The Trakehner horse, whose homeland is East Prussia, has united many positive features that are characteristic of these animals: endurance, grace, ability to walk, both on horseback and in harness. Not a single century of breeding of such a breed is carried out cleanly, although due to the fact that there are not so many individuals, it has become “scarce” today.
The breed was named after Trakenen, the stud farm where it was first bred. She is the only one that is not mixed with any other breed. Previously, the horse was often found in cavalry. At the moment, its main application is equestrian sport. Those for whom grace in movement is important, will surely appreciate the gait of trackins. The bluffness and beauty of the horses evoke something aristocratic.
Courage, endurance, success in training - all this can be said about the Trakenen breed. For the most part the Traken suit is red, gray, bay, black. In more rare cases, you can find Karak and Chaly.
Breed differs in rather high growth - to 168 centimeters, strict lines and refined dryness. The head of the horse is flat, the forehead is wide, the eyes are expressive. In most cases, the profile is slightly concave, but may be straight. The neck of the mount is elegant, long, a bit like a cone, turning into withers, distinguished by muscularity. The croup is oval. Legs are beautiful and strong; large hooves are covered with a hard horn. It is difficult to find words that would be exactly suitable for describing the whole attractiveness of the track.
For the first time the breeding breeding trakenenskogo breed occurred in 1732. Since that time, it is customary to stamp the true pedigree animal. On his left thigh there are moose horns.
During the Second World War, the breed, which is considered perhaps the most beautiful, almost completely disappeared. Do not let this happen, Germany. To this day, it occupies a leading position among countries that breed Traken. Russia, France, Poland, Denmark are helping her in this. However, mares, in order to get into the breeding book, must undergo a rigorous selection, in which they evaluate some characteristics.
Fact! Requirements for stallions, tougher. Because of this, only 3% of the total number that exists becomes a producer. The suit of trakenov is not so important.
Trakehner horses are distinguished by intelligence and good nature. Their character is in absolute accordance with the appearance. On the nature of the truck you can say the following:
- Noble, as evidenced by their calm in the reactions, refined manners, ease of movement.
- Hardy and patient.
- Educated and smart.
- Able to work.
- Active and mobile.
- Bold, brave, not afraid to take risks if necessary.
- Able to hear a person, communicating with him as an equal.
They are docile, gentle and obedient, so that such horses become successful pupils, because they are well trained.
The Trakehner horse is not an ordinary animal that is ideal for riding and participating in equestrian sports. They may well be a friend of a person, catch his mood and react to it correctly.
Since the removal of such horses was carried out specifically for the cavalry, their temper combined the ability to bravely take risks, activity, tirelessness, and submission, making them the ideal horse for cavalry.
Rules of care and cost trakenenskoy horse
This breed requires only very high quality care, for horses it is necessary to create appropriate living conditions. Trakenov need to regularly shoe, carry out combing and bathing.
- The stables need to be cleaned every day and treated from parasites. Monthly cleaning should be done using antiseptics. It is necessary that each horse has its own stall, where hay and drinking water are mandatory.
- Since the breed is characterized by activity and mobility, horses must have long walks every day. As a rule, they are carried out on a factory pasture, in small herds.
- Trakens who take part in equestrian competitions need special training every day. Thanks to this, stamina will increase, and some skills will develop.
- An extremely important point in the rules of carriage for a horse trakenen is thorough hygiene, which will provide them with an attractive and well-groomed appearance, protection from diseases.
- For the shine of the mane and wool use a special shampoo for horses, or the usual laundry soap. Weekly in a place that is specially equipped for these purposes, water procedures are performed. It is important that the water temperature is comfortable. To make the mane more lush, it should be rinsed with water with a little salt added to it. It is forbidden to pour water on the ears and head, otherwise the horse will be frightened and reared.
In the warm season, water procedures can be carried out on the street, but this should be done twice a week during this period. Do not use ordinary soap products that are not intended for horses. This can cause the development of various skin diseases. After bathing the horse must wipe dry.
