Podzimnaya planting vegetables - not a fad spoiled by the warm climate of the southerners. Even beyond the Urals, you can practice this type of landing. True, the autumn sowing of vegetables and herbs has its own subtleties, but for the sake of an early harvest you can work hard.
What are the pros and cons of the autumn planting of vegetables, how to prepare the ridges, choose the seeds and what to look for in the spring to get a crop without unnecessary trouble?
How to prepare beds for podzimny planting vegetables
The preparation of ridges plays an important role in the process of podzimny sowing. After all, only high-quality, reliably protected beds with nutrient soil can be a decent protection for the seeds that have to endure the winter under the open sky.
For planting vegetables, it will be better to choose high beds, but if you are not a supporter of their devices, conventional ones, well-protected by perimeter boards, slate, polycarbonate or other material, will do. Such a fence will not allow spring waters to wash away the crops and will keep the snow on the ridges.
To place your landings stands on the most sunny and elevated place, where the snow melts first in the spring. However, if you have such a place is in open space, take care of wind-proof structures, for example, install shields on the windward side. If there is a little snow in your region, do not forget to prepare in advance a layer of spruce branches or other mulch that will replace the snow layer of your beds.
As when sowing flowers for the winter, the ridges need to be prepared in advance, as long as the temperature is above zero. Weed the soil, fertilize it with a low nitrogen content (AVA, Autumn, diammophoska, nitrophoska), draw a flat cutting angle or a rake on the seed furrows 3-5 cm deep, and then cover the line with a film to avoid over-wetting. In separate bags, stock up a substrate for mulching landings (garden soil with peat and sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 1), and wait for frosts.
When a stable negative temperature is established, sow the seeds 1.5–2 times more than the norm, cover them with prepared soil, and then mulch with a spruce, spunbond or healthy leaf litter. Shelter thickness should be about 15 cm, but remember that light leaves can be smashed around the area by wind, so they need to be fixed.
Watering the autumn crops is not necessary - spring melting snow will be enough to water the seeds with moisture.
Hello, dear readers!
Passed summer has passed, the harvest is gathered, garden works are almost finished. The restless and beautiful autumn has quietly crept up.
It's time for the start of the next season to enjoy in the spring the first gifts of our garden. After all, every summer resident knows how there is not enough free time in the spring - every hour is expensive.
So why do not we ease the spring work and not to sowing in winter our favorite vegetables and flowers.
- Sowing in the winter suitable for cold-resistant crops. These are those plants whose leaves do not have pubescence (the edge of the leaves protects the plants from heat).
If these species are planted in spring, they will sprout after a month.
Thanks to the subwinter seeding, we gain time — the seedlings of our winter-hardy vegetables will appear earlier (by about 2-3 weeks), which means the harvest too.
Seeds planted in the fall will undergo winter hardening and vegetables grown from them will tolerate frosts better.
Sowing in the winter - for and against
Why do we need autumnal troubles? Maybe all leave in the spring?
Well, no, after correctly picking up and correctly making the sowing in the fall, we will get a lot of advantages:
- Frost-resistant plants will ascend together, they are stronger and more durable.
- Vegetables derived from such crops are more attractive in appearance.
- In the spring, we will free up more time for ourselves (after all, some varieties will already be safely planted / planted).
- Considering that the crop of sowing for the winter is going to be 2-3 weeks earlier, you can have time to grow early-ripe types of vegetables in the vacated beds.
But is everything so perfect? Of course not. Sub-winter sowing has "pitfalls".
After all, it is not always possible to guess what the winter and spring will be like. If the winter period is delayed, the soil is compacted, which inhibits the success of seedlings.
Yes, and determine the exact timing of seeding is quite difficult. The modern climate is an unpredictable thing, winter may suddenly descend, or it may “delight” gardeners with slush.
Therefore, there is a risk of freezing or too early sprouting of seeds, which will die at the first freeze.
But these unpleasant surprises can be smoothed and reap a great harvest.
To do this, you need to know some of the nuances of the podzimnogo seeding. We will tell about it.
