The content of the article:
- Agrotehnika when grown at home
- Self-propagation rules
- Pests and diseases, methods of dealing with them
- Interesting Facts
Maple (Acer) was previously included in the family of the same name in the Maple family (Aceraceae), but today it has been moved to a family named Sapindaceae (Sapindaceae). This plant can take both tree and shrub forms and most of the maple species are common in Europe, Asia and North America. However, there are species that grow not only in the temperate zone, but can settle in the tropics and even in the southern hemisphere there is one such species - the Acer laurinum. Naturally, in our latitudes, we are well acquainted with this attractive model of nature, but do we have a lot of loans about it?
The family itself includes up to 150 species, but only 20–25 species can be grown in Russia. The name of these plants received due to the form of foliage, sharp ends, which have become common terms, as "maple" in Latin means "sharp." Basically, maples rarely form full-fledged forests, but can be placed in small groups or grow completely alone.
The height of the plant, if it has a tree form, varies within 10–40 meters, but if the maple grows like a shrub whose branches originate from the base of the stem, its height will reach 5–10 meters. Most of the species are deciduous representatives of the flora, but only a few species that grow on the territory of South Asia and the Mediterranean never lose their deciduous mass - they are evergreen.
The leaf plates are mainly located oppositely on the branches, and in a large number of members of the family they are palm-like (that is, they have a tactile shape). On each of the blades can be counted from three to nine veins, with a mandatory central. And only in some varieties of maples leaves have a complex-palar form, and also complex-pinnate, pinnate venation or generally devoid of blades can be found.
When flowering on the plant buds are formed, characterized by five symmetrically-placed petals. Of these flowers are collected racemose, shield or umbrella inflorescences. In the flower there are five sepals and the same number of petals, the length of which varies in the range of 1-6 mm. Inside it grows 12 stamens 6–10 mm each, a pair of pestles of various kinds. The location of the ovary is higher, and it possesses a pair of carpels. It is their wings that will then begin to pull out of the flower, and make it clear what sex the flower is - with them it is female. The maple flowering process occurs at the end of winter or early spring, but most of the varieties begin to produce flowers after the appearance of the leaves, and in some they are formed before them.
The color of flowers varied, there is a green, yellowish, orange or red hue. Their size is very small, but there are so many that, from a distance, it seems as if the whole tree is covered with flowers. The nectary has the shape of a flat ring and it is placed between the petals and stamens. In a variety of Norway maple, this formation extends to the ovary and stamens are immersed in it with their bases.
When fruiting, the fruit is ripening, called the two-winged dragon, it is made up of a pair of identical parts, and when it falls, when ripe, the rotation begins. In this case, the seed is carried away to a considerable distance from the parent tree. The ripening of the fruit occurs after flowering for 2–6 weeks. Maple is a fairly unpretentious plant and even a novice gardener can handle it.
Agrotechnics when growing maple at home
- Purchase maple seedlings. The acquisition time of such a plant is the end of September or the beginning of October. The leaves on it should be without wilting. Root system without damage or defects.
Landing The maple tree is held on a bright place, but in the first year of life, shading should be organized from the direct midday rays of the sun. A pit for planting is prepared 14–20 days before the operation so that the earth settles in it. Used for filling, the same ground from the fossa, but mixed with humus. The size of the hole should be 70 cm in depth and 50 cm in width. If a hedge is formed, the distance between the seedlings should be 1.5–2 meters, but with a single planting it is 2–4 meters. A maple seedling is planted in the hole so that the root neck is flush with the ground surface. After it is moistened, the soil can settle down to 20 cm in a natural way. If the site has groundwater close to the soil surface, then a drainage layer of expanded clay or crushed stone is laid at the bottom of the landing pit.
Fertilizers for maple contribute once a year. If the planting is done and there is a nutrient substrate in the fossa, then there is no need to feed such a tree, and next year make superphosphate, potash salt and urea.
