About the preparation for harvesting, pricing policy for agricultural crops tells the head of the Main Department of the agro-industrial complex of the Lviv Regional State Administration 54-year-old Mikhail Kozhushko.
What crop is expected in Lviv?
“This year, Western companies are working in the region, and they have been keen on growing rapeseed. Therefore, we will have over-harvest of this culture. In the Busk and Zolochiv districts, rapeseed was sown more than foreseen by scientific justification. Most of the crop will be exported. Unfortunately, Ukraine has not yet formed a regulatory framework for the processing of rapeseed to biodiesel. We do not have a domestic market for these products. But growing rape is very profitable. Spending 1.5 thousand hryvnia for the production of tons of rapeseed, we get 3 thousand hryvnia profit. Despite such positive forecasts, no one will sow plots with rapeseed. Regarding buckwheat, its crops increased by 63 thousand hectares compared to last year. Much of the crop will be processed in the area. Sown areas of sugar beet decreased from 22 thousand hectares to 15.5 thousand hectares. Because only two sugar factories remained in the market in the region, in Radekhov and Zolochiv. Lviv produces enough sugar raw materials for its own food market.
Under the 2008 harvest, 274.9 thousand hectares of grain were sown in all categories of farms, which is 35.3 thousand hectares more than in 2007, of which 140.2 thousand hectares of winter crops and 134.7 thousand hectares of spring grain. At the same time, the gross grain harvest should be within 661.3 thousand tons, which is 50.3 thousand tons more than 2007, with a yield of 24.1 centners per hectare.
What is the situation in the price market?
- We predict a better harvest than last year. Food prices would have to decrease. Now at the world level gross grain production is increasing. Yet a deficit of 3-4 percent remains. Ukraine is ready to limit grain exports this year. In my opinion, this circumstance will allow maintaining a constant price for bread. The Ministry of Agrarian Policy has defined the so-called minimum prices for bread. It can be predicted that the price of third-grade food grains will fluctuate between UAH 1,400 and 1,600 per ton. And this despite the fact that the minimum purchase price set by the Cabinet - 1251 hryvnia. To avoid fraud by intermediaries, we have increased the amount of grain in the state fund. The government has allocated an additional billion hryvnia. For this money, you can buy about 14 percent of the grain through the agricultural fund.
Will the weather affect the preservation of the harvest?
- Now we are working on the organization of the grain drying process. This is a nationwide problem. As the problem of delivery and transportation of grain. Looking at the situation and the current environmental conditions, it is possible to predict that the harvest has a chance to drag on. We are currently preparing warehouses. To date, in the area of 12 slides, seven are certified. Two of them are ready for the adoption of grain, five need to be improved.
"DSA canola is a pledge of the harvest"
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The unofficial interpretation of the yellow-blue flag in Ukraine over the years, under the influence of doing business in the domestic agricultural sector, is changing somewhat.
Cultivation of rapeseed in Ukraine is a very difficult and risky undertaking, that is why we want to give you some tips on how to reduce the risk and level possible losses.
Downshifting for rapeseed
“Correctly define the meaning of words, and you will free the world from half of misunderstandings,” Rene Descartes advised almost four centuries ago. Unfortunately, no one is in a hurry to use this clever advice. And misunderstandings continue to occur. For example, on the issue that actually means the words "patriotism" and "legitimacy" in a particular country of Eastern Europe.
We will not touch the politicians and the humanities. What they are talking about is very often impossible to measure or check. But the ambiguous, and even frankly erroneous interpretation of the terms, is found in other industries. In those in which the results of the work materialize not in sound vibrations and abstract figures, but in quite tangible physical objects. Which can be measured, weighed. And even taste it, which is typical for agriculture.
In crop production, special retardants are used to grow cereal crops and winter rapeseed. The name of this group of drugs comes from the Latin. retardo - “delay”. Perhaps that is why many of my friends are confident that the main function of retardants is inhibition of growth processes. Say, they "slow down" growth, "stop" development, etc. In fact, their purpose is quite different, and the slowdown in the growth of the aerial parts is one of many plant responses to processing. In order to understand the essence of the issue without using difficult to pronounce scientific terms, it is worth making another short digression from the topic of the article.
On the Meaning of a Fashionable Term
There is no worse lie than misunderstood truth.