Fact! Professionals in the field of equestrian sports consider traken as representatives of the best breed, for this reason pedigree horses on the market have a rather high cost.
You can pick up and not such an expensive, more economical version of the breed. It is preferable to acquire trakenov at stud farms. The cost for horses is different and can range from 50 to 500 thousand rubles. The price is affected by such moments as:
- age of the animal
- achievements in sports, etc.
It should be borne in mind that if the seller requests a lower price, then there is a high risk of acquiring a sick or not young horse. In any case, the seller must provide a medical certificate of the animal.
Separately, it is necessary to tell about the nutrition of traken It is recommended to follow the following rules:
- Although the trucks are rather large horses, they have a small stomach. Therefore, it is necessary to feed them often and fractionally, in small portions.
- It is important that drinking and eating utensils be clean all the time. It should be washed every time after the horse eats.
- In order to satisfy the chewing needs of the horse, and the gastrointestinal tract function properly, forage is mandatory included in the animal's diet.
- It is necessary that the truck has no restrictions on access to drinking water. It is desirable that the horse consumed purified or distilled water. It should be changed once a day, and in the warm season - twice.
In order to preserve the health of the horse Traken, it is necessary to regularly inspect the animal for the purpose of prevention - carefully evaluate the condition of the mouth, clean the teeth, cut down those that are sharpened, give the horse funds from worms and other parasitic microorganisms. Any change in the behavior of the horse, as well as deteriorated state of health should be a reason for contacting the veterinarian.
Today, it is safe to say that the Traken horse has taken root in Russia and has become one of the favorites in the traditional types of equestrian competitions. In addition, such an animal is a friend, partner, confirmation of which can be heard from the true healers of this breed.
The history of the breed
The appearance of the Trakehner breed dates back to 1732, when in the East Prussian village of Trakenen (modern-day Germany) an stud farm was opened with a population of 1,500 under the guidance of Frederick I.
Although the history of the trakens, in fact, begins much earlier - during the time of the Prussian colonization of the Teutonic Order, when the knights were engaged in breeding new horses, universal both in harness and in horseback riding.
The number of military campaigns at the time put forward new requirements for the racers, who were supposed to be strong enough, enduring and fast. To meet these goals, heavy knightly and light eastern stallions were crossed with mare mares.
As a result, by the middle of the 15th century, the Teutonic Order already had more than three dozen stud farms with a total population of almost 15,000 individuals of draft and up-and-down durable horses. By the time Frederick I ascended the throne, the Prussian state needed strong cavalry. Therefore, the ruler created in Trakenen the first royal stud farm, which was supposed to provide the cavalry with strong and strong horses.
Trakenensky plant began to operate in two directions - the creation of riding horses for the army and strong working horses for agricultural land.
At first, small forest mares and brave eastern stallions were used for breeding - Persian and Turkish, Arabian and Berberian, Spanish and Neapolitan, for this purpose they even brought two Don stallions. A little later, they were joined by representatives of the English breed.
Video: all about the horse trakenen breed By the end of the XIX century, stallions of thoroughbred riding and Arabian breeds were recognized as the best for breeding.
Mixed half-blooded individuals were allowed, but they had to meet the basic requirements:
- large size
- high growth,
- long body
- long and straight neck
- strong legs
- docile nature.
From the second half of the 19th century, horses brought out in Trakenen already met these requirements. Stallions began to be actively used in sports - smooth racing, steeple-chees, parforsnye hunting, dressage, jumping, triathlon, and mares used for agricultural purposes.
Thus, a thoroughbred, massive and enduring Trakehner horse was created. This breed went down in history as one of the most sought after in equestrian sports. Throughout the 20th century, the trakens occupied prizes in many competitions. At the plants of the horses of this breed, they must be branded around the left thigh with a sign in the form of a seven-pointed elk horn.
Throughout its history, the truckies have been on the verge of extinction. During the Second World War, when evacuating horses from Germany to Western Europe, most individuals died. No more than a thousand horses reached the destination.