The following rules are required to make your tree happy with its beautiful fur crown:
- Regular soil moistening - in spring and autumn, only one watering is performed, but it is sufficiently abundant (up to 15–20 liters of water under one tree). In the summer heat, it is recommended to carry out weekly watering, and if the specimen is still young, it should be watered with twice the volume of liquid.
After watering the substrate in the wheel circle is loosened.
- It is recommended to remove weeds in a timely manner.
Rules for self-reproduction maple tree
You can get a young maple plant by sowing seed, grafting or grafting.
Seeds before stratification are stratified — for up to 2-3 months they are placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator at a temperature of 5 degrees. Then they should be soaked in hydrogen peroxide for 3 days, and only then planted in the prepared soil. It should contain humus, garden soil and river sand in the proportion of 4: 2: 1. The landing is held at the end of April. The seeds are immersed 4 cm in the substrate and after 20 days you can see the first shoots. It is recommended at first to prune seedlings from the rays of the sun, regularly water and loosen the soil in the pot. For a year, such plants reach a height of 80 cm. The transplant is carried out for the first time after a year, but 3-year specimens are more viable.
Cherenok in late summer or early fall. Twigs are cut to a length of about 25 cm, the cut is carried out at an angle. On the handle leaves a couple of leaves, but they are cut in half. Then the branches are placed for a day in the growth stimulator solution and then planted into the substrate no deeper than 5 cm. The soil should consist of garden soil, peat and river sand (in the ratio 3: 2: 1). You can put the twigs under the cut plastic bottle, but air them regularly. With the arrival of spring cuttings should be planted in fresh soil.
In the riverine maples, root sprouts appear over time, which in the spring or autumn period can be dug up and landed in a new place. Sometimes maple propagation is used by grafting.
Pests and diseases of maple, methods of dealing with them
Maple often suffers from many infectious and fungal diseases, among which powdery mildew, white, brown, pinkish, yellowish and black spotting are distinguished, and a mob, wilt, viral mosaic or foliage can also become deformed. In identifying these diseases should be treated with fungicides, Bordeaux mixture, use of colloidal sulfur or copper oxychloride.
Pests can also cause irreparable harm to maple trees, devouring leaves or sucking juices, and they are often carriers of infections with various ailments. The American white butterfly, ash-tree, and an unpaired silkworm are distinguished from harmful insects. The maple is also harmful to maple trees, apple clerk, maple sawfly, plane tree moth. In the fight against these insects used insecticidal preparations of a wide spectrum of action.
Often trees are eaten by mice or hares and other animals.
Interesting facts about maple
The beneficial properties of maple plants have long been known to people, for example, the Indians of North America and to this day they prepare syrup from juice, which is collected, almost like birch. Americans like to use this sweetness to season their culinary dishes. It is curious that in the maple sap there are numerous beneficial substances, such as reproduced sugars, various trace elements, tannins, lipids and unsaturated fatty acids. Because of this, it can be used by people suffering from diabetes or obese obesity. To prepare the juice, you need to have several types of maples, such as black, red, silver and sugar.
Young foliage can have a tonic and tonic effect, as well as long-known choleretic, antiseptic properties, the ability to quickly heal wounds, so maple is widely used in traditional medicine.
Maple can relieve nervous tension, which causes stress and is a good antidepressant. It copes well with aggression, contributes to the harmonization and restoration of energy. There are many recipes from the bark, leaves, fruits and flowers of maple.
For bath procedures also use a maple broom on a par with birch. Maple sap can heal internal wounds and is used in peptic ulcer disease.
And because of the polyphenols that are in the juice, it is prescribed to cancer patients. If fresh maple leafy plates are crushed, it can be applied to skin lesions, as well as juice can be drunk during avitaminosis and asthenia, if maple juice is added to the drug complex, diseases such as viral infections, kidney diseases or hepatitis, bronchitis will heal faster. Maple bark ash diluted in water can be used for good hair growth.