In the relatively calm and boring recent past (about 3-4 years ago), the words “downshifting” flashed on the pages of magazines. It almost had nothing to do with its original meaning - the English term “downshifting”. And it was related to the leisure of citizens who have a good passive income (for example, from renting an apartment in the capital) and who do not have the desire to strain themselves. Therefore, this very income was spent on living in the style of hippies wherever it may be in Goa, or another similar place. Ideologists and popularizers of such a way of life even wrote little articles, such as “Living in low gear”.
But downshifting is temporary shifting to a lower gear, not driving in a low gear! And the purpose of this movement is not braking followed by movement in the “turtle” pace, but overtaking in difficult conditions! “Everything is not only not so simple, but simply not so”, as L. Leonidov used to say. Downshift — fast shifting down one or two gears in order to increase engine speed and put it into mode somewhere between maximum torque and power. That is a kind of "jerk" to use the maximum power of the car on a bad road.
The use of retardants is a kind of “downshifting” when growing rapeseed. In the autumn period, the growth rate is important, but until a certain point, after which it is worth puzzling with power at the expense of speed. After all, the favorable conditions of the growing season end in late October-mid-November, and then - winter ... which can be not only cold, but also snowless and windy.
It is believed that for a successful wintering by the end of the autumn growing season (when within five days the temperature does not exceed 2 ° C), the plants should form 6-8 leaves. The diameter of the root collar should not be less than 8-10 mm, and its height - not more than 8-10 mm. It is worth paying attention not only to the “tops” but also to the “roots”, since it is necessary that the root system be sufficiently deep (at least 250 mm) and branched. Rapeseed, which in optimal terms formed such a socket and a root neck, can withstand temperatures up to -16 ..- 18 ° C. In the presence of snow cover 2-4 cm thick, a short-term decrease in air temperature to -23 ... 25 ° C is also not dangerous.
To obtain the optimal parameters of plant development, it is planned to sow at certain times in each specific region before leaving in the winter. It is usually advised to sow in the presence of moisture at a depth of 3-4 cm, approximately 100 days before the onset of frost. In this case, by the way, one should take into account the growth rate of sown varieties or hybrids. Hybrids, as a rule, are distinguished by more intensive rates of autumn development and higher cold resistance compared with varieties. Therefore, it is recommended to sow hybrids about two weeks later than varieties.
What cannot be corrected should not be lamented.
As Helmut Moltke wrote, "No plan survives a meeting with an adversary." Flawless plans with accurate calculations of the optimal sowing time often fail to withstand unpredictable weather conditions. Even for traditional rapeseed growing areas in theoretically “correct” sowing times in the upper soil horizon, the required amount of moisture is often lacking. Therefore, under production conditions, the actual sowing time significantly deviates from the optimum. That is, they sow either very early or too late. The result of predictability does not resemble the arrival of a train on a schedule, but a win in the lottery. But it is better to rely on the probability of success than to give up the attempt.
An elderly Jew prayed to God all his life, begging himself for a big win in the lottery. Every day he regularly offered a prayer with this request, until he finally got God to the end. Once again, he appeared to him and begged: - Haim Abramovich! Well, give me at least one chance! Buy at least one lottery ticket!
In the early stages of sowing is carried out after rain, so that there is enough moisture to get the seedlings. Such an approach usually justifies the hopes of getting friendly shoots, but it has negative consequences. A long growing season can lead to overgrowth of plants, which sometimes have time to grow to the phase of planting. Winter rape plants continue to grow and develop at a temperature of + 5 ° C even after the onset of autumn frosts. During the growing season late in the fall and during the winter thaws, the efficiency of photosynthesis is extremely low, therefore, previously accumulated carbohydrates are consumed by the plant for the formation of additional biomass and respiration. By the way, for a normal overwintering, winter rape plants should contain 18% or more sugars before leaving for the winter. Overgrown plants, the tissues of which contain a lot of water and few reserve nutrients, are easily damaged by frost. Therefore, they have almost no chance of surviving in a harsh winter. Especially often this problem occurs when sowing in the early stages of rapeseed hybrids with intensive autumn development. According to German scientists, rape cane stalling can occur when the sum of effective (over 10 o C) temperatures is more than 500 o C, and in varieties, according to domestic practitioners, stalling occurs when the sum of effective temperatures is more than 650 o C. So the outcome is quite possible. about which the famous pirate (and now little-known poet) Walter Raleigh wrote:
All that I bought at the cost of so much torment,
What once erected on such a scale -
Hesitated, burst out of hand,
Collapsed and turned to dust!
