The progenitor of the Yakut cow is an Indian zebu, from which some hunchbacked and long, thick wool was transferred to the breed. Cows of the Yakut breed in the Sakha Republic have been bred. In the 18th century, the so-called “spawn” was distinguished in Yakutia and Eastern Siberia, the distinctive characteristic of which was adaptability to the harsh climate and content. The breed had the ability to tolerate low temperatures, poor nutrition. Yakut cattle for a long time divorced in itself, consolidating the breed qualities in subsequent generations.
The breed degeneration began in 1929, when Yakut cows began to interbreed with Kholmogory and Simmental cattle to increase productivity. The breed characteristics are mixed, and the Yakut breed of cows began to degenerate.
To remedy the situation, mating of local cows with bulls of the Yakut breed was attempted, but the breed was only partially restored. At present, purebred specimens remained only in the nursery of the Research Institute of Agriculture of the city of Novosibirsk and some private KFHs. The total number of purebred Yakut cows today does not exceed 1 thousand heads
Description and appearance with photos
- The main distinguishing feature of the Yakut cows is a very small height: a maximum of 120 centimeters at the withers.
- The body of cows is dense, with thick skin, covered with thick, long hair.
- The legs of the cows are short, muscular.
- The head of animals is of medium size, with slightly curved, vertically set horns, broad forehead.
- The neck is short and wide.
- In bulls, the neck is covered with numerous folds.
- Color Yakut cows varied. There are individuals with black, white, red spotted coat.
The Yakut cow belongs to the meat and dairy direction. The weight of a cow is about 300 kilograms, less often it grows up to 350 kilograms. Bulls weigh up to 500 kilograms. Weight gain occurs at an accelerated pace. The meat of the yakut is marble, with thin veins of fat. Slaughter yield - up to 60%.
Dairy cow indicators are modest. Milk yield does not exceed 1500 kilograms per year. Separate individuals are able to produce 2000 kilograms of milk per year. But the taste of milk is excellent: a unique fat content of up to 11%.
Attention! By the content of protein, lactose and minerals milk occupies a leading position among all the breeds existing in the world.
The healing properties of this product deserve special attention. Sour cream, cheese, butter made from this milk have the same beneficial properties for the organism.
Features Yakut cattle
The main feature of this breed of cows is thick, slightly wavy wool. In the winter cold, the density and length of wool increases several times. Thanks to this feature, cows are able to live in the open air at temperatures below minus 50 degrees. In the summer, in the process of molting, animals shed excess wool, therefore they tolerate the heat easily.
The yakutok has a calm, non-conflict character. Even during the sexual hunt, they are quiet and modest. The presence of innate immunity guarantees the immunity of cows to leukemia, brucellosis and tuberculosis.
Care for Yakut cows
Cows of this breed can live in any climatic conditions. They do not even need to build a special room, because in any frost they can sleep even on the street under a simple canopy. Cows sleep in their homeland right in the snow. Walking the cow contained in the room can be in any weather. In case of rain on the territory of walking, it is desirable to build a canopy.
The only period when the cow needs more comfortable conditions is the time after calving, and the owner should know how much the cow is carrying a calf. A cow with a calf must be placed in any shed protected from drafts.
It is recommended to feed Yakut cows with hay, mixed fodder, and root vegetables. In summer, there is enough grass for the cows, independently harvested in the pasture. In winter, a cow eats about 6 kilograms of hay per day.
Important! Unlike other breeds, Yakut cows can be watered with water from any reservoir. In winter, they can drink almost icy water.
Yakut cow is able to digest any rough food: bark and tree branches, old hay. This is due to the anatomical features of the digestive tract. The number of stomachs in cows of this breed is the same as that of others, and the intestines are much longer than in cows of other breeds, so they digest any food without problems. For slaughter, this breed is rarely bred. But with the increase in livestock can be used for meat.
Yakut cows breed healthy offspring. Calves are born with a mass of only 19-20 kilograms, but feeding on high-fat milk at the suction, they grow quickly, gaining 800-900 grams of weight per day. At 6 months, calves gain up to 200 kilograms of weight. By the age of one and a half, calves grow to 300-350 kilograms.
Attention! The survival of calves of this breed reaches 95-97%, even when kept in harsh climatic conditions.
Calves are fed with mother's milk for up to half a year, while at the same time teaching them to coarse feeds and reducing the amount of milk from one month of age. In the usual feed calves transferred to eight months.
Why breed is popular
The secret of the popularity of Yakut cows lies in their simplicity, small body size, high quality of milk and quality meat. Having appreciated the advantages of the breed, many owners of private households express a desire to get hold of this breed.
Especially prized property of the breed to achieve the "marbling" of meat in a natural way. Most often, overseas cows are fed up and characterized by movement in order to obtain characteristic fatty layers. Yakut cattle has such meat by nature, so the owners do not have to specifically make any efforts to obtain it. With proper organization of breeding the breed, you can get a good profit from the sale of such high-quality meat.
Should I buy Yakut
The price of breeding cattle of the Yakut breed is currently quite high. Certain difficulties may arise not only with its acquisition, but also with delivery by air from Yakutia. But the advantages of the breed allow you to recoup the investment fairly quickly. The owners of the Yakut cows are sure that the Yakut is worth the money they are asking for.