If maple was planted near the house according to old belief, it brought happiness and always this tree symbolized good. Such a tree helped to find balance and to be in a calm mood. In some ethnic groups, the maple leaf has become a symbol of good luck and its five peaks symbolize the five human senses.
Types of maple
Here are only the most famous and ornamental varieties of maple plants:
- Field Maple (Acer campestre) The height of this tree is on average 15 meters with a trunk diameter of 30–60 cm. The crown is made of intertwined branches, which slightly wilt downwards, and it crowns with a short trunk if the growth is free, but in the planting the branches grow high, and the stem looks high and slightly twisted. His crown is wide-conical, composed of 5-7 lobed leaf plates, their opposite arrangement. The color of the foliage is light green. When flowering flowers are formed almost imperceptible due to the small size, they are dioecious, going to hanging brushes. Plant with male flowers begin to bloom earlier. They appear almost immediately after foliage is formed. The flowering process takes place in May-June for about a week (maximum 15 days). Fruit - lionfish with a seed.
Maple dark red (Acer Platanoides Royal Red) it can reach 12–15 meters in height and has a high growth rate. The crown is tapered, but over time it becomes more rounded. Sheet plates reach 18 cm in length and have five blades. Their color is lighter red than other varieties with red foliage. Before blooming foliage flowers form a yellow-green color. The root system of this tree is superficial, sensitive.
French Maple (Acer monspessulanum) may have both tree and shrub growth. Growth rate, while the young plant is quite high, but over time it slows down. The root system of this tree is superficial and the plant does not tolerate stagnant moisture. To the touch, the bark is smooth while the tree is young, but then the surface of the trunk becomes covered with cracks. Unlike other varieties, the leaves have only three lobes. Color - dark green. Fall foliage only in late autumn. At the end of the summer, the color of the leaves begins to change to yellow-green. The flowering period is at the end of April and may last until mid-May. At the same time, small yellowish-green flowers are formed on the tree, which are collected in racemes. The decoration of the tree is considered to be fruits with wings that are painted in a bright rich red hue.
Black Maple (Acer nigrum) native territories of growth are the eastern lands of North America. The height of this plant is impressive and its figures approach 40 meters. It is considered a long-liver as there are specimens that have overstepped the mark in two centuries. Flowers of black maple are not formed, the period of vegetative activity falls on May and lasts until the beginning of October days. The root system is superficial and therefore sufficiently sensitive to the substrate. Sheet plates are divided into 5-6 blades. The color of the foliage is not as black as the name suggests, it is most likely a very maroon or dark purple that goes to a black tone. On the surface of each lobe is clearly visible the central vein, which stands out among the rest.
Japanese Maple (Acer japonicum) can also be found under the name Maple Japanese aconitol. It has average height parameters - no more than 5 meters. The foliage of this species is quite decorative, the length of the leaf plate is 10–15 cm, while the color is light green. The crown is spherical in shape. When flowering buds form a yellowish-brown color scheme, the fruit is a lionfish. The root system of the plant is quite branched, but it does not lie deep, hypersensitivity to substrate flooding. It is better to plant in sunny or dim places.
Although the root system is also superficial, but the plant is undemanding to the composition of the soil, has frost resistance and is not afraid of much wind.
How to plant a maple from a seed, see below:
Care and cultivation of maple
So, you finally decided, but then an important question arises, how to grow maple in the garden? Of course, there is a widespread opinion that, in principle, it is an unpretentious and easy-to-care plant that requires almost no attention: it is planted and that is enough.
There is some truth in this, but still there is a certain number of rules and recommendations that it is important to follow in order not to ruin a sapling. So, for a start, it is important to decide on a new “place of residence”, because in order for maple to grow healthy and strong, it is very important for him where to begin his life path.
In priority - darkened places, under direct sunlight it will also grow, however, will lose all the diversity and brightness of the leaves.
Next you need to prepare the ground for planting: in principle, the usual garden will do, but it is much better if it is pretreated and humus added. You can use the special soil mixtures, however, their composition, in many respects, will depend on the specific type of maple representatives.
