobility of the yolk and the presence of the air chamber are checked with the aid of an over-sight. Next steps:
- The first stage is characterized by the beginning of the formation of the most important organs of the future chicken (embryo). At the same time in the incubator it is necessary to set the temperature +37.8. +38 ° C and monitor humidity in at least 65–70%. These indicators remain the first three days.
- On the fourth day we reduce the temperature to +37.5 ° С, and the humidity to 55%. Two or three times a day, observing equal time intervals, it is necessary to change the position of the egg (turn it), but not earlier than 4–5 hours after laying the eggs. These actions will help avoid sticking the embryo to the wall of the egg and, as a result, its death.
- At the end of the period, ovoscopic eggs should show a pronounced vascular grid covering 2/3 of the yolk. The rejected eggs are removed. To facilitate the process of revolution in the shell put icons, notes.
In the second stage, the body of the embryo reaches a sufficiently large size, a skeleton appears, the first claws are born, the beak, allantois closes in the sharp end of the egg.
The temperature should be maintained at +37.6. +37.8 ° С, humidity - 55%. Moisture drops during this period can kill embryos. The position of the eggs change at least twice a day, observing uniform intervals.
Optimum humidity is achieved using a tank with water installed under the trays. For the speedy achievement of the required moisture parameters, a piece of material is placed in the water.
During this period, the embryo is covered with feather plumage, and the claws are covered with a stratum corneum. The intense formation period uses all the protein, and the yolk sac is drawn in. The temperature remains within +37.2. +37.5 ° C. By day 14, humidity rises to 70%.
The active metabolism of the third stage requires air circulation, therefore the ventilation of the incubator takes 5–10 minutes of time, 2–3 times a day (we observe equal periods of time).
After 18 days, ovoscopy is performed. The germ should occupy most of the space, and the air chamber - only 30%. The necks of the born chicks are elongated and directed toward the blunt end of the chamber. The thin squeak of chicks is heard. Ovoscopic chicken eggs at different stages of embryo development
The final fourth stage begins with an easy breakthrough of the airbag film. At the same time, the temperature of the incubator is maintained at about +37.2 ° C, the humidity is gradually adjusted to 78–80%. The incubator is ventilated twice a day for 10–20 minutes.
Eggs are not subject to change of position, and an extremely permitted space is established between them. Squeak of chicks serves as an indicator of their health. Gentle and calm testifies to the normal condition of the chicken. Loud and heavy signals unsatisfactory.
Three strokes to a healthy chick are enough to pierce the shell. The first breath and open eyes help the baby get out of the original house. Newborns are left in the incubator until dry, then transferred to a brooder or entrusted to the hen.
Hatched chickens are inspected and carefully selected. For further development, chickens are active, responsive to sounds, covered with bright down with glitter, having clear weakly protruding eyes, a small beak and a soft stomach with an umbilical umbilical cord. Weak unstable youngsters with obvious signs of deviation from the norm kill, because they are deprived of the chance to become viable.
- low quality eggs
- non-compliance with the incubation regime.
Modes of incubation of chicken eggs: video
How to incubate chicken eggs: reviews
incubated this year about 35 eggs. the luminaries on day 7 on the ovoskop, sifted aside the fruit. During the entire incubation, the pace was 37.8-37.9 g C. C. The insect was of one breed - from 19 eggs there were 6 empty (68% fertility), in the second - from 17 eggs 7 were empty (59% fertility). 10 chickens were bred from the first breed of laid eggs (77%), 9 chickens (90%) were bred in the second breed. the result of the hatch is more than satisfied, considering that 77 and 90% of the chickens were bred from the laid eggs. the implant was not satisfied. incubator from Vinnitsa - THERMAL 60 with manual overturning, adjusting temp by means of a mercury thermometer and a screwdriver.