By the middle of the XX century, the livestock was a record small - only about 50 stallions and 600 mares. It was only possible to save the breed from extinction thanks to the enthusiastic breeders, who set a goal to save the track.
Since 1960, the trakehner horse was bred clean and was retrained by German horse breeders from cavalry to sports.
The appearance of the modern trakehner
Thoroughbreds have a typical appearance for sport horses, characterized by a certain dryness, elegance and aristocracy. Large sizes are combined with elegance, easy mannered move and nobility of character.
External signs of the Trakehner horse:
- head of regular shape, dryish, with graceful lines, large, brilliant and deep eyes, wide forehead and slightly concave or straight profile,
- the neck is of medium length, with straight lines, tapered, thin, elegant,
- chest wide and deep
- body powerful, medium length,
- shoulders sloping, shoulder blades long
- withers high, muscular, muscular,
- topline is straight and straight
- lower back with developed muscles
- oval croup with long thigh muscles
- legs of the correct form and setting, with well-defined joints and developed muscles,
- The hooves are large and powerful, wide, regular shape.
Suits that are found in this breed:
- occasionally gray.
Trakens make a favorable impression, they look like aristocratic and noble racers. Their movements are light and graceful, distinguished by the clarity, rhythm and elegance of the step.
Trakehner breed is the owner of large size and high growth.
Stallions have the following measurements:
- height at withers is on average 166 cm, although there are higher representatives reaching 174 cm,
- girth in the chest - up to 195 cm
- circumference of the metacarpus - 21 cm.
- average height is about 164 cm
- chest girth - 194 cm
- lap circumference - 20 cm.
Trakehner horse cost
Acquiring a horse trakenen is not a cheap pleasure. It belongs to the elite breeds, and the price for it ranges from $ 2,000 to 10,000 and is directly dependent on the pedigree of the animal, its sporting achievements, age, gender and state of health.
For example, old or sick individuals will cost the least - up to $ 1000, but for horses without pedigree, young stubborn stallions without sports training and mares, the price can reach $ 3000-6000. The price is highest for young, strong and healthy geldings with sports training and a noble pedigree - it can exceed even the specified limits. In many ways, the cost is formed by famous parents.
Care and maintenance of the truck
To make them feel good, be healthy and strong, show good results in competitions, they need to provide quality care.
- The stable and the stall must be clean. Cleaning is done daily. Once a month the room is treated with antiseptic agents from parasites and pests. The room should be dry, without drafts and high humidity.
- The stall for each horse must be equipped with a feeding trough and a water bottle, in which there are always fresh feed and clean drinking water.
- The tracks are active and therefore need a long walk. For walking large pastures are used so that the horses could relish frolic.
- Individuals participating in competitions need daily training and hard training. The irregularity of training will lead to the fact that the horses will not be sufficiently trained, strong and enduring.
- To maintain the attractive appearance of the track, it is necessary to regularly comb and bathe. Once a week, horses are washed with special hair and mane care products for horses. In the summer, this procedure is carried out more often - twice a week. Bathing water should be at room temperature, and the place for water procedures should be specially equipped and warm. In summer, you can bathe your horse right on the street and leave it to dry in the sun. In winter, after taking a bath, the animal must be wiped dry.
Particular attention should be paid to feeding the trakenen horse and adhere to the following recommendations:
- Despite the fact that the trucks are rather large animals, their stomach is still very small. This necessitates frequent and fractional feeding in small portions,
- for the proper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and the chewing needs of the animals, they must be given forage
- the introduction of any new product in the diet should occur gradually, so that the stomach has time to get used to the new food,
- the horse must have constant access to clean drinking water. It is best to give purified water, as a last resort defended. Change the drink once a day, and in the summer - twice,
- the dishes from which the horse is eaten and drunk must always be clean and washed after each meal,
- the diet of the animal is formed from its use and physical activity,
- after eating the horse needs rest to digest the food. Do not immediately load it physically,
- the feed that the horse eats must be of high quality and proven. Do not allow mold and mildew in it.
