Lavender: description and types
Lavender has a rather discreet appearance: a green, matte stem, covered with foliage, an arrow of small purple flowers. The height of an evergreen plant is from 20 cm, and the diameter of an ordinary lavender bush is not more than 40 cm.
This shy girl is not immediately noticeable in the garden, but if not by her appearance, then everyone will recognize it by the smell of lavender. The warm, rich and slightly tart smell of lavender attracts both beneficial insects (honey bees) and sophisticated aesthetes-gardeners.
Lavender has the following properties:
- medicinal (has anti-inflammatory effect, soothes, relieves headache)
- decorative (used for decoration of landscape zones)
- cosmetic (organic supplement for skin and hair care products)
Features of the use of lavender depend on its type, which number about 30. The difference between them in color, size of inflorescences, stem height and leaf shape. Some of the species grow only in certain places, and most - on all continents and continents.
The most common types of lavender:
Narrow-leaved lavenderor real. The peculiarity of this species is in high frost resistance and fast regeneration. The narrow-leaved lavender does not require special conditions for cultivation and easily takes root on any type of soil.
Broad lavender has a brighter scent, and the stem produces not one, but three arrows of inflorescences.Lavender cog - decorative, "dwarf" view with bright colors and silver figured leaves.
French lavender germinates only in the open field, transplanting into a pot is contraindicated. Small flowers are almost lost on the background of large leaves, which makes this type of lavender an ideal material for hedges.
Dutch lavender - This is a hybrid species bred by crossing broad-leaved and narrow-leaved relatives.
How to choose a place for growing lavender
When planting lavender in your garden, you need to take into account some of the nuances that directly affect the quality of flowering and the survival rate of the plant as a whole.
Lavender is very sensitive to acids, so peat soil does not suit it. The ideal option would be a porous, loose soil with a low level of acidity. But if your site is not possible to create such conditions for the plant, how to sprout lavender? Regular application of wood ash or lime will make the soil more fresh, and with the help of organic fertilizers you saturate the soil with nutrients.Wetlands or soil with highly flowing undercurrents are not suitable for lavender. In a humid environment, this evergreen shrub fades and then dies. But if there is no other place, then with the help of drainage layers it is possible to reduce the level of soil moisture and create favorable conditions for the cultivation of lavender bushes.
As for illumination, lavender can grow in both shady and sunny areas. But in the second case, the lavender will delight you with bright inflorescences and a spicy scent, and in the first case - the look and the aroma of the plant will be very dull.
Evergreen Planting Rules
Under favorable conditions, lavender grows well and willingly multiplies. Seating of already formed shrubs can be done both in spring and in autumn, the only condition is sunny weather and moderate watering. In the autumn, the plant will report its “readiness” for transplantation with a hardened stem, and in spring, with swollen buds.
Before planting lavender in the open ground, pour a hole 5–8 cm deep and leave to “steam” under the covered film for about 3-4 days, periodically watering the ground. Then, having dug a bush with a clod of soil, detach the desired part of the bush with the root and place it in the prepared hole. During the rooting period, lavender should be watered often, but not overdoing it.
Loosening and dressing soil
It is important to monitor the soil in which lavender grows. In a loose, oxygen-rich soil, the plant grows better and produces more beautiful inflorescences.
Lavender responds well to top dressing: it quickly absorbs fertilizer and very soon comes to growth and color. Both organic stimulants and mineral complex fertilizers are suitable for it.
How to cut lavenderLavender bushes have a rather chaotic shape, and in order for your flowerbed to look well-groomed, from time to time it is necessary to prune the crown of the plant.
The rules for pruning depend on the type and growth of the bush, but there are a number of requirements common to all types of lavender:
- trim the inflorescences after the first flowering,
- do not affect the stiffened pillar of the plant, and cut only the young shoot,
- maximum length of the cut-off part - no more than 5 cm.
One of the simplest and most effective methods of reproduction of lavender bushes is grafting. For him to prepare the soil for planting and collect planting material.
Young shoots cut from an adult bush are used as cuttings. The optimal length of planting material - 10 cm, so long shoots can be cut into several small cuttings.
Ready for planting soil - it is loosened, oxygenated land, generously watered with water. It is in such a soil that you need to place the finished cuttings, sprinkle them with earth and pin down at the base.
The best time for planting horticultural crops in open ground is the first months of summer. At the end of the season, the cuttings will take root, and it will be possible to plant them at a permanent place of flowering.
For the period of rooting the plant needs a large amount of moisture, drought will destroy even the strongest cuttings.
Growing lavenderThe question of how to plant lavender seeds is relevant. If there is no adult shrub from which cuttings can be cut, the seedling method is the only option!