Selection and preparation of the incubator
There are several types of incubator, they differ in the number of cells and automation. In a small farm, where the bird is bred only for his family, you can use a manual incubator for 50-100 eggs. When purchasing such a device, you need to be ready to turn each egg up to 10 times a day and monitor the microclimate yourself - there is no automation in the handheld device.
Mechanical incubators are more complex apparatus, some are equipped with automation. Such an incubator will require a little less personal attention. Turning the entire tray, rather than individual testicles, is faster and less common.
Automated incubators are used for breeding domestic eggs for sale, as well as in industrial plants. The choice of models with different numbers of cells, from 50 to several thousand. Trays turn over automatically, at all stages the exposed level of humidity and temperature is maintained - all figures are displayed on the board.
Before starting to lay the incubator must be washed, disinfected and dried. Next, set all parameters and conduct a test switch on for a day or three. It is important that the device is kept away from the windows in order to eliminate drafts. The surface must be flat so that the incubator is stable.
Preparing eggs for bookmark
It is necessary to select the eggs that are suitable for laying. Key points to consider:
- the absence of cracks, dents and irregularities in the shell,
- blunt tip thickness - 2-4 mm,
- the content should be transparent
- the yolk with clear contours should be in the center of the egg,
- the absence of spots on the shell and blood clots,
- shelf life - no more than 6 days,
- storage temperature - 12-15 degrees.
Attention! Inspection of eggs should be done with the help of an ovoscope. When radiography is clearly visible all the flaws. If it is missing, you can inspect the egg on the glass, highlighting the lamp or lantern.
It is advisable to use eggs that are torn down during the daytime. Before laying the eggs, rinse and disinfect with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. It is important to maintain a balance of temperatures so that there is no condensate in the incubator chamber. To do this, the raw materials before laying should be carried to a room with a temperature of about 22 ° C. In order for chickens to appear in the daytime, it is better to make a bookmark from five to ten in the evening.
Chick breeding periods, stage control
For successful breeding of chickens, it is very important to observe a strict regimen. This is especially true for incubator temperature and humidity. There should be no sudden changes in temperature, increase or decrease outside the established norms.
The maximum temperature in the incubator, at which the embryos develop normally to 43 ° C. At other values, the chick may die. Matters and source of heat. If it is directed on all sides, the temperature should be no higher than 38.3 ° C, if only from the top - up to 40 ° C.
The schedule of stages, the required temperature in the incubator in all periods, the number of inversions in the process of development of chickens are set forth in the table below.
Attention! Optimal observance of the conditions specified in the table allows deviation of 1-2 points, except for the duration of the stages. The number of airing depends on the type of incubator, you should carefully study the instructions.
Description of the stages
At the first stage it is important to turn the eggs regularly; the chicken usually does this every hour. After seven days from the beginning of the bookmark, the first inspection-scanning should be done. At this time, the formed blood vessels of the future chick are visible. They should be evenly “stretched” over the egg, not look like a “spot”.
In the second week, the bone mass and organs are formed in the chicken. At this time, it is important to provide air access, good ventilation and be sure to ventilate the incubator. Do not allow overheating.
In the third period of incubation, it is necessary to conduct two translucencies - on the 15th and 19th day. A healthy chicken at this time takes more than two thirds of the egg. To increase the humidity, which is important at this stage, you can spray the eggs with water. Approximately on the 19th day the squeak of babies is already heard.
At the last stage, the eggs should lie on their side; they are no longer turned over. Gradually a sop occurs, and chicks appear. At this time, it is absolutely impossible to open the incubator chamber and discharge the newborns to a separate compartment. All brood should appear and chicks should be dried. Attention should be paid to the moment of chipping. Strong and healthy crawl out quickly, chipping off large pieces of the shell, the weaker do it with difficulty. The appearance of chickens should occur no later than 25 days.
Incubator - an excellent device for breeding healthy chicken offspring. The principle of its operation is not complicated, but it is very important to clearly fulfill all the conditions at each stage of the development of chicks, especially the optimum temperature in the incubator.