Horses of the trakenen breed entered the history as multiple winners of various equestrian sport competitions.
The most outstanding achievements of the traken can be considered:
- 1921–1936 - in the big Pardubice steeple-chese, the stallion Vityaz received 5 victories,
- 1924 - the victory of the Balte stallion in the Paris triathlon,
- 1936 - the trakenen racers won a large number of prizes at competitions in Berlin,
- 1965 - at the English royal show the horse named Arithmometer became the champion in the Gunter class,
- 1970 - the world famous horse Ash won the first place in the World Cup Championships. A little later in the Munich Olympiad, he won silver,
- 1980 - many sportsmen received awards on the track at the Olympic Games. Particularly distinguished traken Carpet, beat a record in high jump,
- 1984 - the Olympic Games, in which the trakenen horse named Abdullah won gold for a team performance and silver for an individual,
- 1985 - stallion Abdulla won the championship at the World Cup.
The Trakehner horses are distinguished by their versatility - they are strong and hardy enough to go harness, but on the other hand, they are fast, graceful and easily trained, making them the best challengers for a sporting career. Эти животные ценятся не только как хорошие производители, спортсмены и рабочая сила, но ещё и как верный друг человека с покладистым характером и способностью выслушать.
Происхождение тракененской породы
The history of the breed is largely tied to the history of the relationship between Russia and Prussia. In the 13th century, the knights of the Teutonic Order began the history of the Trakehner breed. They crossed the eastern stallions with Zhmudskiy mares, to bring horses suitable for military requirements. These horses were equally suitable for riding, and for working in a harness. By the beginning of the XV century, the Teutonic Order already owned thirty horse factories, the number of horses on which exceeded 14 thousand.
The year 1732 is considered to be the officially recognized date for the appearance of the Trakehner horses. This year the royal stud farm was established by order of the King of Prussia Frederick I. The governor wanted to connect the stud farms of the entire state, for this purpose the swamps were drained near the estate of Gross Trakenen (now the Kaliningrad region). The king wanted to create a strong cavalry, so the aim was to bring the breed suitable for these needs, as well as meeting the requirements of the royal court.
Initially, the plant consisted of 1101 horses. The mares of the forest type were taken, which were crossed with stallions of Polish, Eastern, Lithuanian and Tatar blood. Later, purebred English stallions were used. There is also information that two Don stallions participated in the creation of the Trakenen breed.
But funding for the continued existence of the stud farm was not enough. Too few resources have been allocated even for good food. In 1739, the king gave the horse factory to his son, but he was not interested in them too much. After the Seven Years' War, these territories were completely looted, and the best horses were taken away by the Cossacks. Johan Friedrich von Domhardt managed to save the stud from complete collapse.
When Frederick II the Great came to power, the state began to provide a lot of support to the stud. Considerable funds were spent on the purchase of producers of Arab blood. His goal was to create the new sovereign to create the best breed of horses in the country.
The distinctive mark is a stamp depicting the horn of a seven-shoots elk, trakenenskaya horse received in 1787. Stamp was placed on the right thigh of the animal.
The horses that were raised were supplied to the court stable, as well as for the army cavalry. Trakehner horses were known for their speed, they could cover a distance of 40 kilometers in two hours. It was half an hour faster than the indicators of other fast breeds.
When Prussia was captured by Napoleon's troops, the Trakehner breed was evacuated to Russia, which was an ally of Prussia. Leadership over the stud took von Bursdorf. He decided to pour the blood of English thoroughbred stallions into the breed. It was under his leadership that the stud farm began to flourish.
Trakehner horse breed valued both at home and abroad. It was the Trakehner horses that shone the brightest on the royal races. By the end of the 19th century, all Prussian horses had an impurity of Trakehner in themselves.
Having lost in the First World War, Germany no longer had the right to maintain its own cavalry, so the breeders received a new task. They had to bring horses that could be used in agriculture. In addition, it was necessary to display good sport horses. The work was successful and the horses showed excellent results.