After buying the seeds of lavender need to harden, for this they are placed in a bag of sand and sent to the refrigerator for 1.5-2 months. This procedure should be done in early January, so that by March the seeds were ready for planting in the ground.
By the time of disembarkation, it is necessary to prepare pots or boxes, fill them with soil to half. Seeds together with sand are poured into the soil and sprinkled with the rest of the earth with a thickness of not more than 5 cm.
The seed box is covered with a film or glass and placed in a dark place for 1.5 weeks. When the lavender germinates, the container needs to be rearranged to a room with a temperature of +15. + 22 ° C, waiting for the shoots to become strong, prepare the bushes for landing in the ground.
Lavender takes root well, endures cold and heat. It will be a real decoration of any garden.
Secrets of growing lavender on the window
For a long time, it was believed that it was simply impossible to grow lavender in a pot at home. Unlike other indoor plants, as previously thought, it is not adapted to such an existence. In fact, the flower takes root indoors, if you carefully monitor the temperature and properly care for it.
To grow a lavender in a pot, you must fulfill these conditions:
- Capacity for planting plants should be about 2 liters.
- The diameter of the pot - at least 30 centimeters.
- Drainage of fine gravel or nutshell is laid on the bottom.
- The soil should be alkaline in nature.
Even with the fulfillment of these requirements, indoor lavender pleases the flowers of its fans for a short time.
As soon as the root system of the plant feels the bottom of the pot, it must be transplanted. Otherwise, the lavender will stop growing, start to hurt and eventually die.
In order for the roots of the flower to gain access to the air, it is advisable to leave a hole at the bottom of the pot free. Drainage is better to settle carefully and carefully, and not in bulk. In addition, the plant needs feeding, which is occasionally carried out with special fertilizers. As a result, a lavender in a pot will appear at home to the delight of indoor plant lovers.
Basic rules for the care of the southern beauty
When lavender grows in the dacha, it is a common sight. Delicate and cute flowers of blue or purple conquered the hearts of many gardeners. But they do not want to part with them for a long time, so they grow them in houses on windowsills. The flower amazes not only with its magnificence, but also with a pleasant smell emanating from the buds. So proper care at home for a lavender in a pot benefits not only the plant, but also a lot of pleasant moments for its fans.
Growing a flower indoors is fundamentally different from caring for it in a flower garden. On the street, lavender successfully survives under the shade of bushes or trees. Even if it is watered only occasionally, it pleases gardeners with its flowering for a long time. Lavender care in a pot requires much more effort and attention.
We provide comfortable conditions
Many people call the blue mountain flowers - a charming guest from the south. Therefore, for successful plant growth, it is important to observe the following conditions:
If there is not enough sunlight in the house, the flower will starve and eventually die. On average, lavender needs a bright light for 6 hours. Do not risk the life of an exotic flower, for the sake of experiment.
When transplanting plants into a larger pot, prepare a suitable substrate consisting of one part of humus, sand or gravel and two parts of sod land. First, the plant container is moisturized abundantly so as not to damage the roots of the flower during transplantation. Together with the earthy clod, lavender is transferred to another container, where it continues to develop successfully.
In order to obtain a loose soil, ordinary soil is thoroughly mixed with sand and a drainage is located at the bottom of the pot.
With proper care of lavender, the main thing is not to overdo it with watering. The heat-loving plant does not need constant soil moistening. Otherwise, it will be pulled up, the leaves will first brighten, then wilt, and "goodbye lovely lavender." In view of this, it is desirable to water the plant no more often than once every 7 days. In the period of high humidity the gap between irrigation can be increased up to 10 days. The best option is to water with the full drying of the top layer of the earth.
Pledge successful growing lavender - the right choice of landing site. Most of all the plant will like open areas well lit by sunlight. Bushes will take root in the shade, only rich and prolonged flowering will not be possible.
The roots of the plant are sensitive to high levels of soil moisture. Therefore, it is worth refraining from planting lavender in wetlands and areas where groundwater is too high. If there is no other option, you can try to build a hill and plant bushes on it. Excess moisture near the roots can be easily removed with a drainage layer.
As a pot culture, you can grow any kind of lavender
Lavender demandingly applies to the level of acidity and soil structure. Therefore, if in doubt, it is better to play it safe - before planting, add a little wood ash or lime to the soil. These are effective soil deoxidizers. And to ensure the porous structure of the soil, it is sufficient to regularly make compost on the bed. It not only loosens the soil, but also adds nutrients to it.
Features of planting lavender
Planting lavender - responsible process. Adult bushes do not tolerate the transplant, if you have to do it, then carefully and only with a voluminous clod of earth. It is better to immediately determine where the bushes will be located, grown from seeds, cuttings or cuttings.