Planting should be done in spring or autumn, the depth of the planting pit for a small seedling is about 50 cm. In order for the plant to settle better, you can put a little mineral fertilizer on the bottom of the prepared pit.
As for the care, everything is quite simple: such trees are able to tolerate drought, but it significantly affects the appearance of the leaves and the crown as a whole. Therefore, if you planted a tree just for aesthetics and its decorative look, then it is very important to ensure proper and regular amount of moisture for it: about 20 liters for the whole dry period.
Young plants may need a double dose of moisture. После хорошего полива не забывайте хорошенько рыхлить почву вокруг дерева, регулярно удалять сорняки, чтобы посадочная зона сильно не уплотнялась. В принципе, вот и все основные правила.
Также является немаловажным моментом, и очень заблуждаются те, кто думает, что она необходима только для того, чтобы уменьшить рост дерева. This procedure may be necessary for formative purposes: with the help of simple manipulations, you can change the nature of the growth of branches, which is very important in the conditions of decorative garden.
In addition, pruning can be sanitary, that is, designed to remove dry and diseased branches, as well as rejuvenating, which is necessary for the growth of young branches.
Typically, pruning is carried out in the autumn months, this period is considered the most favorable for such a procedure. For example, in spring, pruning of branches is undesirable due to active sap flow, and in winter the tree is hibernating, and therefore it does not tolerate various pruning.
To carry out such a procedure is necessary with the use of a special pruner: the branches are cut at an angle so that the juice does not accumulate at the sites of the slices.
What types can be planted on the plot?
- Norway maple. That is what we all know well, it is most often found in our latitudes and European forests, has sharp five-pointed leaves, which, depending on the color of the year, change color. It has many varieties and remains unusually showy at almost any time of the year.
- Silver Maple. It is also well known to us, it differs from the previous one with a special silver color on the underside of the leaves. This species is characterized by powerful, but rather fragile branches, which easily break during strong winds.
- Maple red. Came to us from Canada, where it grows in fairly damp places. Suitable for growing in our latitudes - winter hardy and rarely reaches a height of more than 20 meters.
- Japanese. From the name it is quite clear where he came to us from - the unusual form of leaves and crown always attracted gardeners and collectors. However, it must be said that this species is one of the most capricious and difficult to care for, especially in our areas. But the beauty of the result is worth it!
How to grow maple in the garden
Growing conditions for ornamental maples
Planting maple in the garden
Features care for maples
The use of maples in the design of the garden
K Lena - one of the oldest garden cultures. They were used as ornamental plants at the dawn of landscape design and have not lost their status and charm to this day. This is not the easiest to cultivate, demanding on soils, capricious woody at a young age. But in the design of gardens equal to maples is not found. Elite, bright, easily recognizable, they become real pride of the owners and attract admiring attention not only in the fall.
Growing conditions for ornamental maples
Fast-growing, bright, adding 50–60 cm of each year to even the most modest varieties, surprisingly thick and beautiful crowns, maples - the plants are far from easily predictable. Mistakes in soil selection and lighting, especially where winters are unusually severe for varietal Japanese maples, can cause the loss of a valuable, and often expensive, plant.
Maple shade tolerance is expressed only in regions with mild winters and is manifested unequally in base species plants and in luxurious varieties. Most of the maples in the middle lane should be considered as light-loving, needing scattered or bright sunlight plants, poorly developed and often freeze in the winter when grown in the shade.
In the photo: Japanese maple (Acer japonicum)
Maples in the garden of the site can be selected for decorative purposes, rather than looking for protected places. These are wind-resistant plants, they are not prone to the curvature of the trunk or crown, even in drafts, they are pleased with surprising stability. But the specifics of harsh winters should be taken into account when selecting a landing site even for this parameter: when landing in places protected from the wind, even capricious maples spend much better winter, but the most resistant varieties can suffer in the wind. To air pollution plants are quite resistant.