In late sowing, the situation is also not optimistic. Late seedlings do not have time to form the required number of leaves on the plant. And since the number of leaves before leaving in the winter determines the number of stems on the plant, this, as a rule, leads to a decrease in yield. In addition, underdeveloped plants do not have time to accumulate in the growth points a sufficient amount of sugars, which significantly impairs their cold resistance. And accordingly, they cannot count on a successful overwintering. The minimum phase of entry of rape into wintering is four to five true leaves, the degree of development of the leaf blade is 50-60% of the norm, the diameter of the radical neck is 5-7 mm. The probability of a successful wintering of crops in a relatively mild winter is about 60-70 percent. Poorly developed plants of winter rapeseed with a rosette of 4-5 leaves and a length of the main stem of the root up to 15 cm may die already at a temperature of -13 -14 ° C, therefore after a severe winter such crops will be thinned.
With late sowing, varieties definitely lose to hybrids, which nevertheless can manage to prepare for the coming winter thanks to intensive autumn development.
There is also a third variant of sowing for the most risky lovers of the “agricultural lottery”. It is rapeseed sowing in dry soil, with the hope that it will rain anyway. In this case, the seeding rate increases by almost 2 times (up to 1.5-2 million seeds / ha). And if you are suddenly lucky with rainfall, then the crops are thickened, and if they are not lucky - thinned. Moreover, thickened shoots are often more problematic than thinned ones. As the permanent lodger of the mausoleum stated during his lifetime, “It’s impossible to live in society and be free from society.” The same is true for agricultural crops, because the plant is affected by its neighbors of the same class, genus and species.
Many recommendations suggest using a seeding rate of 50 to 60 viable seeds / m 2 for late sowing. This is quite normal for varieties, but not modern winter rape hybrids. For hybrids, the optimal seed rate can be considered as 40 seeds / m 2. In conditions favorable for obtaining friendly shoots, it is enough to sow 35 seeds / m 2. At such a seeding rate, the rows do not close until the end of the autumn vegetation.
After the rows are closed, the plants begin to stretch upwards and compete with each other for light. The seedlings are drawn out and the root neck is carried high above the soil surface. Which, naturally, reflects badly on the winter hardiness of rapeseed plants.
A man in a white coat enters the ward and asks:
- Sick, your height?
- Meter 60, doctor.
- I'm not a doctor, I'm a carpenter
It turns out a very interesting picture. We sow early, sow late, sow in dry soil - and in all cases we have problems with over-wintering of seedlings. Overgrown, under-grown, thickened and thinned plants do not stand up to the harsh winter. The situation resembles the well-known expression about the uprising of one very successful revolutionary (the one in the mausoleum) “yesterday — early, tomorrow — late” ...
Progress is not an accident, but a necessity.
But not everything is so hopeless if you help the plant from the outside. Moreover, thanks to chemical scientists, there are means to help lagging behind, and to restrain the pace of overly “hasty” plants.
A good driver skillfully uses not only gas and brakes, but also a gearbox. The biologist is also aware that in addition to coarse methods of stimulating or inhibiting the growth by analogues of phytohormones, there are several more accurate methods for influencing the plant organism. Therefore, he can “slow down” and “accelerate” a plant by combining the already mentioned analogues of “brake”, “gas” and “gearbox”.
Plant growth and development are regulated by growth hormones (phytohormones): auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, ethylene and other less well-known members of this “orchestra” of phytohormones. It is not for nothing that I called the set of phytohormones an orchestra, since each phytohormone is activated during certain periods, as if instructed by a conductor's baton. Moreover, the activation of various combinations of phytohormones causes a variety of effects, depending on the number of "participants" and the "contribution share" of each of them. All these substances interact closely with each other, forming a complete hormonal system of the plant.
The conductor of the orchestra receives a note after the concert: “I am not a sneak, but that red-haired uncle with a mustache beats the drum only when you look at it!”
The general form (architecture) of a plant is determined by auxins and cytokinins, as well as gibberellins. Auxin shoots suppress the growth of lateral buds (apical dominance), whereas cytokinins overcome this dominance, causing branching. Auxins contribute to the formation of roots and determine the adaptive curves of the plant in accordance with the direction of light or the gravity vector (photo- and geotropism).