Yakut cows can be kept in any regions of the Russian Federation, even in those places where there are severe frosts in winter. The productivity of cows of this breed is maintained in all conditions of detention. Due to its small size, the Yakut cow can be turned on to owners of small suburban areas. One cow can fully meet the needs for dairy products of the whole family. You can make sour cream, cottage cheese, butter from milk, use it in its pure form.
The disadvantages of the Yakut breed
Farmers consider the difficulty of milking mini-cows to be a significant drawback. They have short nipples that are hard to grab by the milking machine. Therefore, milking can be done exclusively by hand, which in the conditions of a large farm causes inconvenience. In winter, the cow's udder acquires a rather thick coat, which also complicates the milking process.
The owners of the yakut also note the increased love of the cows for high jumps, especially during the carrying of the calf. Given this feature, cow pens have to be built with walls at least 1.5 meters high. Otherwise, the cow will have to constantly be caught in the forest or field when she goes for a walk.
Daria. I have a cow and a bull Yakut breed. They inject themselves like a real family: the bull does not for a minute leave the cow, controls all its movements. The calf from a couple was born just charming, with huge blue eyes. Milk cows delicious. I make sour cream, cheese, butter from it.
Alexey. For the Yakut cow you need an eye and an eye. A little overlooked - trample the whole garden and eat everything you can. Low fences jump with ease. In terms of catering, the Yakut cow is economical; it needs to harvest little hay.
In the video you can see the cows of the Yakut breed:
The animals of the Yakut breed have a powerful neck and a large head on a dense massive body. There is a slight hunchback, it is probably a legacy of zebu. Relatively narrow ass hanging down a bit.
The legs are short, strong, the front is always set correctly. Rear slightly close together. Animals and a half times lower than normal cows.
The forehead is wide. Horns of various shapes and directions, horny animals are not born in the native breed.
There are a large number of colors or colors of curly wool in the Yakut breed (black, red, spotty), this indicates purity of the breed without multiple crosses and cloning, which is typical of many representatives of the cattle. The character that has developed over the centuries is calm among the yakutok.
Anatomically, the digestive tract is longer, therefore it is more adapted for digesting coarse food: twigs, old grass, and bark.
Cow. Weight reaches four kilograms. Their height is limited to 110 centimeters at the withers. Their abdomen is voluminous, with a small udder, completely covered with wool. Wool protects it from frostbite at low temperatures and from blood-sucking insects.
The average fat content of milk is 9%, high markers for protein (over 3.6) and calories. One cow can give milk up to 1 500 liters. The fecundity of cows is high.
Bull. Weight reaches six kilograms. Strong animal, despite the small growth. The height of the breed does not exceed 120 centimeters. In winter, their wool grows stronger.
Only the best fathers are allowed to breed, they look at calves born earlier. The remaining bulls are castrated and fed to meat, which belongs to the marble delicacy type. A competent approach gives high profits. The brand, presented by nature, must be developed.
In other breeds, marble meat is grown artificially, depriving the animal of movement or feeding it to enormous size. Yakut gobies have the highest quality meat from nature without effort. It contains substances that prevent the formation of cholesterol, has anti-carcinogenic qualities.
Calf. The size of the younger generation is slightly smaller than the size of the dog. Gobies are active and playful. The survival rate of the breed reaches 95%, despite the harsh living conditions. The newborn calf weighs about 20 kilograms, the daily weight gain is 800 grams thanks to the fat milk of the mother cow. They feed the calves up to eight months. Gradually, they are transferred to the usual feed. By 18 months the young growth weighs about 300 kilograms.
Productivity. Fattening cows and bulls for meat does not take much time. Their content is easy and simple. Survival is high in all weather conditions. Strong immunity to diseases keeps the herd healthy.
The productivity of marble meat reaches 60%. Meat has a high price in the market.
Indicators on the volume of milk are relatively low, about 7 liters (for other breeds about 20 liters). Its quality exceeds the average figures by three steps up the fat content, protein, lactose, calorie and other trace elements. They make excellent butter, sour cream, cream and other products from milk.
Breeding and breed maintenance
The Yakut cow is the breed most prepared for severe frosts. Lowering the temperature to 40 degrees does not affect the state of the herd. Subcutaneous fat and a thick layer of fur allows you to graze all year round and eat pasture. In the stall the breed also develops well.
In the summer and spring there is enough grass for the cows, which they find on their own. No additional feed required. The highest degree of unpretentiousness of animals. In winter, you need to add a small amount of hay to your diet.
The construction of a warm barn is not a prerequisite in the maintenance of this breed. Cows are mobile, constantly moving around the territory in search of food.
The Yakut breed is resistant to brucellosis, leukemia, tuberculosis and other infections that are common among cattle.
The number of breed is small, since 2014 there is a ban on the slaughter of cows and steers. Now it is possible and necessary to engage in the restoration of the population, and only then breed animals for sale.
The uniqueness of the native Yakut breed is obvious. Cows easily adapt to new climatic conditions of another natural area. Only delivery of calves from Yakutia will not be cheap. The pedigree Yakut cow in the price reaches 10,000 dollars, this is not surprising, given that they have almost no disadvantages, and the prospects are enormous.