Maples are woody not as adaptive as some of their ornamental counterparts. They prefer moist, fresh, high-quality soil. The usual version of garden soil is suitable for them only if it means cultivated, developed, containing high-quality biomedia and organic matter, not compacted and not neglected soil. High levels of humus content are preferable for all maples, but they are of critical importance only for varietal plants, especially fan maple. The reaction of pH for soil in which plan to plant maples, you can not strictly control, but extremely calcareous soils should be avoided. Maples develop well in acidic, slightly acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline soil variants. When buying maple, the composition of the soil and the preferred additives for improving it are better to specify, as well as the plant habits: if the maples are adults, especially krupnomery, the content of humus, peat, sand in the soil can be a critical parameter for the adaptation of the plant. So, for a popular ash maple, soils consisting of equal parts of peat and sheet soil with a half of sand are preferred.
When planting maples soil moisture is always considered an advantage, but marshy soil, high groundwater levels should be avoided even for these very moisture-loving plants. Maples are planted on wetlands or at risk of flooding; regular stagnation of water is planted only with a drainage tab - a layer of 10 cm of large fragments of brick, construction waste, rubble and 10 cm of coarse sand.
In the photo: tree circle after planting maple, adult seedlings of decorative maple in containers
Planting maple in the garden
Maples, like any other ornamental species from among large-sized plants, can be planted equally successfully both in spring and in autumn even in the middle lane. Spring planting allows the plants to better adapt to the first winter and to build up powerful roots, but it is connected with the need to provide young plants with more thorough care. Autumn planting is associated with the risk of incomplete rooting, so the choice of planting dates must be strictly individual. In summer, it is better not to plant even maples in containers from the number of young saplings.
Maples are planted in large, prepared in advance landing pits. The width and depth of about 50 cm for medium-sized seedlings and about 70 cm for fast-growing varieties with strong roots is considered standard. The bottom of the landing pit is necessarily deeply loosened with forks to create an additional "level" of aeration. The soil is improved even with a sufficiently high-quality structure, making a complete mineral fertilizer in a standard dosage of 60-100 g per plant and mixing the soil with organic matter. Dense and heavy soils are corrected by the addition of sand, light ones - by the addition of peat.
Excessive contact with the roots is best avoided. Maples are set on a mound of substrate. The main thing is to ensure that the root collar remains at the level with the soil line for tree-like plants and is 2-5 cm deep for shrub, giving rise to multi-stemmed maples. Watering is carried out after planting maple, using a double rate of water (about 30 liters) for each plant. After the water is fully absorbed into the soil, tree trunks mulch.
In the photo: Maple in the Garden of the Russian-Japanese friendship in Sochi
Features care for maples
In order to admire the bright colors of maple, lush flowering and original autumn colors in full, for these trees will have to take care of several mandatory care measures. Maples need watering, feeding, mulching, and most varieties need pruning.
Watering is carried out for all maples. Among them there are drought-resistant species and even varieties with declared drought-tolerance, but the maples always show normal active growth and much brighter colors with additional watering. Of course, for these trees we are not talking about the same watering, which need flowering herbaceous plants. Maples are watered only in prolonged drought, while 1 watering per week is enough for one tree. Varieties that recommend watering regularly need 1 watering per month in normal weather and 1 watering per week in drought. For maple trees, the rate of watering is somewhat higher than for ordinary ornamental shrubs - 15 liters or 1.5 buckets of water per plant.
Top dressing for maples in the garden depends on how the plant was planted. If, when planting in the soil according to the standard method, full mineral fertilizer was applied, then fertilizing begins only from the second year after planting. Accordingly, for maples that have not been planted in the soil with full mineral fertilizer, fertilizing begins from the next season. For maple trees, they usually spend only two supplements:
1) starting, or spring, after thawing of the soil and the first loosening of the soil for young plants - a complex fertilizer or a mixture of a full portion of nitrogen and half the dose of potassium-phosphorus fertilizers, when using individual drugs contribute 40 g of nitrogen, 25 g of potash and 50 g of phosphate preparations ,
2) summer top dressing - full mineral fertilizer in the amount recommended by the manufacturer.