So, seven competent steps of this event:
Step 1. Choose the "winter tenants" garden
What to sow in the winter? There are a lot of cold-resistant cultures:
- Carrots (Incomparable, Nantes 4, Moscow Winter, Vitamin 6, Shantane 2461). The carrot fly is not terrible for the carrot underwinter (it is not damaged by it). Sowing carrots under the winter gives larger and enriched fruit with vitamins.
- Beetroot (Egyptian flat, Cold-resistant 19, Moscow winter, Podzimnyaya 474, Losinoostrovskaya 13).
- Head lettuce (Berlin yellow, Red).
- Turnip (small variety varieties: Danilovsky 312, Myachkovsky, Strigunovsky).
- Spinach (Victoria). Spinach is not afraid of cold at all. Fresh greens can make you happy with the harvest even in winter (it is harvested from under the snow).
- Dill (Gribovsky).
- Garlic (violet-striped).
- Parsley (Ordinary leaf, bordovik root sugar).
- Pasternak (Student, Round). In such a culture, the seeds are able to lose their germination very quickly - the podzimny sowing will make parsnip only good.
- Radish (Resistant, Rose-red).
- Luk (Ellan, Bessonovsky, Stuttgart, Arzamas, Strigunovsky, Danilovsky, Myagkovsky 300). Onion sets, especially small ones (up to 1 cm in diameter) are very difficult to store until spring, it just needs to be planted for the winter.
Suitable for sowing under the winter cumin, fennel, sage, katran, mustard salad, rhubarb, sorrel, cress, horseradish roots, Chinese cabbage, borage (borage), corn, sunflower.
Have you ever planted flower seeds before winter? So by all means try, because their autumn planting has its advantages - hardening of plants, better seedlings, good growth, resistance to diseases and weather conditions.
Sow under winter can be the following annuals: alissum, aster, cornflower, godetziya, iberis, kadendula, kosmeya, poppy, nigella damask, escholzia, clariki, amaranth and some others.
From perennial flowers, seeds of such crops as gailardia, doronicum, Carpathian and peachy bells, Lychnis, laureate, carnation, chamomile, Obriet, aquilegia, delphinium, primrose, yarrow, arabis and others are suitable for sub-winter sowing.
Step 2. Choose a place
We need fast-drying areas in the spring, fairly flat in relief, with good drainage and high-fertile soil.
These should be warm, elevated zones with a slope to the south, protected from cold winds by dense fences or trees.
Choose places where heavy snow does not accumulate. In the spring it will melt for a long time and may flood the crops.
Council If the selected site is located in the lowland (or with high groundwater), make the beds raised (30-40 cm tall). Ideally, the height of the beds should be up to 15 cm (except for sandy soils, sandstone beds are made slightly higher).
Step 3. Determine the timing
It is better to be late with sowing before winter than to hurry. The main condition for such seeding is that the plants do not grow in autumn.
The best period of the dawn landing is when the ground temperature drops to + 3 ° С (at a depth of about 5 cm), when warming is no longer expected.
At the same time, the air temperature should be about 0 ° С. The most optimal time: a week and a half before the onset of cold weather.
- Under the conditions of the Central Non-Black Earth Region (European part of Russia), this period begins in mid-October and lasts until the beginning of November (in the northern regions two weeks later, in the south from mid-November to early December).
It is very important not to miss these days; it is during such a period that the seeds embedded in the winter will not be able to germinate in the fall and will wait in the beds for spring to come.
If you hurry - the seeds will begin to germinate in the autumn and will die with the onset of cold weather.
Step 4. Prepare the beds
Soil we need to prepare in advance, even in the warm season (September-October).
For sowing under the winter more stringent requirements are imposed on the soil than in spring sowing.
♦ Ordinary bed. We will use it for sub-winter seeding in the southern areas of vegetables and herbs:
- After harvesting, the soil must be thoroughly dug, large lumps of soil should be broken.
- If it was very dry, pour the earth. Water will wake sleeping weeds, and they will make themselves known.
- Completely clean the soil from weeds.
- Add fertilizer (humus, peat, or compost).
- Cultures that are resistant to cold, like a loose soil, so we need to add to the ground additional baking powder (sawdust or sand). Baking powder mixed with fertilizer.
- Level the ground well with a rake.
- Make grooves to a depth of 1-10 cm (depth depends on the type of plant).
♦ A warm bed. Its arrangement practically does not differ from usual.
With only one difference, that from the trench we need to remove the soil and lay a layer of 30-40 cm manure (goat, horse and sheep).
Pour fertile soil over it at a height of 20-30 cm and water it very well.
Then prepare prepared grooves.
- Bleeding natural components will abundantly supply the earth with heat and create the most comfortable conditions for sowing before winter.
Seeds can be planted in the already frozen frost, covered with fresh ground from above.
For this, preserve the soil in advance. Prepare and mulch (spruce branches, deciduous twigs).
Mulch we will cover the beds on a layer of about 15 cm at the onset of cold weather.
In the spring, the mulch is removed immediately after the snow melts (if it is not removed on time, shoots will be too late and rare).
Council If you are just starting to develop a new plot, take one bed for the podzimny planting, the rest will be planted with green manure until spring.
Step 5. Seed preparation
Seeds for winter sowing are used absolutely dry (otherwise they will begin to germinate ahead of time).
They are sown in prepared beds and covered with a layer of 1.5-2 cm of peat, compost or fertile soil.
- Many gardeners advise the use of seeds coated in clay tablets. You can experiment with such seeds, because the clay capsule will serve as additional protection of seeds from hungry rodents.
How many seeds do you need? Opinions are divided here. You can hear from experts that when sown before winter, the number of seeds should be increased by 30-50%.
But there is the opposite assertion that an excess of seeds will oppress their fellow tribesmen. Therefore, the most optimal solution is to sow the seeds in the usual amount (as in spring).
The trick of an experienced gardener. If you did not manage to sow the seeds before the first snow, they can carry out the original stratification:
- After the arrival of steadily cold weather, pack the seeds in linen bags and dig into the ground to the depth of a spade bayonet.
- At the end of the winter period, remove them, dry them and plant as usual (spring sowing).
Thanks to this method, the seeds will receive additional hardening and they will not be afraid of various diseases.
But this method is acceptable only for parsnip, carrot, cumin, katran, onion (of any kind), lovage, fennel, parsley, dill and tomatoes.
The remaining cultures do not need stratification.
Step 6. Sowing for the winter
On lightweight soils, seeds need to be embedded half a centimeter deeper than you do in spring (given the layer of mulch).
Mulching is a must - it is a guarantee of seed safety in the cold and getting good and friendly shoots in the spring.
Consumption of mulch up to 4 kg per square meter. The depth of seeding depends on the type of plant:
- Celery: its seeds are very small, therefore, when sown, they are only sprinkled with compost / peat. If the seeds deepen into the ground - they may not germinate.
- Beets, parsley, dill: 2-2.5 cm
- Onion sets (bulb diameter up to 1 cm): 3-4 cm.
- Black onions, dill: 1.5-2 cm.
- Leek: 8-10 cm.
- Carrots: 1-1.5 cm.
- Spinach: 2.5-3 cm.
Council If unexpected snow falls, do not be discouraged. Simply scoop it up and sow before winter, sprinkling the seeds with fertile soil, peat, or compost. They will wait out the cold.
Carefully place the seeds on the prepared, frozen ground and sprinkle with warm soil.
Lay a layer of mulch over it. Watering the crops is not necessary - in the spring, awakening plants will have enough melting snow.
Moistened seeds in autumn can swell up and die in the cold.
The nuances of podzimnii seeding of various cultures.
♦ Celery. A fragrant vegetable needs very loose and humus-enriched earth. It is necessary to sow it for the winter in bright, open areas.
We dig up the soil by 25-30 cm. It is necessary to plant seeds according to the scheme 45x10 cm.
♦ Beet. Nutritious beetroot will be well mastered in such areas where fertilizer with organic matter did not occur for 1-2 years. Beet loves mineral supplements.
So that our beets grow healthy, become intensely colored, plant them for the winter in bright places, with a deep presence of preferred waters.
- If the waters are located close to the surface, make beds of about 25-30 cm in height for it. Avoid clayy, too oxidized soils. You can get rid of excess acidity by adding ash, chalk, lime or dolomite flour to the soil.
Beets will feel good after pepper, potatoes, tomatoes, onions and cucumber.
We dig up the soil by 25-30 cm (at the same time add potash-phosphate fertilizers, ash and humus).
But sowing under the winter for beets should be carried out a little later than other crops (late October-early November). Leave a distance between seeds of 7-8 cm. Between rows about 25-30 cm.
In the people there is a sign on which it is best to plant beets for the winter - after the leaves fall from the cherry.
To further protect the planting from frost, cover it with fallen leaves, sawdust or pine needles, powder it above the snow (all this should be removed in the spring as soon as it begins to thaw the snow).
Immediately after this, add the nitrogen fertilizer to the beetroot and cover it with a film (remove it after the first shoots appear).
♦ Carrots. This "vitamin factory" really needs fertile soil, so use more peat, humus or compost.
For her, loamy, floodplain soil, weakly oxidized or neutral, will be ideal.
If the ground is heavy - add sawdust (necessarily dilapidated). The site must be protected from the wind.
- Avoid carpets with slopes for drowning carrots. Flood water will easily wash away the seeds of the plant in the spring.
Planting carrots for the winter is carried out in late November, in a slightly frozen ground.
Immediately before sowing, add superphosphate (if the land is depleted, apply nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of 15-20 g per m²).
The soil is dug up to a depth of 25-30 cm. After sowing in the winter, seeds of carrots are covered with earth at a height of 1-1.5 cm, and peat / humus is placed on the top 2-3 cm in height. The distance between the ridges, leave 20-25 cm.
♦ Bow. Onion crops like places where carrots, cucumbers, potatoes or tomatoes used to grow.
When you prepare the soil for the subwinter seeding onion crops, use mineral and organic fertilizers.
Beds under the bow make a meter by two.
- Bow "on the turnip." The seeding depth is 3-5 cm, the distance between the seeds is 10-12 cm.
- Bow "on the feather." Plant the bulbs with a distance and a depth of 2-3 cm.
- Onion sets Land at a depth of 5 cm, with a distance of 15-20 cm.
For additional soil enrichment, before sowing in winter add ½ bucket of humus and ¼ of sand bucket.
Onion crops love space, so plant them in a checkerboard pattern. After planting, the ground should be compacted, and with the onset of cold weather, sprinkle with sawdust, and additional dry branches should be laid on top.
As soon as the onion has made itself felt the first shoots, it must be fertilized.
Use superphosphate (30-40 g / m²). Add potassium chloride (10 g / m²) during bulb formation.
In the warm spring it should be watered 2-3 times weekly (consumption 5-10 l / m²).
As soon as the onions matured, the watering stops.
After 10-14 days, it should be carefully dug, cleaned from the ground and left on the garden for 1.5-2 weeks.
Then tie it into braids or cut dried feathers 3-4 cm from the bulb.
Store our onions should be in a dry room at normal, room temperature.
♦ Garlic. Garlic winter crops are planted with bulbs (bulbs) and cloves.
Garlic needs a neutral, very loose soil, with deep soil waters.
Garlic suitable places after cabbage, tomatoes, cucumber, pumpkin, pepper, eggplant.
- You can not make garlic sowing under the winter in areas where in the current year they applied manure - the plant can provide abundant tops and looser heads.
Зубчики более крупного размера углубляют в землю на 5-7 см.
Чеснок бульбочками высаживают за 3 недели до наступления холодов, воздушные луковицы помещают в грунт на 2-3 см. В междурядьях оставляют расстояние 20-25 см.
Для посадки чеснока под зиму грунт следует обильно удобрить компостом (15-20 л на м²), перед самой посадкой добавить золу (1-1,5 л на м²). Или калийно-фосфорное удобрение (15 г/10л воды на м²).
Если почва вашего участка слишком тяжелая – внесите песок. Для мульчирования лучше использовать опавшие листья или еловый лапник.
Шаг 7. Что делать весной
In early spring, as soon as our first sprouts appear, we thin the plants. If shoots appeared too early, beds can be covered with agrofibre or greenhouse film.
- Agrofibre is more successful in the use of sowing under the winter, as it is perfectly breathable (you can not be afraid of unnecessary overheating) and this shelter does not require the installation of the frame.
In the future, we need only to clear the planting of weeds and water our future harvest.
Sprouts can be fertilized with organic fertilizers. If you notice that the shoots are rare and there are significant subsidence, the plots can be sown.
Very often, podzymny seeding is combined with further spring planting.
Council Predict good germination, we will not succeed. If until May you did not notice the activity of the podzimnii seeding, conduct a duplicate sowing. In the south, successful / unlucky wintering can be judged already in early April.
Be wary of voracious moles! Protect your landings against them with repellent pellets, smoke bombs or ultrasonic barriers.
The remaining pests and diseases do not threaten our early shoots.
The problem can be made by a malicious aphid, but almost always flashes of its activity occur at the time when the harvest is already safely formed.
Now, dear readers, you know how to carry out the wintering of plants. Maybe these activities will seem to you very risky.
But this is not entirely true if you carefully consider these simple landing rules and diligently carry them out.
Do not be afraid to experiment! Plant at least a couple of beds for winter and you will see how much easier it will be for you in spring.
And now I propose to watch a small video on this topic.
Before winter, you can sow onion sets, chernushka, leeks, onions, garlic, carrots, radishes, beets, parsley, celery, fennel, spinach, sorrel, dill, cress, parsnip, coriander, rhubarb, Arugula, leaf lettuce, mustard salad, cucumber, red, cauliflower and Peking cabbage.
However, it should be remembered that vegetables grown under wintering, not suitable for long term storage. In addition, sometimes beets, carrots, radishes and onions of autumn sowing can be shooted. Yes, and to guess how early the winter will come, how cold it will be, and whether a strong thaw will occur in January-February is also very difficult. However, if in your region, early frost and thaw in the middle of winter occur infrequently, you can safely practice podzymny planting vegetables.
Which areas are suitable for subwinter seeding
Subwinter crops are sown on hillocks and southern slopes, where in spring the soil warms well and dries quickly. Areas that do not melt water are suitable. In addition, the beds should be protected from the wind.
If your garden is in a lowland or the groundwater on it lies close to the surface, you will have to arrange beds raised above the soil level by at least 15-20 cm, but it is better to grow underwinter vegetables on the beds raised to a height of 70-80 cm.
Site preparation for sowing
Sow vegetables in a light, fertile land, which is prepared for sowing in advance - back in September. Humus or compost is scattered over the surface, after which the soil is dug up with fertilizer and watered. Watering is necessary in order to go to the growth of weeds, which you must remove from the site before the wintering of the podzimniy.
Make a 1-4 cm deep furrow on the beds (depth depends on the crop being sown), the depth of the grooves for leeks should be 10-15 cm. You also need to prepare a fertile soil mixture, with which you will cover the grooves, and place it in storage in a warm barn.
Sowing seeds before winter
As for the preparation of seed, it does not need it. The main condition for podzimnogo sowing: the seeds should go to the soil dry.
The technology of autumn sowing is no different from the procedure of spring sowing. After sealing the grooves with a nutrient soil mixture, the area is mulched with a layer of peat, sawdust or humus 6–8 cm thick. You can cover the beds with leaves or spruce leaves. Landmarks, twigs up to 20 cm high, are installed in the center of each row: they will help you to orient in the spring during the first loosening of the row spacing, which is carried out even before germination.
When spring comes
To accelerate the melting of snow in the spring, sprinkle the surface of the beds with peat or ash. When the snow melts, you will need to carefully remove the mulch and cover the garden bed with a transparent plastic wrap so that the soil warms faster. With the onset of heat and the emergence of shoots, they are first fed with a solution of urea at the rate of 20 g of fertilizer per 1 m² plot, and after two weeks full mineral fertilizer is applied to the soil in the plot.
Leaf parsley rises already at +2 ° C heat. Her shoots freely tolerate temperatures up to -9 ° C. But the seeds germinate unfriendly, so the subwinter seeding is more beneficial for it, especially in the southern regions. It allows parsley to gain time and begin a more friendly growing season.
The seeding depth is 1–1.5 cm. The distance between the rows is 20–25 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 0.6–1.5 g. Of the varieties, it is better to take those with large leaves - “Kucheryavets”, “ Bordovikskaya, Italian Giant, Breeze, Curly, Ordinary Leaf, Green Crystal, Universal, Astra, Alba, Esmeralda, Pagoda and many others. Sub-winter crops of leaf parsley allow you to collect the first leaves in late May. You can also pay attention to the root varieties: "Sugar", "Russian size", "Needles".
Leaf parsley rises already at +2 ° C heat. © Lovefood
3. Cilantro (coriander)
Good for crops in late autumn and cilantro. Its shoots are not afraid of returning spring frosts and freely survive cooling to -8 ... -10 ° С.
The seeding depth is 1-1.5 cm. The distance between the rows is 25-30 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 5 g. Varieties: Shiko, Yantar, Debut, Alekseevsky 247, Taiga, "Stimulus", "Borodinsky" and others.
It is advantageous to sow lettuce under winter - an early harvest is obtained whether the spring is rainy or dry. The seeds of this culture tolerate low temperatures well, so sowing is carried out with a steady cold snap, when the thermometer's indicators drop to the level of -2 ... + 2 ° С.
The seeding depth is 2 cm. The distance between the rows is 30-40 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 0.6-0.7 g. Varieties: “Big Head”, “Sonata”, “Moscow Greenhouse”, “Vitaminny”, "Gourmet", "Berlin Yellow", "Rhapsody", "Dubachok", "Festival" and many others. The lettuce seeded from autumn is ready for the table already for the May holidays.
Watercress springs up literally in a couple of days and immediately begins to grow rapidly. Therefore, it is impossible to hurry with the sub-winter sowing of this crop - you need to wait for the frost.
The seeding depth is 1–1.5 cm. The distance between the rows is 10–15 cm, and the distance between the lines is 20 cm between the lines, 50 cm between the ribbons. The seeding rate per square meter - 3 g. Varieties: “Broadleaf”, “Narrow-leaved”, “Curly cress”.
6. Mustard salad (leaf)
Mustard leaf or salad is not afraid of frost, it easily tolerates a cold snap to -5 ° C, it must be sown with the onset of the first steady frost.
The seeding depth is 1.5 cm. The distance between the rows is 25-30 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 2-2.5 g. Varieties: Crusted leaf, Zelenolistnaya.
Podzimny sowing of spinach has two terms. The first is in the last days of September. Plants have time to form a rosette of small leaves, which will overwinter under snow shelter. With the arrival of spring heat, they will immediately begin to grow, and within a week and a half it will be possible to pluck the first vitamin leaves from the garden.
The second term is in November-December (depending on the climatic zone), upon the occurrence of stable frosts. In this case, the seeds will turn in the spring time, which is also not bad, since the crop will give an early harvest.
The seeding depth is 3-4 cm. The distance between the plants is 7-10 cm. Between the rows is 15-20 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 4 g. Varieties: “Juliana”, “Victoria”, “Matador”, “Universal , Progress, Shirokolistny, Garant and many others.
Podzimny sowing of spinach has two terms: in the last days of September and in November-December. © Charlie Nardozzi
For sowing carrots, the ground needs to settle down, therefore, the flower bed must be prepared in advance. Sowing dates occur when the thermometer reads around + 2 ... + 4 ° С.
The seeding depth is 3-4 cm. The distance between the rows is 15-20 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 1 g. Varieties: Supernant, Alenka, Karotel, Incomparable, Moscow Winter A 515 , “Zabava”, “Early TSHA”, “Artek”, “Canning”, “Amstardamskaya”, “Vitaminnaya 6”, “Nantes -4”, “Shantane 14” and many others.
Selective harvesting of root crops will start from the beginning of June, but it must be remembered: the carrots sown from autumn are stored worse than during the spring planting, therefore it is better to think in advance about the required volume of production.
It is impossible to hurry with the sowing of beets, its seeds are able to germinate already at +5 ° C, therefore, the sub-winter sowing time must be shifted by a period of steady cooling, - 2 ... - 4 ° C.
The sowing depth of seeds is 3-4 cm. The distance between plants is 5-10 cm. Between rows is 20-30 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is approximately 4 g. Varieties for sowing before winter should be taken exclusively cold-resistant or marked “resistant to bolting ":" Egyptian Flat "," Podzimnyaya Flat "," Darynya "," Podzimnyaya A 474 "," Thekla "," Cold Resistant 19 "," Bordeaux 237 "," Podzimnyaya Incomparable "," Detroit "," Red Ball "and others
The first harvest of root crops from podzimnyh crops of beets can be held in late May-early June. But such beets are stored worse than during the spring planting, so it is better, as in the case of carrots, to think in advance about the required volume of production.
Turnips are sown before the start of sustained frosts, in about two weeks. In the spring, the subwinter seeding allows it to form before the cruciferous flea begins its attack.
The seeding depth is 3 cm. The distance in the row is 10-15 cm, three seeds per nest. Row spacing - 25-30 cm. The seeding rate per square meter - 2 g. Varieties: “Geisha”, “Petrovskaya 1”, “White Night”. The turnip planted under the winter will allow the harvest to begin as early as the end of May and the beginning of June.
The turnip planted under the winter will allow the harvest to begin as early as the end of May and the beginning of June. © southernexposure
More often, podzimny sowing of celery is applied to leaf varieties, and any of them is suitable. But even among the root there is a variety (“Root Gribovsky”), suitable for sowing in the fall.
The seeding depth of 1.5-2 cm. Sowing produce thickened. The seeding rate per square meter is 0.1-0.2 g. Varieties: “Root Gribovsky”, “Apple” and others.
Growing horseradish from seeds is rare. Basically, this culture multiplies vegetatively. But, if seeds, then podzimny sowing is a great choice!
The seeding depth is 2-3 cm. The distance between plants is 30-35 cm. Between the rows is 50-70 cm. Varieties: Valkovsky, Rostovsky, Atlant, Suzdolsky, Latvian.
With leek crops do not hasten. Its shoots are afraid of frost, so the seeds are sown not earlier, when the thermometer starts to show below 0 ° C. Apply the method mainly in the south.
The seeding depth is 1.5 cm. The distance between the plants is 8-12 cm. Between the rows is 30-35 cm. The seeding rate is 2 g. Varieties: “Karantansky”, “Columbus”, “Vesta”, “Winner” and others .
14. Onion sets and nipper
Onions are one of the crops recommended for sub-winter planting, especially in cold climates. This method gives an earlier harvest and makes it higher, since, having early germination, the culture is less affected by diseases and pests. The planting time of the onion sets is two weeks before the steady frosts, and the black onions are on frozen ground.
Ovusyuzhka and the first fraction (onion size 1.5 cm in diameter) - the best choice for podzimny planting, planted according to the scheme of 3 x 15 cm. Sevok (1.5-3 cm in diameter) with 3 onions in the slot, or compacted . Bulbs over 3 cm in diameter are seated according to scheme 8-10 for 15-20 cm.
The depth of planting onion sets is 3.5-4 cm, onion-chernushki - 2.5 cm. It is better to take onion varieties of winter crops: “Danilovsky 301”, “Odintsovets”, “Radar”, “Carmen MS”, “Stuttgartzen Risen” , "Shakespeare", "Myagkovsky 300", "Ellan", "Buran", "Mouzon" and many others. Onions on a feather can be collected at the end of May, a turnip - by the middle of the summer season.
15. Bat onions
Onion batun can be sown in three terms per season, but sowing before winter is considered the simplest.
Depth of seeding is 2-2.5 cm. Distance between plants is 20-25 cm. Between rows is 40-50 cm. Seeding rate is 6-8 g. Varieties: April 12, Gribovsky 21, Salat 35 "," May "and others.
Sowing under the winter onions-batun is considered the simplest. © bejo
16. Onion tiered
Multi-tiered onions are not afraid of cold to -40 ° C, so it is tolerant of cold. But for this to go into the winter he should already have a root system. Therefore, layered onions are planted two weeks before frost.
The onion thickness is 1.5-2 cm. The depth of their embedment is 3-4 cm. Planting is 2-3 lines. The distance in the row is 15-20 cm. Between rows 30 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 0.3-0.5 kg. Grades: “Odessa Winter 12”, “Likova”, “Memory”, “Gribovsky 38”, “Chelyabinsk Super Early” and others.
Winter garlic is planted in two ways. The method of in-depth planting is used mainly in areas with cold climates. It is carried out in the middle of August and implies a 10-15 cm deepening of the teeth. The usual (traditional) method is planted two weeks before a steady cold snap, which means sealing the teeth by 3-5 cm. Its terms are the last week of September, if it is an average band, the beginning of November is in the south.
The distance between the teeth is 10–15 cm. The distance between the rows is 20–25 cm. Winter varieties: Komsomol, Alkor, Messidor, Polessky Souvenir, Spas, Petrovsky, Lyubash, Herman "and many others.
Radish seeds germinate well and at sufficiently low temperatures, for this reason it is impossible to hurry with their seeding, having delayed the landing moment at the end of November.
The seeding depth is 2-3 cm. The distance between plants is 4-6 cm. Between rows is 10-15 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is from 5-6 to 10 g. Varieties: “Beacon”, “Resistant”, “ Carmen "," Spartak "," Jubilee "," Pink-red with a white tip "," Heat "," Dawn "," Gusar "," Teplichny "," Early Crunch "and others. Sown radish podzimnym sowing ready for the table already in early May.
Pasternak is a preferred crop for wintering because of the short shelf life of seeds and rather poor germination. Subwinter crops allow to stratify its seed material and increase germination.
The seeding depth is 2 cm. The distance in the row is 5 cm. Between the rows is 30-35 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 1.5-2 g. Variety: “Round early”, “Best of all”, “Student” .
Sub-winter crops of parsnip increase its germination. © The Spruce
Fennel sown in winter gives friendly spring shoots. However, this culture is thermophilic, because in the fall it is more often sown in the south.
Depth of seeding is 2 cm. Sowing thickened. Between the rows - 60-70 cm. With two-line sowing between the lines, 20-25 cm are left. The seeding rate per square meter is 0.8-1 g. Varieties: Udalets, Leader, Aroma, Autumn Handsome and etc.
Sorrel - one of the most recommended for winter planting. Seed since autumn, it grows earlier and gives off greens earlier. Yes, and approach to such planting almost all its varieties.
Gubin termination 1-1.5 cm. The distance between the rows - 15-20 cm. The seeding rate per square meter - 1.5 g. Varieties: Victoria, Bellevilsky, Spinach, Krupnoereshkovy and many others.
The sub-winter planting of potatoes is not traditional, however, it takes place, since at a depth of 10–15 cm, the tubers tolerate a drop in temperature to even -10 ° C. With this method, the tubers are selected weighing 100-150 g. They are planted without vernalization. Landing time - the first night frosts, when in the daytime the earth is still thawing.
Planting method - twin beds to set in the spring over the rows of the arc. The width of the beds is 70 cm, the distance between the beds is 80 cm, between the rows in the bed is 45 cm, between tubers 25-30 cm. The depth of seeding of tubers is 15-20 cm. Planting in a checkerboard pattern. Grades: Zdabytok, Nevsky, Luck, Lorch, Asterix.
Grades: “Early steadfast”, “Stone head 447”, “Gako 741”, “Early Red”.
Grades: "Monterey", "Laser", "Calabrese", "Caesar", "Gnome", "Lucky".
Grades: "Otechestvennaya", "Movir 74", "Guarantee".
Grades: Khiva 5.
The seeding depth of cabbage seeds is 1.5-3 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 0.1-0.2 g.
In addition to these crops, you can sow asparagus, arugula, rutabaga, borage, chard, rhubarb for the winter.