The distance between adjacent instances should be approximately equal to their maximum height. Then the bushes will be lush. And to get a slim green hedge, we cut this parameter in half. So you can achieve maximum solidity block plantings.
Lavender borders are great
Lavender cuttings take root pretty quickly. The planting algorithm is simple: deepen a couple of centimeters into the loose soil mixture, cover with foil and regularly moisten the soil. Rooted cuttings carefully dig and transplant to the selected location.
Layers are rooted branches of a plant. To obtain planting material should be bent in the spring of one of the lower shoots to the side. The place of contact with the ground level to fix and sprinkle with soil. When a lump of roots forms, carefully cut off the layers with a sharp knife. Place the cut to sprinkle with crushed coal to protect from the processes of decay. All - layering ready for landing.
You can choose lavender saplings of various varieties in our catalog, where various online stores present their products. Choose lavender seedlings
Sowing Lavender Seeds
Lavender is difficult to propagate by seed. But if it is not possible to purchase an adult plant or twigs, you can also try sowing seeds.
Lavender can be propagated by seed.
A very important stage is stratification. Lavender seeds must be kept for some time at low temperatures. Here you can go two ways: put them in the end of the fall immediately into the ground or carry out an artificial stratification. The first method is suitable only for warm climatic zones. With significant frosts, the seeds may die. Therefore, it is better to stop the choice on the second option.
For artificial stratification, the seeds must be mixed with a small amount of sand, poured into a container, wrapped in polyethylene and refrigerated. Withstand them there no less than six weeks. Better - longer. In this case, the seedlings will appear faster. Then you can sow the seeds in boxes (at the end of winter) or in greenhouses on the street (at the end of spring).
When sowing seeds wait flowering will have a whole year. In the first seasons, the seedlings will only grow, increasing the root system. And only a year later, and maybe even two, they will delight the gardener with pretty spikelets-inflorescences.
You can choose lavender seeds in our catalog, where the products of various online stores are presented. Choose lavender seeds
Lavender, grown from seeds, will bloom only for 2-3 years. Photo from botanichka.ru
Processing soil near the bushes
Lavender does not like dense soils. Her roots really need good air circulation. In addition, of course, you need to get rid of pests next to lavender. Therefore, loosening the land and weeding should be a regular procedure.
You can do it easier - to organize a good mulch layer on the bed with lavender. As a mulch, you can use rotted foliage or decorative multi-colored substrates. But in any case, near the base of the trunk, the ground should remain uncovered. This will save the plant from rotting.
It is necessary to water a lavender very carefully. Abundant irrigation can lead to rotting of the roots and yellowing of the aerial parts of the plant. Drought also reflects badly on the plant - lavender will not perish, but the flowering will not be as luxurious as we would like. The ideal irrigation mode - as the soil dries.
Pruning lavender bushes
This stage of care for lavender can not be called mandatory. But only pruning can achieve the formation of beautiful lush bushes. Therefore, do not abandon the useful procedure.
The first pruning should be carried out immediately after the spikelets-inflorescences wither. Shorten shoots need literally a couple of centimeters. At the end of the warm season, more cardinal pruning is carried out. But here, too, should not be excessive enthusiasm. If you shorten all the branches to the level of the woody part, the bush may die.
As fertilizers for lavender mineral complexes are perfectly suited, which are sold in all garden and flower shops. They should be made at the beginning of flowering. Concentration - 2 tbsp. spoons on a bucket of water. The resulting solution to shed the soil around the perimeter of the bushes.
Nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for the development of green mass (2 tablespoons per bucket). Therefore, they are indispensable at the beginning of the growing season. But in the second half of the summer their use is prohibited. Under the influence of nitrogen, the growing season is significantly extended. As a result, the plant does not have time to prepare for wintering.
The use of fertilizers can be completely abandoned if there is a thick layer of compost under the bushes. Decomposing under the influence of external factors, it will supply nutrients to the plant throughout the season.
Types of lavender
Many associate lavender bushes with a constant purple color. In fact, shades of different varieties conquer diversity. There are instances with blue, white, pink and even greenish colors. And this is just the main palette. And the shades of inflorescence spikelets even more. But the coloring is not the only difference between different varieties of lavender.
According to the generally accepted classification, there are two broad groups: english and french.
Английская лаванда – обладательница узких листиков и удлиненных колосков-соцветий. Стоит отметить, что именно этот вид получил наиболее широкое применение. Такие сорта спокойно зимуют в средней полосе, не нуждаясь в выкапывании поздней осенью.
Французская лаванда - more capricious plant. Outwardly, it resembles the previous species, but its leaves are wider and its inflorescences are shorter. Traditionally used as a pot culture. After all, even slight frosts to -15 ° C can instantly destroy the plant.