In order for the soil in which the maples grow, not to lose breathability and drainage, for these trees it is necessary to loosen the soil. It is better to combine it with watering, mulch renewal or weeding weeding. The soil in the tree circle should not be allowed to cortex. Maples love mulching, tree trunks are better protected by an additional layer of mulch not only after planting, but also regularly. Maples love mulching with peat, bark, high-quality substrate. For them, a layer of 3-5 cm is enough.
In the photo: the Norway maple "Globozum" (Acer platanoides 'Globosum')
Pruning maples is usually reduced to the removal of diseased, damaged, atypically green leaves, and all dry shoots. Removing the lateral branches with no characteristic coloring prevents the rest of the crown from losing color. Forming pruning maples spend on the desired contour, trying not to cut more than 1/3 of the shoots.
Maples in the garden are pleasantly surprised and resistant to most common diseases and pests. Maples may be affected:
- coral blotch, which is struggling with the removal of affected branches and preventive spraying fungicides,
- powdery mildew (the fight is also conducted by spraying a solution of fungicides or biological preparations),
- specific insects.
Maple pests - maple weevils, mealybugs and whitefly - require spraying of plants before budding insecticide solutions and collecting and destroying dry leaves under the trees.
The key factors of successful or unsuccessful wintering of maples in regions with severe winters is the choice of varieties. When purchasing varieties adapted in local nurseries, maples can winter without shelter or with minimal procedures. Usually in the first few years it is enough to additionally warm the base of the trees, cover the root collar with a thick layer of dry leaves or spruce leaves.
If the maples are frosting over the winter, especially the maple tree, it is necessary to cut off the damaged tops of the branches as soon as possible in early spring. Plants recover well and grow at the same pace as usual. The older the maple becomes, the more it is winter-hardy. But when planting krupnomerov adaptability is partially lost. The effect of improving wintering is also leveled if the plants are used to milder winters.
In the photo: seedling and sprout of maple maple, in nature, it is well propagated by self-sowing
Maples are considered the most expensive garden trees, largely due to the difficulty of reproduction. Maple is easier to obtain by vegetative methods, and not to grow from seeds, but in fact, and in another case, it will take a very long time to wait until the plants reach tangible ornamentation.
Maple seeds are subjected to very long stratification, aging for 3.5-4 months at a temperature of 2 to 5 degrees Celsius. Before sowing them for 1-3 days etched in hydrogen peroxide. In many maples, seeds lose their germination two years after harvest, and a false maple tree will not germinate in a year. Only seeds that were sown at the stage of soaking are sown on the beds or under the greenhouse. Maple seeds are buried by 3-4 cm. For plants, stable light soil moisture, protection from the noon sun and protection from weeds and soil compaction is required. Growing shoots quickly, but before the formation of the trunk will have to wait more than one year.
The cuttings for maples are carried out in the fall, cutting and dropping powerful ones for the winter, up to 25 cm long, and cutting them into individual containers only in the spring of next year. For varietal maples, the grafting method (suitable for budding and copulation) for wild-growing or species plants (of the same species) is preferable. Vaccination is carried out only before the start of sap flow, leaving for the stock at least 50 cm high.
The use of maples in the design of the garden
Maples in the garden always remain real stars that attract admiring attention regardless of the season. But the options for their introduction into the garden and use in the compositions directly determine the type, size and characteristics of the variety.
Maples change the color of the leaves three times a year, surprising the shades of young greenery during the unfolding of the first buds. Regardless of whether flowering belongs to the decorative features of the variety, the maples look elegant and bright, seem almost fluffy and fragrant clouds. And the autumn color palette of leaves is not just an integral feature, but also a true symbol of autumn gardens and parks. Maples are traditionally perceived as woody for a Japanese or Chinese garden, but they are relevant in any direction of modern design, because their beauty is much more multifaceted stylistic norms.
In the photo: examples of the use of maples in the design of the garden.