The most typical action of gibberellins is to stimulate the growth of the stem by stretching the cells. Gibberellins activate the apical meristem, and the cereals also intercalary (intercalary).
The vegetative growth of winter rape plants is determined by the interaction of these three phytohormone groups. They seem to "stretch" the plant up, down and horizontally.
Unnecessary autumn gibberellin
Crime needs surprise, good work - time.
What will happen if we temporarily “turn off” the work of one of the groups of natural growth regulating substances in conditions favorable for vegetation? The total growth vector will change.
If you block the action of gibberellin, "pulling" the plant up, the vector of growth direction will shift down and sideways. That is, the root system (thanks to auxins) will develop much more intensively, and the aerial part due to all the same auxins in combination with cytokinins will not grow upwards, but in breadth.
The final result will look like this: a powerful deep branched root, a compact rosette of leaves crawling along the ground, a thickened stem.
The orchestra tried three times to play Tchaikovsky, but all the time “Seven Forty” came out.
But this is not all the consequences of "turning off" gibberellin. With a high content of gibberellin, the content of chlorophyll in the leaves of plants treated with gibberellin decreases. Гиббереллин тормозит образование хлорофилла в листьях растений на свету и способствует его разрушению в темноте. Соответственно, уменьшение содержания (временное блокирование) гиббереллина автоматически приводит к увеличению содержания хлорофилла. А это соответствующим образом влияет на фотосинтез и накопление столь необходимых для успешной перезимовки углеводов.
Гиббереллин увеличивает интенсивность дыхания растения. Как правило, усиление дыхания сопровождает индуцируемое гиббереллином ускорение роста, причем источником энергии служат углеводы. That is, those substances that the plant could accumulate to overcome the cold weather. There is evidence that gibberellin helps to reduce the viscosity of protoplasm. Temporarily “turning off” gibberellin, it is quite possible to increase the carbohydrate content in the cell sap and “thicken” the protoplasm. The thicker the contents of the cells, the more frost-resistant they are, so it will be useful for the plant to add its own “antifreeze” to the cell sap.
In conditions of sufficient water supply, plants with a high content of gibberellin are characterized by increased intensity of transpiration. That is, they consume a lot of moisture. If the level of this phytohormone decreases in a plant, the coefficient of transpiration decreases, which is very appropriate in the conditions of a dry autumn and possible drought. Reducing the moisture content in plants also increases their frost resistance..
Thus, blocking the action of gibberellin not only makes the above-ground part of the plant more compact, and the underground part more powerful, but also helps to reduce the consumption of moisture, the accumulation of carbohydrates and the thickening of protoplasm. That is, comprehensively prepares the plant for the coming cold weather.
Things are easy - to help the plant from the outside.
Retardants: a bit of history and chemistry
Slowly, but true.
In order for gibberellin not to interfere with the plants preparing for winter, it can be blocked. And it is quite possible to solve this problem in different ways.
The flow of annoying or offensive words can be stopped by shutting the speaker’s mouth, or you can just plug your ears. What is in the first, that in the second case, you can not hear what you do not want to hear. The same variety of methods is possible in the fight against the clearly inappropriate gibberellin.
In the middle of the last century, retardants were discovered. This is a group of substances of different chemical structure, combining the ability to shorten and thicken the stem, stimulate the growth of the root system and ensure the best development of reproductive organs.
Some retardant substances inhibit gibberellin biosynthesis, simultaneously increasing the activity of abscisic acid and cytokinin. Others bind gibberellin without affecting its biosynthesis. Others increase the synthesis of ethylene, which delays the differentiation of tissues, activates the processes of destruction of cellular structures and accelerates cell aging.
The retardants used in agriculture are divided into three groups:
1. Braking synthesis of gibberellins based on:
a) chlormequat chloride (CCC750, stabilan, etc.),
b) trinexapac-ethyl (moddus, perfect, calma), prohexadione Ca (messidor),
c) derivatives of triazoles (dv.paklobutrazol, uniconazole, triapentanol, flurpyramidol, tebuconazole, triadimetafon, metconazole).
2. Reducing the activity of gibberellins due to the production of the hormone ethylene. The most known active ingredient of ethylene producers is ethephon (cheron, etc.).
3. The combination of inhibition of the synthesis of gibberellins and the production of ethylene — a combination preparation based on mepiquat chloride and ethephon (suffered).
On crops of winter rape, drugs of the first group are used as retardants.
In 1950, the drug AMO 1 618 was tested as a retardant. It refers to quaternary ammonium salts. It showed pronounced retardant properties, but was distinguished by a very narrow species spectrum of action. The most popular chlorophenol chloride retardants, mepiquat chloride and chlormequat chloride belong to the same chemical group and are still used, mainly in cereals. Their action is based on blocking the inclusion of mevalonic acid in the kauren molecule (the precursor of gibberellin in plants), that is, they block the synthesis of gibberellin. On average, the duration of their action is 2 weeks from the time of treatment. These substances inhibit the physiological action of gibberellin synthesized in the plant until retardant treatment. They act reliably, but roughly. Therefore, when used in high doses, they can show phytotoxicity, acting as a growth inhibitor. That is why, by the way, in Germany these dv are not recommended for use on winter rapeseed.
In Western Europe, retardants from the triazole group have been used to process rape from the early 1990s. The high effectiveness of the retardant action in low concentrations, low toxicity and the absence of negative side effects distinguished them favorably from quaternary ammonium compounds. Their action is softer, but longer.
Triazoles block the gibberellin biosynthesis at three stages of the biosynthesis of this phytohormone, which allows to achieve a tangible effect with a relatively low norm and completely eliminates the phytotoxic effect on the culture. In addition, many retardants from the triazole group have a systemic fungicidal action. Therefore, the processing of rapeseed crops provides the effect of "two in one" - and the retardant effect, and the control of fungal diseases. It should be noted that “many” are far from “everything”, therefore the fungicidal effect of such D.V. as paclobutrazole or uniconazole is clearly insufficient. As for metconazole and tebuconazole, the treatment with preparations containing these ae. in the autumn period helps to cope with Alternaria and fomozom.
Along with blocking the biosynthesis of gibberellins, triazoles alter the hormonal balance of the plant as a whole, which causes a variety of physiological effects. As a result, shortened and thickened stems are formed, plastic substances are redistributed between the stem and reproductive organs, and the structural elements determining the yield are formed more intensively. These drugs stimulate the accumulation of assimilants, reduce the moisture content in plants (which increases their resistance to frost), stimulate the development of the root system in general and root hairs in particular.
Most popular dv triazole groups used as retardants:
1. Tebuconazole. In preparative form (500 g / kg) - drug Retardin, as well as in the form of ke. (250 g / l) - Folicours and countless number of its generic copies,
2. Metconazole. In preparative form in its pure form - the drug Karamba k. e (60 g / l), and also in a mixture with mepivachloride - the drug Karamba Turbo ke. (metconazole 30g / l + mepiquat chloride 210 g / l)
3. Paclobutrazole. Drug Setar ks (difenoconazole, 250 g / l + paclobutrazole, 125 g / l),
4. Propiconazole. Preparation Tinazol ke (propiconazole, 250g / l).
About terms and norms
As usually happens, the best seemed to be those measures
time for which was irretrievably missed.
Use of retardants should be carried out in advance. The optimal phase of their introduction is a rosette of 4-5 leaves. If the leaves are more than 7-8, then, as a rule, the use of retardants does not provide the desired effect. The plant is already “overclocked” and in order to redirect its development in the right direction, you have to use a “stop-crane” - an increased dose of retardant. The above-ground part of the plant stops growing up after such an intervention, but the growth of the plant in other directions after such stress also stops. And, the most annoying thing is that by this time the root neck already has time to “jump out” 1.5-2 cm above the soil surface, which is no longer correct.
With a long warm autumn, it is quite possible to use growth regulators twice: the first time in the phase of 4–5 leaves, the second - 7–8.
— Each antipyretic tablet lowers body temperature by one degree. So, if you take 36 pieces, then it will drop to zero?
- Judging by your logic, it is clear that you are an amateur, in medicine such arithmetic does not work, but in the final result, oddly enough, you are right.
Due to the double treatment, crops are protected against fomoz and other diseases. The first treatment protects only the leaves formed at the time of the treatment, while the leaves that appeared later do not have sufficient fungicidal protection. The second treatment with triazole preparations covers a vulnerable place in the defense of the plant.
It is advisable to combine the second treatment, especially with a deficit of boron - with
foliar dressing with boron (not less than 150 g / ha). Boron is necessary for normal growth and development of plants, besides boron enhances the effect of fungicides against fomoz (prevention of root hollowness).
If the rapeseed is in the stage of four developed true leaves, the root diameter of the plants is about 4-5 mm, is it worth processing it? Especially if the calendar is already the second half of October?
Practical experience confirms the appropriateness of such processing. Of course, the rate of use of retardant drugs when this is chosen is minimal. After all, the task of processing is not to stop the growth of the above-ground part up (it is already small), but to ensure an increase in winter resistance from other retardant effects. Such as thickening of the protoplasm of cells, accumulation of carbohydrates, compaction of leaf tissues, stimulation of root growth.
In late underdeveloped crops, it is advisable to combine the introduction of a retardant with foliar feeding. In favorable weather, foliar dressing can be carried out with 5-6% urea solution with a consumption rate of 20-30 kg of fertilizer in physical weight per hectare. Water-soluble phosphate fertilizers (1.5-2 kg / ha Fresh Phosphorus, for example, can be added to the same tank mixture). ), as well as preparations of complex boron compounds for foliar application (1 l / ha Majestic Bor).
If the plant has more than four leaves, the diameter of the root collar is more than 5-6 mm, the color of large leaves is dark green and the rows begin to close, then such crops should be treated with retardants unconditionally. If you miss the moment of closing the rows, the plants will begin to reach up. At the same time, the root neck is pulled out. With all the negative consequences for winter hardiness of crops.
Retardants, like most growth regulators, work well in clear sunny weather, that is, when conditions are most favorable for plant growth.
The effectiveness of retardants depends on the intensity of plant growth (the higher the growth rate, the more effective the “work” of the preparations), the air temperature (the higher the temperature, the higher the retardant effect and vice versa) and the application rate.
When choosing a drug and application rates, you should rely on air temperature during the treatment period and for 5–10 days after it. The application rate of retardants depends on the temperature regime: the lower the average daily temperature, the higher the application rate.
If the illumination intensity is high and the night temperatures are moderate, the consumption rate of tebuconazole preparations may well be reduced by 10–20% of the standard recommended. In cloudy (rainy) and cold weather with low light intensity, the flow rate should be increased to an acceptable maximum.
In the phase of 4-6 leaves of a culture, the recommended application rates of tebuconazole preparations (Folicur, ke, Retardin ke) are from 0.5 to 0.8 l / ha, metconazole preparations (Karamba ke, Karamba Turbo) . K) from 0.7 to 1.25 l / ha, paclobutrazole (Cetar, cs) from 0.3 to 0.5 l / ha. If tebuconazole is used in the form of sp. with a content of d. in 500 g / kg Retardin sp.), then the application rate of the drug will be from 0.3 to 0.4 kg / ha.
If the phase of 4-6 leaves came relatively early (mid-September), then it is worth re-processing. Moreover, the first, that the second treatment should be carried out low (not higher than the average recommended) norms of drugs. In the 4-5 phase of the rapeseed plant, they even react violently enough to the addition of 0.3 kg / ha of Retardin, c.p. or 0.5 l / ha Retardin ke. Repeated processing in two or three weeks simply “fixes” the result, contributing to the accumulation of carbohydrates and the prevention of diseases.
Wife gets on the scales. Husband smirks, looking at the arrow:
- Do you know how tall you should be to fit your weight?
- Well, and what?
- Two and a half meters!
If the deadlines are missed, and the weather conditions do not please with heat and light, then processing of overgrown plants in the phase of 7-8 leaves should be carried out with maximum doses of retardant preparations.
The way of instructions is short, concise and convincing is the way of examples.
When working with retardants you cannot use ready-made templates. A scientifically based application strategy points the direction, but cannot give a specific recipe for a particular field in each situation. So without some creative approach is not enough.
In order to avoid gross errors, it is necessary to take into account a number of axioms of technology. So:
1. The use of retardants is necessary when getting early shoots, especially when thickened sowing and favorable growing conditions (high moisture, mineral nutrition and heat),
2. The optimal processing phase of rapeseed plants is the formation of a rosette of 4-5 leaves. Treatments in the later phases of development provide only a partial effect.
3. In case of late emergence, it is not necessary to abandon processing by retardants. The use of drugs in medium or minimum rates on crops in the phase of 4-5 leaves for a couple of weeks before the end of the growing season significantly increases the chances of a successful wintering of plants.
4. Retardants change the hormonal balance of plants and require conscious, careful use. The rates and terms of introduction must necessarily be adjusted for the characteristics of the variety / hybrid and weather conditions.
5. It is necessary to take into account the optimum temperature conditions and the limiting temperature limits (minimum and maximum) of the use of retardants,
6. The worse the conditions for the growing season of the crop, the worse the retardants work. And vice versa. Therefore, in cold cloudy weather, it is worth using the maximum rates of preparations, and in sunny and warm you can “save” 10-20% of the norm.
7. With sufficient moisture and average daily temperature above 23 ° C, it is recommended that treatment with any preparations be carried out in the evening.
8. retardants from the group of triazoles are well mixed with a majority of herbicides (a.i. hizalofop- n-ethyl-p-hihalofop tefuril, clopyralid, picloram), insecticides (pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and FBF) as well as fertilizers for foliar application. This allows the use of "wide-grip" tank mixes for the simultaneous solution of issues of protection, nutrition and regulation of plant growth. But in the preparation of multicomponent tank mixes, it is worthwhile to check the components in the working solution for compatibility.
Despite the abundance of hidden pitfalls in the technology of using retardants, they allow at least something to be independent of nature. And do not worry about the fact that rape seedlings appeared either too early or too late. “Do not waste your nerves on what you can spend money on,” L. Leonidov advised. And if you don’t want to waste your nerves, wondering if overgrown rape will survive or not, then you can spend a certain amount of money on retardants.
Alexander Goncharov specifically for "Infoindustrii"
Growing rapeseed in Ukraine
Growing rapeseed in Ukraine - is it profitable or not?
Is rapeseed needed in Ukraine (or Ukraine)?
What are the prospects for the development of this direction?
In general, let's talk about rapeseed.
Master said: 06/30/2010 20:30
The rapeseed market in Ukraine is developing spontaneously, without any systematic and well-thought-out state policy. The result is known to all: rapeseed in Ukraine has been declining in recent years.
Unfortunately, nothing optimistic can be said about the Ukrainian market on a national scale. But lately, it seems to me that there is a popularization of rapeseed production.
Koschey said: 06/30/2010 20:41
Philosopher said: 06/30/2010 21:51
In particular, processing plants are also included in the rapeseed processing process for rapeseed oil. Over the past 2-3 years, 8 large oil-extracting plants were engaged in the production of rapeseed oil: Vinnitsa and Chernivtsi SWC, Pologovsky and Melitopol oil-refineries, Nezhinsky ZhK, Nikolaev Ekotrans, Kernel and Creative. I would also like to note that this is the composition of enterprises that traditionally processed only sunflower.
In consequence of this, I would like to note that in principle there was production, and auxiliary processing plants will be able to retrain using their technological base.
Well and the main thing that there was a demand for products.
Alexa said: 07/01/2010 01:07
Master said: 07/01/2010 19:52
90% of rapeseed grown in Ukraine is exported, and the main market for it is the European Union (up to 90% of deliveries). EU Directive 2009/28 / EC “On the Promotion of the Use of Renewable Energy” of April 23, 2009 introduced new rules on raw materials for the production of biofuels, which in particular is rapeseed.
This document regulates a number of environmental issues, as well as establishes additional requirements for crops - raw materials for biofuels produced in the European Union - in particular, there are requirements for certification of raw materials.
Philosopher said: 07/01/2010 21:50
Due to the fact that the European Union is currently seeking investors for Chernobyl in about 1.5 years, about 30 business development projects have been proposed for the territory. In particular, 3 priority business ideas were chosen - brick production, wood processing and rape growing.
Касаемо выращивания рапса, то его планируют выращивать в Иванковском районе Киевской области недалеко от Чернобыльской зоны.
Вот таким способом можно развивать социально-экономический потенциал Чернобыльского региона, который в большинстве случаев рассматривается только с точки зрения безопасности, а теперь еще и экономического развития.
Магистр said: 16.07.2010 17:50
Сообщение пресс-службы Министерства аграрной политики:
По состоянию на 16 июля аграриями собран рапса на площади 534 тыс. га (836 тыс. тонн при средней урожайности 15,7 ц/га), к уборке запланировано 913 тыс. ha of this culture.