However, World War II almost wiped out the trakenens from the face of the earth. Numerous bombing destroyed most of the livestock. The surviving horses were collected by the Soviet army as a trophy. And only a small part of the animals was evacuated to West Germany. At the end of the war, only 20 mares of the Trakenen breed remained in Germany, which were suitable for further breeding.
To restore the breed, the West German Trakehner Union was created. Horses from private stables were used, all horses from East Prussia, which had a good pedigree, were recognized by Trakehner horses. The organization has approved the right to brand animals with a double moose horn.
In East Germany, the question was different. There they chose horses with the best physical characteristics and a bit of a go-go. The appearance paid less attention. When Germany was unified and the factories of the former GDR were dissolved, the breeders could not regain their rights to the brand.
Such a set of qualities makes this horse a welcome companion for many riders. Their patience and perseverance make them winners in many competitions. Along with representatives of the Hanover breed, the Trakens are always among the top three in each competition.
A spacious, well-ventilated room with a sufficient amount of light is suitable for keeping trackers. In the darkened stables, the horse quickly gets used to the semi-darkness, and the animal regularly experiences discomfort when going outside. If this content lasts for a long time, then the traken often has vision problems.
Properly placed ventilation is extremely important to the health of the animal. If there are drafts in the stable, then the horse, who sweat after training, can catch a cold. Living in a poorly ventilated room is dangerous for lung diseases, as well as black mold on the walls of the room. This fungus, growing, releases toxins into the environment that poison the horse's body.
For expensive breeds, the content is preferably in separate stalls. In this case, each animal has its own feeder and drinker, there is no conflict between them, and the horses cannot injure each other. But what feed the horse and what are the best feed, it is indicated here.
It is easier for staff to maintain cleanliness and order in stalls, to change litter. Contaminated litter is a source of various infections and parasites. An isolated feeder prevents the spread and transmission of pathogens from one horse to another.
Equally important is compliance with the temperature regime. Sharp temperature fluctuations can seriously undermine the horse’s immunity. In badly heated stables stalls heat up during the day from sunlight, causing animals to suffer from the heat, and at night they cool down, preventing the horses from sleeping in comfortable conditions.
The normal room temperature at which the horse does not risk its physical condition is 12–14 ° C. However, in this mode, in winter, the horse will certainly become overgrown with wool. This is a natural reaction of the body to low temperatures, designed to improve thermoregulation.
Excessive wool is not suitable for horses preparing for competition. Regular exercise contributes to increased sweating. Too thick wool dries for a long time, which means that the risk of catching a cold will increase.
In order for a traken not to grow for the winter, the temperature in its stall should not be below 16 ° C.
For traken need regular physical activity. In addition to training, he should often walk. Basic requirements for organizing a walkway walk:
- Regularity walking. The horse should walk on the street at least 4 times a week.
- Security. Grazing must be done in the closed paddock, it will save the truck from injury and unnecessary stress.
- At temperatures below 20 ° C, horses cannot be taken outside.
The physical condition of the horse depends not only on properly organized living conditions, but also on the type of feeding. Balanced nutrition - the guarantee of health of any animal.
Proper preparation of the diet
When feeding a traken, one should be guided by zootechnical tables and rules for drawing up the diet of the animal. The main nuances of feeding the horse:
- So that the animal's stomach is not overloaded, but at the same time the horse did not feel hungry, you need to feed it at least 3-4 times a day. Overfeeding is bad for the work of the body of a sports horse. Arising problems with digestion do not allow him to fully engage.
- Rough feed should be asked at night so that they have time to properly digest in the morning. The time of their full processing is up to 40 hours.
- Horses expensive breeds should not be fed low-value cheap feed. Their digestion creates an additional burden on the digestive organs, and the energy that must be spent on the arena is spent on food processing.
- For heavy physical exercises, as well as for carrying a fetus, additional feeding and vitamins are necessary for horses.
Approximate daily and annual feeding ration for a sports horse: